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Amino Acids

Ning Liu, Zhaolai Dai, Yunchang Zhang, Hai Jia, Jiangqing Chen, Shiqiang Sun, Guoyao Wu, Zhenlong Wu
We recently reported that dietary supplementation with L-proline (proline) during gestation improved embryonic survival in C57BL/6J mice. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the effect of maternal proline supplementation on embryonic survival can be carried forward to the first generation female offspring. In the F0 generation, pregnant dams were fed a purified diet supplemented with 0 (control) or 5 g proline/kg diet. The F1 female adult offsprings were bred to fertile males...
March 16, 2019: Amino Acids
Vesna Brzački, Bojan Mladenović, Dragan Dimić, Ljiljana Jeremić, Dragoljub Živanović, Davor Djukić, Nikola M Stojanović, Dušan T Sokolović
We aimed to evaluate whether two methionine-related compounds, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and selenomethionine (SM), could lessen liver damage induced by regurgitated bile in a model of rat bile duct ligation (BDL). Hepatoprotective potentials of S-adenosylmethionine and selenomethionine were estimated based on the changes of serum liver damage parameters (aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase activity, and bilirubin concentration), tissue oxidative [xanthine oxidase (XO) and catalase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels] and inflammatory [tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) concentration] parameters, and morphological liver tissue alterations that follow cholestasis...
March 16, 2019: Amino Acids
Michelle L Harrison, Anthony S Wolfe, Jonathan Fordyce, Jamie Rock, Alexandra A García, Julie A Zuñiga
Chronic immune activation and ensuing inflammation that accompany HIV infection lead to adverse metabolic consequences and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the additive effects of T2D on circulating biomarkers involved in inflammation, coagulation, and vascular function along with plasma amino acids in people living with HIV (PLWH). This cross-sectional study included PLWH with and without T2D (n = 32 total). Analyses involved a multiplex platform for circulating biomarkers and gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for plasma amino acids...
March 13, 2019: Amino Acids
Henry Oppermann, Katharina Purcz, Claudia Birkemeyer, Rainer Baran-Schmidt, Jürgen Meixensberger, Frank Gaunitz
The naturally occurring dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) inhibits the growth of tumor cells. As its component L-histidine mimics the effect, we investigated whether cleavage of carnosine is required for its antineoplastic effect. Using ten glioblastoma cell lines and cell cultures derived from 21 patients suffering from this malignant brain tumor, we determined cell viability under the influence of carnosine and L-histidine. Moreover, we determined expression of carnosinases, the intracellular release of L-histidine from carnosine, and whether inhibition of carnosine cleavage attenuates carnosine's antineoplastic effect...
March 12, 2019: Amino Acids
Kazuei Igarashi, Takeshi Uemura, Keiko Kashiwagi
It was found recently that acrolein (CH2 =CH-CHO), mainly produced from spermine, is more toxic than ROS (reactive oxygen species, O 2 -· , H2 O2 , and ·OH). In this review, we describe how the seriousness of brain infarction, dementia, renal failure, and Sjӧgren's syndrome is correlated with acrolein. In brain infarction and dementia, it was possible to identify incipient patients with high sensitivity and specificity by measuring protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) in plasma together with IL-6 and CRP in brain infarction and Aβ40/42 in dementia...
March 12, 2019: Amino Acids
Israelle Netto Freitas, Thiago Dos Reis Araujo, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Emily Amorim Magalhães, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Maria Lúcia Bonfleur, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro
Obesity in fathers leads to DNA damage and epigenetic changes in sperm that may carry potential risk factors for metabolic diseases to the next generation. Taurine (TAU) supplementation has demonstrated benefits against testicular dysfunction and pancreatic islet impairments induced by obesity, but it is not known if these protective actions prevent the propagation of metabolic disruptions to the next generation; as such, we hypothesized that paternal obesity may increase the probability of endocrine pancreatic dysfunction in offspring, and that this could be prevented by TAU supplementation in male progenitors...
March 4, 2019: Amino Acids
Chan-Na Zhao, Qian Wu, Yan-Mei Mao, Li-Na Liu, Yi-Lin Dan, Xiao-Mei Li, De-Guang Wang, Hai-Feng Pan
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death. Elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels have been reported to be an independent predictor of CVD morbidity and mortality, however, the role of ADMA in RA remains undetermined. To derive a more accurate estimation on circulating ADMA levels in RA patients, a meta-analysis was performed. Embase, PubMed, and The Cochrane Library database (up to October 7 2018) were used to acquire published literatures. Heterogeneity test was performed by the Q statistic and quantified using I2 ...
