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Nutrition Research Reviews

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31097041/molecular-mechanisms-relating-to-amino-acid-regulation-of-protein-synthesis
#1
Yangchun Cao, Shimin Liu, Kai Liu, Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Chuanjiang Cai, Junhu Yao
Some amino acids (AA) act through several signalling pathways and mechanisms to mediate the control of gene expression at the translation level, and the regulation occurs, specifically, on the initiation and the signalling pathways for translation. The translation of mRNA to protein synthesis proceeds through the steps of initiation and elongation, and AA act as important feed-forward activators that are involved in many pathways, such as the sensing and the transportation of AA by cells, in these steps in many tissues of mammals...
May 17, 2019: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30947761/caffeine-and-blood-pressure-a-critical-review-perspective
#2
Rachele De Giuseppe, Ilaria Di Napoli, Francesca Granata, Antonia Mottolese, Hellas Cena
The WHO reported that high blood pressure (BP) is one of the primary causes of death worldwide. Hypertension (HPT) is a major risk factor for CVD and related diseases as well as for diseases, leading to a considerable increase in cardiovascular risk. Since BP response could also be influenced by caffeine, which is widely consumed with coffee and other items, it is important to define the possible effects associated with caffeine intake. The most recent findings aimed at clarifying the role of caffeine consumption on BP and HPT risk/incidence are conflicting and difficult to interpret...
April 5, 2019: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30919797/gut-rest-strategy-and-trophic-feeding-in-the-acute-phase-of-critical-illness-with-acute-gastrointestinal-injury
#3
Dong Zhang, Hongxiang Li, Yuting Li, Lai Qu
Critically ill patients frequently suffer from gastrointestinal dysfunction as the intestine is a vulnerable organ. In critically ill patients who require nutritional support, the current guidelines recommend the use of enteral nutrition within 24-48 h and advancing towards optimal nutritional goals over the next 48-72 h; however, this may be contraindicated in patients with acute gastrointestinal injury because overuse of the gut in the acute phase of critical illness may have an adverse effect on the prognosis...
March 28, 2019: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728086/seafood-intake-and-the-development-of-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#4
Bjørn Liaset, Jannike Øyen, Hélène Jacques, Karsten Kristiansen, Lise Madsen
We provide an overview of studies on seafood intake in relation to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Overweight and obesity development is for most individuals the result of years of positive energy balance. Evidence from intervention trials and animal studies suggests that frequent intake of lean seafood, as compared with intake of terrestrial meats, reduces energy intake by 4-9 %, sufficient to prevent a positive energy balance and obesity. At equal energy intake, lean seafood reduces fasting and postprandial risk markers of insulin resistance, and improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant adults...
June 2019: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707092/interplay-between-early-life-malnutrition-epigenetic-modulation-of-the-immune-function-and-liver-diseases
#5
Sabrina Campisano, Anabela La Colla, Stella M Echarte, Andrea N Chisari
Early-life nutrition plays a critical role in fetal growth and development. Food intake absence and excess are the two main types of energy malnutrition that predispose to the appearance of diseases in adulthood, according to the hypothesis of 'developmental origins of health and disease'. Epidemiological data have shown an association between early-life malnutrition and the metabolic syndrome in later life. Evidence has also demonstrated that nutrition during this period of life can affect the development of the immune system through epigenetic mechanisms...
February 1, 2019: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29984680/a-review-of-micronutrients-in-sepsis-the-role-of-thiamine-l-carnitine-vitamin-c-selenium-and-vitamin-d
#6
REVIEW
Justin B Belsky, Charles R Wira, Vinitha Jacob, John E Sather, Patty J Lee
Sepsis is defined as the dysregulated host response to an infection resulting in life-threatening organ dysfunction. The metabolic demand from inefficiencies in anaerobic metabolism, mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction, increased cellular turnover, and free-radical damage result in the increased focus of micronutrients in sepsis as they play a pivotal role in these processes. In the present review, we will evaluate the potential role of micronutrients in sepsis, specifically, thiamine, l-carnitine, vitamin C, Se and vitamin D...
