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Microscopy Research and Technique

Mümin Mehmet Koç, Naim Aslan, Alexander P Kao, Asa H Barber
X-ray computed tomography is a strong tool that finds many applications both in medical applications and in the investigation of biological and nonbiological samples. In the clinics, X-ray tomography is widely used for diagnostic purposes whose three-dimensional imaging in high resolution helps physicians to obtain detailed image of investigated regions. Researchers in biological sciences and engineering use X-ray tomography because it is a nondestructive method to assess the structure of their samples. In both medical and biological applications, visualization of soft tissues and structures requires special treatment, in which special contrast agents are used...
February 20, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Dajana Nogo-Živanović, Tatjana Kanjevac, Ljiljana Bjelović, Vladimir Ristić, Irena Tanasković
To compare the smear layer removal ability and mineral content of root canal dentine after initial irrigation with NaOCl and final irrigation with MTAD, QMix, and 17% EDTA. Forty extracted human maxillary incisors before root canal preparation and irrigation with NaOCl were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the type of final irrigants used: MTAD, QMix, 17% EDTA, and control (sterile distilled water). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the presence of smear layer...
February 20, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Renukaradhya K Math, Srinivasa Reddy, Han Dae Yun, Devaiah Kambiranda, Yemane Ghebreiyessus
In the present study, binding of cellulase protein to different clay minerals were tested using fluorescent-protein complex and microscopic techniques. Cellulase gene (Cel5H) was cloned into three fluorescent vectors and expressed as fusion enzymes. Binding of Cel5H-mineral particles was confirmed by confocal microscopy, and enzyme assay. Among the Cel5H-fusion enzymes, green-fusion enzyme showed higher intensity compared with other red and yellow fusion-proteins. Intensity of fusion-proteins was dependent on the pH of the medium...
February 18, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Muhammad Tariq Mahmood
In shape from focus (SFF) methods, image focus volume enhancement is an important issue for acquiring accurate depth maps. Mostly, conventional approaches do focus aggregation locally to enhance the focus volume, which may not suppress noisy focus measurements properly and consequently, may provide deteriorated depth maps. Multiresolution fusion-based method is proposed for image focus volume enhancement. First, an initial focus volume is obtained by applying a conventional focus measure. Then, a pyramid of focus volumes is computed using Gaussian filters and subsampling...
February 18, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Bilal Tahir, Sajid Iqbal, M Usman Ghani Khan, Tanzila Saba, Zahid Mehmood, Adeel Anjum, Toqeer Mahmood
Automatic medical image analysis is one of the key tasks being used by the medical community for disease diagnosis and treatment planning. Statistical methods are the major algorithms used and consist of few steps including preprocessing, feature extraction, segmentation, and classification. Performance of such statistical methods is an important factor for their successful adaptation. The results of these algorithms depend on the quality of images fed to the processing pipeline: better the images, higher the results...
February 15, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Muhammad Attique Khan, Tallha Akram, Muhammad Sharif, Tanzila Saba, Kashif Javed, Ikram Ullah Lali, Urcun John Tanik, Amjad Rehman
Skin cancer is being a most deadly type of cancers which have grown extensively worldwide from the last decade. For an accurate detection and classification of melanoma, several measures should be considered which include, contrast stretching, irregularity measurement, selection of most optimal features, and so forth. A poor contrast of lesion affects the segmentation accuracy and also increases classification error. To overcome this problem, an efficient model for accurate border detection and classification is presented...
February 15, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Nicole M Neu-Baker, Adrienne C Eastlake, Sara A Brenner
A significant hurdle in conducting effective health and safety hazard analysis and risk assessment for the nanotechnology workforce is the lack of a rapid method for the direct visualization and analysis of filter media used to sample nanomaterials from work environments that represent potential worker exposure. Current best-known methods include transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for elemental identification. TEM-EDS is considerably time-, cost-, and resource-intensive, which may prevent timely health and safety recommendations and corrective actions...