March 4, 2019: Amino Acids
Fabiana Trombetti, Alessandra Pagliarani, Vittoria Ventrella, Cristina Algieri, Salvatore Nesci
The eukaryotic F1 FO -ATP synthase/hydrolase activity is coupled to H+ translocation through the inner mitochondrial membrane. According to a recent model, two asymmetric H+ half-channels in the a subunit translate a transmembrane vertical H+ flux into the rotor rotation required for ATP synthesis/hydrolysis. Along the H+ pathway, conserved aminoacid residues, mainly glutamate, address H+ both in the downhill and uphill transmembrane movements to synthesize or hydrolyze ATP, respectively. Point mutations responsible for these aminoacid changes affect H+ transfer through the membrane and, as a cascade, result in mitochondrial dysfunctions and related pathologies...
February 23, 2019: Amino Acids
Junmei Zhang, Wenliang He, Dan Yi, Di Zhao, Zhuan Song, Yongqing Hou, Guoyao Wu
This study was conducted to determine the catabolism of L-valine in porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMECs) and its role in stimulating protein synthesis in these cells. PMECs were incubated with 0.05-, 0.10-, 0.25-, 0.5-, and 1.0-mM L-valine at 37 o C for 2 h. Cell viability and expressions of α-lactalbumin and β-casein were measured after culture with L-valine for 3 days. L-[1-14 C]valine was used to study valine catabolism, whereas [3 H]phenylalanine was employed as a tracer to determine protein synthesis and degradation in PMECs...
February 23, 2019: Amino Acids
Selvaraj Aravindhan, Harkesh B Singh, Matthias Zeller, Ray J Butcher
Selenocysteine (Sec) residue cannot be directly attached to a peptide sequence unless the selenol form is protected beforehand and several problems have been reported in the preparation of Sec building blocks. In this article a series of selenocystine, the oxidized form of Sec, containing peptides has been synthesized using a new methodology, where Boc-NH-chloroalanine is coupled with methyl ester protected residues (Ala, Met, Phe) using DCC/HOBt as the coupling reagents providing di- and tripeptides. Further, the treatment of disodium diselenide with chloroalanine peptides (Boc-ClAla-Ala-OMe, Boc-ClAla-Met-OMe and Boc-ClAla-Ala-Phe-OMe) afforded the respective selenocystine-containing peptides (Boc-Sec-Ala-OMe, Boc-Sec-Met-OMe and Boc-Sec-Ala-Phe-OMe)...
February 23, 2019: Amino Acids
Alicja K Antonczak, Kedric Milholland, Eric M Tippmann
The authors declare that the contributing author, Antonczak A.K., had no active academic address at or after the time of publication.
February 23, 2019: Amino Acids
Rafea Naffa, Patrick J B Edwards, Gillian Norris
Skin is made up of mainly collagen type I and its structure is stabilised by the formation of covalent immature and mature crosslinks. In this study, collagen immature crosslink hydroxylysinonorleucine (HLNL) was isolated from bovine skin in high purity using two sequential purification steps. These consisted of preparative fibrous cellulose and size exclusion chromatography. The purified crosslink was then analysed using tandem mass spectrometry and high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
February 20, 2019: Amino Acids
Tom Clifford, Matthew Ventress, Dean M Allerton, Sarah Stansfield, Jonathan C Y Tang, William D Fraser, Barbara Vanhoecke, Janne Prawitt, Emma Stevenson
This study examined whether consuming collagen peptides (CP) before and after strenuous exercise alters markers of muscle damage, inflammation and bone turnover. Using a double-blind, independent group's design, 24 recreationally active males consumed either 20 g day-1 of CP or a placebo control (CON) for 7 days before and 2 days after performing 150 drop jumps. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions, countermovement jumps (CMJ), muscle soreness (200 mm visual analogue scale), pressure pain threshold, Brief Assessment of Mood Adapted (BAM +) and a range of blood markers associated with muscle damage, inflammation and bone turnover C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β-CTX) and N-terminal propeptides of type 1 pro-collagen (P1NP) were measured before supplementation (baseline; BL), pre, post, 1...