December 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29871706/dietary-flavonoids-as-a-potential-intervention-to-improve-redox-balance-in-obesity-and-related-co-morbidities-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Daniela Gentile, Matteo Fornai, Carolina Pellegrini, Rocchina Colucci, Corrado Blandizzi, Luca Antonioli
Obesity represents one of major health problems strongly linked to other co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, CVD, gastrointestinal disorders and cognitive impairment. In this context, nutritional stress, such as an excess of fat intake, promotes a systemic oxidative stress, characterised by hyperproduction of reactive oxygen species, leading to cellular alterations that include impaired energy metabolism, altered cell signalling and cell cycle control, impaired cell transport mechanisms and overall dysfunctional biological activity...
December 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29560832/dairy-products-and-bone-health-how-strong-is-the-scientific-evidence
#8
Ellen G H M van den Heuvel, Jan M J M Steijns
The relevance of dairy produce for the diminishment of osteoporotic risk is still a matter of scientific debate due to the outcome of a few single observational studies. This review will address the most robust point estimate on the role of dairy products, as reported in systematic reviews and meta-analyses on randomised controlled trials in the case of bone mineralisation or prospective studies in the case of fracture risk. Plain dairy products or those fortified with Ca and/or vitamin D improve total body bone mineral content (BMC) by 45-50 g over 1 year when the daily baseline Ca intake is lower than 750 mg in Caucasians and Chinese girls...
December 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30477600/a-critical-review-of-the-role-of-milk-and-other-dairy-products-in-the-development-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
Anestis Dougkas, Suzanne Barr, Sheela Reddy, Carolyn D Summerbell
Existing reviews suggest that milk and other dairy products do not play a role in the development of obesity in childhood, but they do make an important contribution to children's nutrient intake. It is thus curious that public health advice on the consumption of dairy products for children is often perceived as unclear. The present review aimed to provide an overview of the totality of the evidence on the association between milk and other dairy products, and obesity and indicators of adiposity, in children...
November 27, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30388967/child-and-adolescent-nutrient-intakes-from-current-national-dietary-surveys-of-european-populations
#10
Holly L Rippin, Jayne Hutchinson, Jo Jewell, Joao J Breda, Janet E Cade
The WHO encourages national diet survey (NDS) implementation to obtain relevant data to inform policies addressing all forms of malnutrition, which remains a pressing issue throughout Europe. This paper provides an up-to-date review on energy, macro- and selected micronutrient intakes in children across WHO Europe using the latest available NDS intakes. It assesses these against WHO recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) to highlight vulnerable groups and areas of concern. Dietary survey information was gathered by Internet searches, contacting survey authors and nutrition experts...
November 3, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30378509/examining-the-relationship-between-nutrition-and-cerebral-structural-integrity-in-older-adults-without-dementia
#11
J M Reddan, H Macpherson, D J White, A Scholey, A Pipingas
The proportion of adults aged 60 years and over is expected to increase over the coming decades. This ageing of the population represents an important health issue, given that marked reductions to cerebral macro- and microstructural integrity are apparent with increasing age. Reduced cerebral structural integrity in older adults appears to predict poorer cognitive performance, even in the absence of clinical disorders such as dementia. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to identify those factors predicting cerebral structural integrity, especially factors that are modifiable...
October 31, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30326975/the-controversial-role-of-vitamin-d-as-an-antioxidant-results-from-randomised-controlled-trials
#12
Sara Tagliaferri, Debora Porri, Rachele De Giuseppe, Matteo Manuelli, Francesco Alessio, Hellas Cena
Increased oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential causal factor in the development of several diseases. In the last decade, an extensive literature has been produced on vitamin D, not limited to its well-known function like a steroid hormone on skeletal tissue, but for its potential pleiotropic role in human health. Several researchers have suggested relationships between vitamin D intake and health outcomes such as cancer prevention and increased immunity, or possible role in preventing diabetes, and in inflammation...
October 17, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30284526/optimising-amino-acid-absorption-essential-to-improve-nitrogen-balance-and-metabolic-control-in-phenylketonuria
#13
Anita MacDonald, Rani H Singh, Júlio César Rocha, Francjan J van Spronsen
It has been nearly 70 years since the discovery that strict adherence to a diet low in phenylalanine prevents severe neurological sequelae in patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (phenylketonuria; PKU). Today, dietary treatment with restricted phenylalanine intake supplemented with non-phenylalanine amino acids to support growth and maintain a healthy body composition remains the mainstay of therapy. However, a better understanding is needed of the factors that influence N balance in the context of amino acid supplementation...