February 15, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Hongrae Kim, Sunhye Lee, Hyunjin Kim, Hee Jin Chang, Yongdoo Choi, Hong Man Yoon, Myeong-Cherl Kook, So-Youn Jung, Youngmi Kwon, Juehyung Kang, Hongki Yoo, Incheon Song, Seungrag Lee, Dae Kyung Sohn
With the development of advanced and minimally invasive surgical techniques, and in view of the functional and cosmetic aspects, the need for rapid and accurate diagnosis during surgery is increasing. This study was conducted to develop a tissue diagnosis method using confocal microscopy after simple tissue staining that does not require freezing and slicing. At present, fluorescence staining with confocal microscopy is not generalized for real-time diagnosis during surgery. In this paper, we propose a fluorescence staining method using Hoechst 33342 and Eosin that does not require tissue freezing and slicing...
February 14, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Na Jin, Qing Zhang, Manyi Yang, Mingying Yang
Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have attracted widespread attention in the last few decades due to their potential applications in cancer photothermal therapy (CPTT). However, the utilization of AuNRs is restricted because of their high toxicity for cells and tissues. Numerous methods have been developed to solve this problem, among which the most convenient one is to coat AuNRs with biocompatible materials or replace their original toxic surfactant such as the hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Organic polymers (OPs) are intensively researched due to their low toxicity and easy access to modification with functional groups (e...
February 14, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Nezahat Kandemir, Ali Çelik, Fazal Ullah, Syed Nasar Shah, Wajid Zaman
Iris L. is one of the important genus of family Iridaceae, consist of 56 taxa naturally occurred in Turkey. The similarities and variations in the subgenus overlapping the taxonomic positions of the species in the subgenera and needs anatomical assessment especially by microscopic techniques. In this study, the taxonomic significance of leaf anatomical characters of 10 Iris subgenus Scorpiris taxa were studied in detail and the relationship among these taxa were evaluated using microscopy techniques. Fresh leaf samples of species were fixed in 70% alcohol solution for anatomical observation under microscope...
February 14, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Chan-Pang Kuok, Ming-Huwi Horng, Yu-Ming Liao, Nan-Haw Chow, Yung-Nien Sun
Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease in developing countries. The sputum smear microscopy remains the primary diagnostic laboratory test. However, microscopic examination is always time-consuming and tedious. Therefore, an effective computer-aided image identification system is needed to provide timely assistance in diagnosis. The current identification system usually suffers from complex color variations of the images, resulting in plentiful of false object detection...
February 11, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yamba Carla Lara Pereira, Glauce Crivelaro Nascimento, Daniela Mizusaki Iyomasa, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo Fernández, Ricardo Alexandre Calzzani, Christie Ramos Andrade Leite-Panissi, Pedro Duarte Novaes, Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa
Stress is associated with orofacial pain sensitivity and is qualified as a temporomandibular disorder risk factor. During stressful periods, painful thresholds of masticatory muscles in individuals suffering muscle facial pain are significantly lower than in controls, but the exact physiologic mechanism underlying this relation remains unclear. Our hypothesis is that chronic unpredictable stress and masticatory hypofunction induce morphologic and metabolic masseter muscle changes in rats. For test this hypothesis, adult Wistar rats were submitted to chronic unpredictable stress and/or exodontia of left molars and the left masseter muscle was removed for analysis...
February 11, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Božidar Rašković, Catarina Cruzeiro, Vesna Poleksić, Eduardo Rocha
Assessing fish liver status is common in aquaculture nutrition assays. This often implies determining hepatocytes profile areas in routine thin (5-7 μm) histological sections. However, there are theoretical problems using planar morphometry in thin sections: inherent sampling cells biases, too small numbers of sampled cells, under/overestimation of size, measuring size as areas when cells are three-dimensional (3D) entities. The gold standard for assessing/validate cell size is stereology using thick sections (20-40 μm)...