February 19, 2019: Amino Acids
Adrienn Nagy, Viktória Goldschmidt Gőz, István Pintér, Viktor Farkas, András Perczel
The synthesis of α/β-chimeras comprises peptide bond formation from α- to β-, from β- to β-, and from β- to α-amino acid residues. The fine-tuned solid phase synthesis of -GXXG- chimera peptides containing the simplest achiral α-amino acid glycine and two cyclic SAAs of different ring size [X denoting cyclic β-Sugar Amino Acids (β-SAA)] is reported, variants containing Fmoc-RibAFU(ip)-OH a furanoid-, and Fmoc-GlcAPU(Me)-OH a pyranoid-type structural "Lego-element". Systematic search for the best coupling strategy with both H-β-SAA-OHs is described, including the comparison of the different coupling reagents and conditions...
February 13, 2019: Amino Acids
Suhela Sharif, Jie Shi, Rob Ruijtenbeek, Roland J Pieters
O-GlcNAcylation, like phosphorylation, is a dynamic and rapid posttranslational modification which regulates many cellular processes. Phosphorylation on tyrosine and O-GlcNAcylation on nearby serine or threonine residues may modulate each other. Indeed, by using a microarray with a peptide model system based on the ZO-3 protein, extensive cross talk between O-GlcNAcylation by OGT and phosphorylation by kinases was observed. However, studying the effects of kinases and OGT without the reverse processes catalyzed by phosphatases and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) does not provide a complete picture of the cross talk...
February 6, 2019: Amino Acids
Edyta Socha, Marcin Koba, Piotr Kośliński
The trend of growing population of 60+ years old people is visible in most of the highly developed European countries. Recently researchers have shown an increased interest in aging-associated diseases including neurological disorders. Neurodegenerative diseases are a very important clinical problem for several reasons. One of the key aspects are: frequency of occurrence as well as difficulties in the diagnosis, therapeutic problems and care of elderly patients. Furthermore, the very important point is the significant decrease of quality of life of untreated patients and late-stage diagnosis of the disease...
February 6, 2019: Amino Acids
Massimiliano Magro, Davide Baratella, Giovanni Miotto, Jan Frömmel, Marek Šebela, Martina Kopečná, Enzo Agostinelli, Fabio Vianello
The preservation of enzymatic activity is a fundamental requirement for exploiting hybrid nano-bio-conjugates, and the control over protein-nanoparticle interactions, leading to stable and catalytically active hybrids, represents the key for designing new biosensing platforms. In this scenario, surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) represent a new class of naked magnetic nanoparticles, displaying peculiar electrocatalytic features and the ability to selectively bind proteins. Recombinant aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase from tomato (SlAMADH1) was used as a model protein, and successfully immobilized by self-assembly on the surface of naked SAMNs, where its enzymatic activity resulted preserved for more than 6 months...
February 6, 2019: Amino Acids
Wim Derave, Barbora De Courten, Shahid P Baba
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The author "Shahid Baba" would like to include the middle name "P" in the online published article.
January 29, 2019: Amino Acids
Alain Mera, Mariana Zuliani Theodoro de Lima, Amanda Bernardes, Wanius Garcia, João Renato Carvalho Muniz
Knowing the key features of the structure and the biochemistry of proteins is crucial to improving enzymes of industrial interest like β-fructofuranosidase. Gene sacA from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 codifies a sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase, a β-fructofuranosidase (E.C., protein BlsacA), which has no crystallographic structure available. In this study, we report the results from numerous biochemical and biophysical techniques applied to the investigation of BlsacA in solution. BlsacA was successfully expressed in E...
January 23, 2019: Amino Acids
Kohsuke Hayamizu, Ikuyo Oshima, Zesoku Fukuda, Yui Kuramochi, Yuki Nagai, Nobuo Izumo, Makoto Nakano
Currently, the use of amino acids in supplements and functional foods is increasing globally. However, there are no guidelines for the upper limit of ingestion for the safe use of these amino acids. Safety evaluation of chemical substances is generally performed through non-clinical and clinical studies. However, amino acids that have these safety data are limited. Therefore, we used a systematic review approach for evaluating the safety of amino acids. In the present study, we evaluated the safety of L-lysine added to an ordinary diet in humans...
January 19, 2019: Amino Acids
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