October 4, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30113009/dietary-patterns-and-components-to-prevent-and-treat-heart-failure-a-comprehensive-review-of-human-studies
#14
Conor P Kerley
Growing evidence has emerged about the role of dietary patterns and components in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity. The objective here is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current evidence regarding dietary patterns/components and HF. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using multiple relevant keywords to identify relevant human studies. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity...
August 16, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30033906/insects-as-sources-of-iron-and-zinc-in-human-nutrition
#15
Martin N Mwangi, Dennis G A B Oonincx, Tim Stouten, Margot Veenenbos, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Marcel Dicke, Joop J A van Loon
Dietary deficiencies in Fe and Zn are globally widespread, causing serious health problems such as anaemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, increased risk of morbidity and mortality, stunted growth and impaired physical and cognitive development. Edible insects, of which a diversity of over 2000 species is available, are dietary components for about 2 billion individuals and are a valuable source of animal protein. In the present paper, we review the available information on Fe and Zn in edible insects and their potential as a source of these micronutrients for the rapidly growing human population...
July 23, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30033891/source-and-amount-of-carbohydrate-in-the-diet-and-inflammation-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
Luigi Barrea, Paolo Marzullo, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Carolina Di Somma, Massimo Scacchi, Francesco Orio, Gianluca Aimaretti, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
High carbohydrate intake and low-grade inflammation cooperate with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism to constitute an interactive continuum acting on the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age characterised by oligo-anovulatory infertility and cardiometabolic disorders. The role of insulin in PCOS is pivotal both in regulating the activity of ovarian and liver enzymes, respectively involved in androgen production and in triggering low-grade inflammation usually reported to be associated with an insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and cardiometabolic diseases...
July 23, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30009718/non-coeliac-gluten-sensitivity-and-the-spectrum-of-gluten-related-disorders-an-updated-overview
#17
Hanna Fjeldheim Dale, Jessica R Biesiekierski, Gülen Arslan Lied
The spectrum of gluten-related disorders includes coeliac disease (CD), wheat allergy (WA) and the suggested entity of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). An increasing number of the world's population are avoiding gluten due to the assumption of health benefits and self-diagnosed gastrointestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms. Unlike CD and WA, NCGS is a relatively new entity with an unknown prevalence and mechanisms, complicated by recent literature suggesting that gluten is not the only food component that may trigger symptoms experienced by this group of patients...
July 16, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29984681/weight-loss-after-pregnancy-challenges-and-opportunities
#18
Michelle C McKinley, Virginia Allen-Walker, Caroline McGirr, Ciara Rooney, Jayne V Woodside
It is important to pay attention to weight management before and between pregnancies, as women have an increased risk of weight gain during the reproductive years. Having a baby is a life-changing event for women and the challenge of weight management amidst this period of major physiological, psychological and social change should not be underestimated. However, the postpartum period offers an opportune time for lifestyle interventions, as women may have heightened awareness of their own and their wider families' health...
July 9, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29983125/a-review-of-select-minerals-influencing-the-haematopoietic-process
#19
Dalila Cunha Oliveira, Amanda Nogueira-Pedro, Ed Wilson Santos, Araceli Hastreiter, Graziela Batista Silva, Primavera Borelli, Ricardo Ambrósio Fock
Micronutrients are indispensable for adequate metabolism, such as biochemical function and cell production. The production of blood cells is named haematopoiesis and this process is highly consuming due to the rapid turnover of the haematopoietic system and consequent demand for nutrients. It is well established that micronutrients are relevant to blood cell production, although some of the mechanisms of how micronutrients modulate haematopoiesis remain unknown. The aim of the present review is to summarise the effect of Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Co, iodine, P, Se, Cu, Li and Zn on haematopoiesis...
July 9, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29886857/nutrient-sensing-taste-and-feed-intake-in-avian-species
#20
Shahram Niknafs, Eugeni Roura
The anatomical structure and function of beaks, bills and tongue together with the mechanics of deglutition in birds have contributed to the development of a taste system denuded of macrostructures visible to the human naked eye. Studies in chickens and other birds have revealed that the avian taste system consists of taste buds not clustered in papillae and located mainly (60 %) in the upper palate hidden in the crevasses of the salivary ducts. That explains the long delay in the understanding of the avian taste system...
June 11, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
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