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Paul M South, Oliver Floerl, Andrew G Jeffs
The efficient seeding of juvenile mussels is critical to the sustainability and profitability of mussel aquaculture. However, seeding mussels is highly inefficient, with many juveniles being lost in the following few months. One possible cause of these losses could be the development of biofouling assemblages. Therefore, the relationships between biofouling accumulation and losses of juveniles were assessed. Losses of juvenile mussels were initially high (42.9-49.1% over approximately one to two weeks), with lower rates of loss over the following four to five months...
April 14, 2019: Biofouling
Dinis Reis Oliveira, Lars Larsson, Lena Granhag
In-water ships' hull cleaning enables significant fuel savings through removal of marine fouling from surfaces. However, cleaning may also shorten the lifetime of hull coatings, with a subsequent increase in the colonization and growth rate of fouling organisms. Deleterious effects of cleaning would be minimized by matching cleaning forces to the adhesion strength of the early stages of fouling, or microfouling. Calibrated waterjets are routinely used to compare different coatings in terms of the adhesion strength of microfouling...
April 10, 2019: Biofouling
Fernanda Teresinha de Almeida Sayão de Emeri, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, Éder Ramos Paganini, Mayara Aparecida Rocha Garcia, Ana Carolina Nazaré, Josy Goldoni Lazarini, Severino Matias de Alencar, Luis Octávio Regasini, Janaina de Cassia Orlandi Sardi
The present study investigated the antimicrobial, anti-adhesion and anti-biofilm activity of the modified synthetic molecules nitrochalcone (NC-E05) and pentyl caffeate (C5) against microorganisms which have a high incidence in hospital-acquired infections. The compounds were further tested for their preliminary systemic toxicity in vivo. NC-E05 and C5 showed antimicrobial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 15.62 and 31.25 μg ml-1 . Treatment with NC-E05 and C5 at 1 × MIC and/or 10 × MIC significantly reduced mono or mixed-species biofilm formation and viability...
April 5, 2019: Biofouling
Wei Ding, Weipeng Zhang, Ruojun Wang, Yanan Sun, Bite Pei, Zhaoming Gao, Pei-Yuan Qian
Bacteria produce metamorphosis-associated contractile (MAC) structures to induce larval metamorphosis in Hydroides elegans. The distribution and diversity of mac gene homologs in marine environments are largely unexplored. In the present study mac genes were examined in marine environments by analyzing 101 biofilm and 91 seawater metagenomes. There were more mac genes in biofilms than in seawater, and substratum type, location, or sampling time did not affect the mac genes in biofilms. The mac gene clusters were highly diverse and often incomplete while the three MAC components co-occurred with other genes of different functions...
April 5, 2019: Biofouling
Samman Ikram, Adam Heikal, Sarah Finke, Antje Hofgaard, Yasir Rehman, Anjum Nasim Sabri, Ole Andreas Økstad
Formation of bacterial biofilms is a risk with many in situ medical devices. Biofilm-forming Bacillus species are associated with potentially life-threatening catheter-related blood stream infections in immunocompromised patients. Here, bacteria were isolated from biofilm-like structures within the lumen of central venous catheters (CVCs) from two patients admitted to cardiac hospital wards. Isolates belonged to the Bacillus cereus group, exhibited strong biofilm formation propensity, and mapped phylogenetically close to the B...
April 5, 2019: Biofouling
Kévin Lequette, Nassim Ait-Mouheb, Nathalie Wéry
Clogging of drippers due to the development of biofilms weakens the advantages and impedes the implementation of drip irrigation technology. The objective of this study was to characterise the bacterial community of biofilms that develop in a drip irrigation system supplied with treated wastewater. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons indicated that the bacterial community composition differed between drippers and pipes, mainly due to changes in the abundance of the genus Aquabacterium. Cyanobacteria were found to be involved in the biological fouling of drippers...
April 2, 2019: Biofouling
Heloisa Navarro Pantaroto, Karina Pintaudi Amorim, Jairo Matozinho Cordeiro, João Gabriel S Souza, Antônio Pedro Ricomini-Filho, Elidiane C Rangel, Ana Lúcia R Ribeiro, Luís Geraldo Vaz, Valentim A R Barão
The chemical composition of biomaterials can drive their biological responses; therefore, this in vitro study aimed to evaluate the proteomic profile of the salivary pellicle formed on titanium (Ti) alloys containing niobium (Nb) and zirconium (Zr). The experimental groups consisted of Ti35NbxZr (x = 5 and 10 wt%) alloys, and commercially pure titanium (cpTi); titanium aluminium vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloys were used as controls. The physical and chemical characteristics of the Ti materials were analysed...
