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Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Takeshi Yamaguchi, Hiromoto Yamakawa, Masaru Nakata, Masaharu Kuroda, Makoto Hakata
High temperature (HT) during the grain developing stage causes deleterious effects on rice quality resulting in mature grains with a chalky appearance. Phospholipase D (PLD) plays an important role in plants, including responses to environmental stresses. OsPLDα1, α3 and β2-knockdown (KD) plants showed decreased production of chalky grains at HT. HT ripening increased H2 O2 accumulated in the developing grains. However, the increase was canceled by the knockdown of OsPLDβ2. Expression levels of OsCATA which is one of three rice catalase genes, in developing grains of OsPLDβ2-KD plants at 10 DAF were increased compared with that in vector-controls in HT growth conditions...
February 17, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yang Wang, Toshimitsu Hatabu
This study aimed to evaluate the microbial compositions and gene expression related to inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis and the effect of mulberry supplementation. Male BALB/c mice received a diet supplemented with mulberry juice freeze-dried powder (MFP) or not for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, the mice received water containing 5% (w/v) DSS or not for 1 week. The disease activity index score in mice fed MFP was significantly decreased. A significant decrease in Bifidobacterium spp...
February 17, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Eisuke Kato
Plant materials have been widely studied for their preventive and therapeutic effects for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The effect of a plant material arises from its constituents, and the study of these bioactive compounds is important to achieve a deeper understanding of its effect at the molecular level. In particular, the study of the effects of such bioactive compounds on various biological processes, from digestion to cellular responses, is required to fully understand the overall effects of plant materials in these health contexts...
February 17, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kiko Fujimori, Sotaro Fujii, Lisa Lisdiana, Satoshi Wakai, Hisashi Yagi, Yoshihiro Sambongi
Deep-sea Shewanella violacea 5'-nucleotidase (SVNTase) activity exhibited higher NaCl tolerance than that of a shallow-sea Shewanella amazonensis homologue (SANTase), the sequence identity between them being 70.4%. Here, SVNTase exhibited higher activity than SANTase with various inorganic salts, similar to the difference in their NaCl tolerance. In contrast, SVNTase activity decreased with various organic solvents, while SANTase activity was retained with the same concentrations of the solvents. Therefore, SVNTase is more robust than SANTase with inorganic salts, but more vulnerable with organic solvents...
February 14, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yukie Maruyama, Wataru Hashimoto, Kousaku Murata
Alginate is an acidic heteropolysaccharide produced by brown seaweed and certain kinds of bacteria. The cells of Sphingomonas sp. strain A1, a gram-negative bacterium, have several alginate-degrading enzymes in their cytoplasm and efficiently utilize this polymer for their growth. Sphingomonas sp. strain A1 cells can directly incorporate alginate into their cytoplasm through a transport system consisting of a "pit" on their cell surface, substrate-binding proteins in their periplasm, and an ATP-binding cassette transporter in their inner membrane...
February 11, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Dahu Li, Houjiu Wu, Huating Dou
Obesity is one of the most common and major health concerns worldwide. Weight management through dietary supplements with natural plant extracts has become the focus of current research. Sweet orange essential oil (SOEO) is a natural plant extract, with many bioactivities. In order to evaluate the weight loss effect of SOEO microcapsules and investigate the underlying mechanism, we fed high-fat diet-induced obese SD rats with SOEO microcapsules for 15 days and found that SOEO microcapsules reduced body weight gain by 41...
February 11, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hyun-Jun Lee, Hye-Lim Jang, Dong-Kyu Ahn, Hun-Jung Kim, Hee Young Jeon, Dae Bang Seo, Ji-Hae Lee, Jin Kyu Choi, Seok-Seong Kang
Collagen hydrolysate is a well-known nutritional supplement for the improvement of healthy skin. Here, collagen peptide NS (CPNS) from fish scale was prepared, and its physicochemical properties were investigated. Gly-Pro was revealed as a representative low molecular weight peptide of CPNS, by performing prep-HPLC and LC-MS/MS. CPNS treatment attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-1 production and increased the synthesis of type 1 procollagen in HDF cells. After orally administering CPNS to rats, the plasma concentrations of Gly-Pro and Pro-Hyp increased dramatically...