February 7, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Zeliha Uğur Aydın, Neslihan Büşra Keskin, Taha Özyürek
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of Reciproc Blue (RPCB), XP-endo Shaper (XPS), and WaveOne Gold (WOG) single-files on dentinal microcrack formation using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Twenty-four mesial roots (24 mesio-buccal and 24 mesio-lingual canals) of mandibular molar teeth were prepared using RPCB, XPS, and WOG files (n = 8/each group). The samples were scanned with micro-CT in the pre- and post-preparation. Then, before preparation and after preparation cross-sectional images of the teeth were evaluated to detect the presence of microcracks...
February 6, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Khaled M Yassien, Mohammed A El-Bakary
Digital holographic interferometry (DHI), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the effects of gamma irradiation on the physical and structural properties of basalt fibers. For this purpose, set samples of basalt fibers were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (3, 10, 25, and 40 kGy). The Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to capture holographic patterns which are used then to determine the unwrapped phase...
January 30, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Tanzila Saba, Sana Ullah Khan, Naveed Islam, Naveed Abbas, Amjad Rehman, Nadeem Javaid, Adeel Anjum
The advancement of computer- and internet-based technologies has transformed the nature of services in healthcare by using mobile devices in conjunction with cloud computing. The classical phenomenon of patient-doctor diagnostics is extended to a more robust advanced concept of E-health, where remote online/offline treatment and diagnostics can be performed. In this article, we propose a framework which incorporates a cloud-based decision support system for the detection and classification of malignant cells in breast cancer, while using breast cytology images...
January 29, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Jin-Su Oh, Hyun-Woo Cha, Tae-Hoon Kim, Keesam Shin, Cheol-Woong Yang
Study on recrystallization of deformed metal is important for practical industrial applications. Most of studies about recrystallization behavior focused on the migration of the high-angle grain boundaries, resulting in lack of information of the kinetics of the low angle grain boundary migration. In this study, we focused on the migration of the low angle grain boundaries during recrystallization process. Pure nickel deformed by shot peening which induced plastic deformation at the surface was investigated...
January 28, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Marian Mazeto de Aro, Amilton Cesar Dos Santos, Erick Eduardo da Silveira, Antônio Francisco da Silva Lisboa Neto, Moacir Franco de Oliveira, Antônio Chaves de Assis Neto
This research describes for the first time the complete morphology of the digestive apparatus of rock cavies. Dissection, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were performed. The oral cavity has: the hard palate without palatine wrinkles and the soft palate; the tongue composed by striated musculature, with presence of vallate, foliated, and fungiform papillae with taste buds and filiform papillae with mechanical function; and, 20 teeth of the hypsodonts type. Esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), and the large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum) are found...
January 24, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Hidayat Ullah, Tanzila Saba, Naveed Islam, Naveed Abbas, Amjad Rehman, Zahid Mehmood, Adeel Anjum
Atomic recognition of the Exudates (EXs), the major symbol of diabetic retinopathy is essential for automated retinal images analysis. In this article, we proposed a novel machine learning technique for early detection and classification of EXs in color fundus images. The major challenge observed in the classification technique is the selection of optimal features to reduce computational time and space complexity and to provide a high degree of classification accuracy. To address these challenges, this article proposed an evolutionary algorithm based solution for optimal feature selection, which accelerates the classification process and reduces computational complexity...
January 24, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Shazia Sultana, Lubna, Adnan Amin, Hafiz Muhammad Naseer, Zafar Jamal, Sheikh Zain Ul Abidin, Sajid Mehmood, Amir Shehzad Khan
The use of quality control tool for authentication of Jadwar (Delphinium denudatum Wall. ex Hook.f. & Thomson), a folk herbal drug used for the treatment of different ailments, was studied. People face problems of adulteration for this drug at global, regional, national and local levels. Two different plant species are commercially marketed in the Indo-Pak Subcontinent under the same trade name of Jadwar. One is D. denudatum Wall. ex Hook.f. & Thomson and the other is Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle...
January 24, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
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