April 2, 2019: Biofouling
Gopinath Perumal, Amrita Chakrabarti, Harpreet S Grewal, Soumya Pati, Shailja Singh, Harpreet S Arora
Biofilm related bacterial infection is one of the primary causes of implant failure. Limiting bacterial adhesion and colonization of pathogenic bacteria is a challenging task in health care. Here, a highly simplistic processing technique for imparting antibacterial properties on a biomedical grade stainless steel is demonstrated. Low-temperature high strain-rate deformation achieved using submerged friction stir processing resulted in a nearly single phase ultra-fine grain structure. The processed stainless steel demonstrated improved antibacterial properties for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, significantly impeding biofilm formation during the in vitro study...
March 26, 2019: Biofouling
Faizan Ahmed Sadiq, Steve Flint, Hafiz Arbab Sakandar, GuoQing He
RNA sequencing was used to reveal transcriptional changes during the motile-to-sessile switch in high and low biofilm-forming dairy strains of B. licheniformis isolated from Chinese milk powders. A significant part of the whole gene content was affected during this transition in both strains. In terms of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, seven metabolic pathways were significantly downregulated in the planktonic state compared to the biofilm state in both strains. Lipid and sugar metabolism seemed to play an important role in matrix production...
March 18, 2019: Biofouling
Nick Aldred, Caitlyn M Gatley-Montross, Meredith Lang, Michael R Detty, Anthony S Clare
Laboratory evaluation of antifouling coatings is underpinned by settlement studies with specific fouling organisms. Established methods provide insight into the likelihood of failure of a particular coating system, but can neglect the process of surface selection that often precedes attachment. The present approach for quantifying the exploratory behaviour of barnacle cypris larvae suggested that inspection behaviour can be a rapid and predictive proxy for settlement. Two series of xerogels with comparable total surface energy, but different dispersive and polar components, were evaluated...
March 11, 2019: Biofouling
Paramanantham Parasuraman, Asha P Antony, Sruthil Lal S B, Alok Sharan, Busi Siddhardha, Kaviyarasu Kasinathan, Needa A Bahkali, Turki M S Dawoud, Asad Syed
In the present study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy of toluidine blue (TB) encapsulated in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) was investigated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus treated with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using a red diode laser 670 nm wavelength, 97.65 J cm-2 radiant exposure, 5 min). Physico-chemical techniques (UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption, photoluminescence emission, excitation, and FTIR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were employed to characterize the conjugate of TB encapsulated in MSN (TB MSN)...
March 5, 2019: Biofouling
Guruprakash Subbiahdoss, Guanghong Zeng, Hüsnü Aslan, Jakob Ege Friis, Joseph Iruthayaraj, Alexander N Zelikin, Rikke Louise Meyer
Fouling is a major concern for solid/liquid interfaces of materials used in different applications. One approach of fouling control is the use of hydrophilic polymer coatings made from poly-anions and poly-cations using the layer-by-layer (LBL) method. The authors hypothesized that the poly-anionic properties and the poly-phosphate backbone of DNA would provide anti-biofouling and anti-scaling properties. To this end, poly(ethyleneimine)/DNA LBL coatings against microbial and inorganic fouling were developed, characterized and evaluated...
March 1, 2019: Biofouling
Anne Bogler, Douglas Rice, Francois Perreault, Edo Bar-Zeev
Bacteria of different Gram-types have inherently different outer cell structures, influencing cell surface properties and bacterial attachment. Dynamic biofouling experiments were conducted over four days in a bench-scale forward osmosis (FO) system with Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Gram-positive Anoxybacillus sp. Biofouling resulted in ∼10% decline in FO permeate water flux and was found to be significant for Anoxybacillus sp. but not for P. aeruginosa. Additionally, a stronger permeate water flux decline for P...
February 21, 2019: Biofouling
Staci L Capozzi, Coline Bodenreider, Ana Prieto, Rayford B Payne, Kevin R Sowers, Birthe Veno Kjellerup
Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated sediments is a priority due to accumulation in the food chain. Recent success with reduction of PCB bioavailability due to adsorption onto activated carbon led to the recognition of in situ treatment as a remediation approach. In this study, reduced bioavailability and subsequent break-down of PCBs in dehalorespiring biofilms was investigated using Dehalobium chlorocoercia DF1. DF1 formed a patchy biofilm ranging in thickness from 3.9 to 6.7 µm (average 4...