February 11, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jing Zhang, Lu Zhang, Yani Chen, Haiyan Shi, Xiaoyong Huang, Yanfeng Wang, Yu Wang, Yameng Wei, Wanjuan Xue, Jiming Han
Here, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) on rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). Overexpression of mGluR6 significantly promoted the proliferation of NSCs and increased the diameter of neutrospheres after treatment for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Overexpression of mGluR6 promoted G1 to S phase transition, with significantly decreased cell ratio in G1/G0 phase but significantly increased cell ratio in S phase. Additionally, mGluR6 overexpression for 48 h decreased the early and late apoptosis significantly...
February 10, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Youri Yang, Sunil Ghatge, Hor-Gil Hur
A novel thermostable carboxylesterase (Est5250) of thermoalkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus thermocloaceae was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and its biochemical properties were investigated. Est5250 showed optimum esterase activity at 60 °C and pH 8.0. The enzyme was highly thermostable at 60 °C, interestingly, the thermostability was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+ , retaining more than 60% of its original activity after 12 h of pre-incubation. Est5250 was active in the presence of 1% (v/v) of organic solvents and 0...
February 10, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shizuka Kubota, Yuma Tanaka, Satoshi Nagaoka
Ellagic acid has been shown to improve cholesterol metabolism in animal studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this function have not been fully understood. We performed DNA microarray analysis to elucidate the effects of ellagic acid on cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes. This revealed that the expression levels of several genes related to cholesterol metabolism, including the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), were changed by ellagic acid treatment. Using a real-time PCR and immunoblot we confirmed that ellagic acid treatment up-regulated mRNA and protein expression level of the LDLR...
February 9, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Dong Jae Won, Ki Seung Seong, Cheol Ho Jang, Jin Sil Lee, Jung A Ko, Hojae Bae, Hyun Jin Park
Bioavailability and bone loss inhibitory effects of vitamin D2 derived from UV-irradiated shiitake mushroom were determined in vivo. The effect of the absence of ovaries on the bioavailability of vitamin D2 and bone structure was also investigated. Sham operated (sham) and ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided in 3 groups according to their diets, i.e. control: only vitamin D-deficient diets; UV(X): vitamin D-deficient diets with non-irradiated mushroom powder; UV(O): vitamin D-deficient diets with irradiated mushroom powder...
February 7, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Satoshi Yano, Shusong Wu, Kozue Sakao, De-Xing Hou
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major bioactive compound in Wasabi. Although 6-MSITC is reported to have cancer chemopreventive activities in rat model, the molecular mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the anticancer mechanisms using two types of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 p53+/+ and p53-/- ). 6-MSITC caused cell cycle arrest in G2 /M phase and induced apoptosis in both types of cells in the same fashion. Signaling data revealed that the activation of ERK1/2, rather than p53, is recruited for 6-MSITC-induced apoptosis...
February 7, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shunsuke Mitomo, Mitsuru Hirota, Tomoyuki Fujita
Excessive uric acid production, which causes gout and hyperuricemia, can be blocked by inhibiting xanthine oxidase (XO). However, some agents to block on XO often cause side effects, thereby necessitating the identification of new inhibitors. During the screening of XO inhibitors from various mushroom extracts, we found that a methanolic extract of the fruiting bodies of Tyromyces fissilis, an inedible and non-toxic fungus, showed inhibitory activity. Both n-hexane and ethyl acetate layers, obtained by partitioning this extract exhibited XO inhibitory activity...