February 21, 2019: Biofouling
Andrew J Guerin, Anthony S Clare
It is widely recognised that findings from experimental studies should be replicated before their conclusions are accepted as definitive. In many research areas, synthesis of results from multiple studies is carried out via systematic review and meta-analysis. Some fields are also moving away from null hypothesis significance testing, which uses p values to identify 'significant' effects, towards an estimation approach concerned with effect sizes and confidence intervals. This review argues that these techniques are underused in biofouling and antifouling (AF) research and discusses potential benefits of their adoption...
February 13, 2019: Biofouling
João Gabriel Silva Souza, Carolina Veloso Lima, Bárbara Emanoele Costa Oliveira, Antônio Pedro Ricomini-Filho, Marcelo Faveri, Cortino Sukotjo, Magda Feres, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Valentim Adelino Ricardo Barão
This study aimed to test the dose-response effect of chlorhexidine on multispecies biofilms formed on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and titanium-zirconium (TiZr) alloy. Biofilms were formed on cpTi and TiZr discs and treated two times per day with five different chlorhexidine concentrations (0.12, 0.20, 0.50, 1, 2%). The biofilms were collected for microbiological, biochemical and microscopic analyses. The significance of differences among groups was evaluated by linear regression, ANOVA, Bonferroni and Tukey tests...
February 11, 2019: Biofouling
Sabina Karačić, Britt-Marie Wilén, Carolina Suarez, Per Hagelia, Frank Persson
Deterioration of concrete is a large societal cost. In the Oslofjord subsea tunnel (Norway), deterioration of sprayed concrete and corrosion of reinforcing steel fibres occur under biofilm formed at sites with intrusion of saline groundwater. In this study, the microbial community structure, in situ environmental gradients and chemical composition of the biofilms were examined at three tunnel sites. Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidising microorganisms, in particular Nitrosopumilus sp., and iron-oxidising bacteria within Mariprofundus sp...
February 10, 2019: Biofouling
Ini-Ibehe Nabuk Etim, Jie Wei, Junhua Dong, Dake Xu, Nan Chen, Xin Wei, Mingzhong Su, Wei Ke
Organic silicon quaternary ammonium salt (OSA), an environmentally friendly naturally occurring chemical, was used as a bacteriostatic agent against sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on a 20SiMn steel surface in simulated concrete pore solutions (SCP). Four different media were used: No SRB (NSRB), No SRB and OSA (NSRB + OSA), With SRB (WSRB), With SRB and OSA (WSRB + OSA). After biofilm growth for 28 days, optimized sessile SRB cells survived at the high pH of 11.35 and as a result these cells caused the breakdown of the passive film due to the metabolic activities of the SRB...
February 8, 2019: Biofouling
Grzegorz Czerwonka, Dawid Gmiter, Anna Guzy, Patrycja Rogala, Agnieszka Jabłońska-Wawrzycka, Andrzej Borkowski, Tomasz Cłapa, Dorota Narożna, Paweł Kowalczyk, Marcin Syczewski, Marcin Drabik, Magdalena Dańczuk, Wiesław Kaca
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-associated infections are a serious medical problem, and new compounds and therapies acting through novel mechanisms are much needed. Herein, the authors report a ruthenium(IV) complex that reduces P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation by 84%, and alters biofilm morphology and the living-to-dead cell ratio at 1 mM concentration. Including the compound in the culture medium altered the pigments secreted by PAO1, and fluorescence spectra revealed a decrease in pyoverdine. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the ruthenium complex did not penetrate the bacterial cell wall, but accumulated on external cell structures...
February 7, 2019: Biofouling
Saloni Shah, Swapnil Gaikwad, Shuchi Nagar, Shatavari Kulshrestha, Viniti Vaidya, Neelu Nawani, Sarika Pawar
Quorum sensing (QS), the communication signaling network, regulates biofilm formation and several virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen. QS is considered to be a challenging target for compounds antagonistic to virulent factors. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are reported as anti-QS and anti-biofilm drugs against bacterial infections. The present study reports on the synthesis and characterization of Piper betle (Pb) mediated AgNPs (Pb-AgNPs)...
February 7, 2019: Biofouling
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