February 7, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Masaki Okuda
Sake is a Japanese traditional alcoholic beverage made from rice and water. Recently, its export and its production in countries other than Japan have increased. In accordance, both the breeding and the cultivation of sake rice varieties have been extended to wide areas of Japan. To breed new sake rice cultivars and to cultivate rice with high suitability for sake production, an understanding of the properties of the ingredient rice grains and the factors affecting sake making is important. The influence of various rice properties, such as starch structure, protein, water absorption, and grain polishing, on sake making are being revealed in detail...
February 6, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Sumiko Nakamura, Hui Li, Chang-Jun Dai, Rui-Ying Zhang, Motonobu Kawano, Ken'Ichi Ohtsubo
We here characterized 27 japonica rice cultivars grown in Heilongjiang province and evaluated the relationship among their iodine absorption curve, physical properties, and ratio of 13 kDa prolamin. We developed the novel estimation formulae for ratio of 13 kDa prolamin and overall hardness (H2) with the use of Aλmax and λmax.
February 6, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kohtaro Kirimura, Keiichi Kobayashi, Isato Yoshioka
The transporter that exports citric acid (CA) generated in mitochondria to the cytosol is an important component of the CA production machinery of Aspergillus niger. In this report, we cloned and identified the gene cocA, encoding a 33.7-kDa putative mitochondrial citrate-oxoglutarate shuttle protein of the CA hyper-producer A. niger WU-2223L. The amount of CA produced by a representative cocA disruptant (35 g/L) was significantly lower than that produced by strain WU-2223L (63 g/L) after culture for 12 days under CA production conditions, and the phenotype of the cocA disruptant differed in part from that of strain WU-2223L...
February 5, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yuka Sameshima-Yamashita, Takashi Watanabe, Takumi Tanaka, Shun Tsuboi, Tohru Yarimizu, Tomotake Morita, Hideaki Koike, Ken Suzuki, Hiroko Kitamoto
The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica GB-4(0) esterase (PaE) is a promising candidate for accelerating degradation of used biodegradable plastics (BPs). To increase safety and reduce costs associated with the use of PaE, we constructed a self-cloning strain with high-PaE productivity. A Lys12 gene (PaLYS12)-deleted lysine auxotroph strain GB4-(0)-L1 was obtained from GB-4(0) by ultraviolet mutagenesis and nystatin enrichment. Subsequently, the PaE gene (PaCLE1) expression cassette consisting of GB-4(0)-derived PaCLE1, under the control of a xylose-inducible xylanase promoter with PaLYS12, was randomly introduced into the GB4-(0)-L1 genome...
February 3, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Reiko Urade
For most of the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), disulfide bond formation accompanies protein folding in a process called oxidative folding. Oxidative folding is catalyzed by a number of enzymes, including the family of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs), as well as other proteins that supply oxidizing equivalents to PDI family proteins, like ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1). Oxidative protein folding in the ER is a basic vital function, and understanding its molecular mechanism is critical for the application of plants as protein production tools...
February 2, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Manami Wada, Yuuki Hayashi, Munehito Arai
A phytase from Escherichia coli, AppA, has been the target of protein engineering to reduce the amount of undigested phosphates from livestock manure by making phosphorous from phytic acid available as a nutrient. To understand the contribution of each amino acid in the active site loop to the AppA activity, alanine and glycine scanning mutagenesis was undertaken. The results of phytase activity assay demonstrated loss of activity by mutations at charged residues within the conserved motif, supporting their importance in catalytic activity...
February 2, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hiroshi Takagi
In yeast, amino acid metabolism and its regulatory mechanisms vary under different growth environments by regulating anabolic and catabolic processes, including uptake and export, and the metabolic styles form a complicated but robust network. There is also crosstalk with various metabolic pathways, products and signal molecules. The elucidation of metabolic regulatory mechanisms and physiological roles is important fundamental research for understanding life phenomenon. In terms of industrial application, the control of amino acid composition and content is expected to contribute to an improvement in productivity, and to add to the value of fermented foods, alcoholic beverages, bioethanol, and other valuable compounds (proteins and amino acids, etc...
February 2, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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