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Reviews in Medical Virology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746844/annexin-a2-extracellular-translocation-and-virus-interaction-a-potential-target-for-antivirus-drug-discovery
#1
REVIEW
Isah Abubakar Aliyu, King-Hwa Ling, Nurfariesha Md Hashim, Hui-Yee Chee
Annexin A2 is a membrane scaffolding and binding protein, which mediated various cellular events. Its functions are generally affected by cellular localization. In the cytoplasm, they interacted with different phospholipid membranes in Ca2+ -dependent manner and play vital roles including actin binding, remodeling and dynamics, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and lipid-raft microdomain formation. However, upon cell exposure to certain stimuli, annexin A2 translocates to the external leaflets of the plasma membrane where annexin A2 was recently reported to serve as a virus receptor, play an important role in the formation of virus replication complex, or implicated in virus assembly and budding...
February 11, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746831/structural-and-functional-similarities-in-bunyaviruses-perspectives-for-pan-bunya-antivirals
#2
REVIEW
Sebastiaan Ter Horst, Nádia Conceição-Neto, Johan Neyts, Joana Rocha-Pereira
The order of Bunyavirales includes numerous (re)emerging viruses that collectively have a major impact on human and animal health worldwide. There are no vaccines for human use or antiviral drugs available to prevent or treat infections with any of these viruses. The development of efficacious and safe drugs and vaccines is a pressing matter. Ideally, such antivirals possess pan-bunyavirus antiviral activity, allowing the containment of every bunya-related threat. The fact that many bunyaviruses need to be handled in laboratories with biosafety level 3 or 4, the great variety of species and the frequent emergence of novel species complicate such efforts...
February 11, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734398/turning-cost-effectiveness-analysis-on-its-head
#3
EDITORIAL
Paul D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706584/estimation-of-the-worldwide-seroprevalence-of-cytomegalovirus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Mohamed Zuhair, G Suzanne A Smit, Gabriel Wallis, Faiz Jabbar, Colette Smith, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Paul Griffiths
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection does not usually produce symptoms when it causes primary infection, reinfection, or reactivation because these three types of infection are all controlled by the normal immune system. However, CMV becomes an important pathogen in individuals whose immune system is immature or compromised, such as the unborn child. Several vaccines against CMV are currently in clinical trials that aim to induce immunity in seronegative individuals and/or to boost the immunity of those with prior natural infection (seropositives)...
January 31, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706579/is-tetherin-a-true-antiviral-the-influenza-a-virus-controversy
#5
REVIEW
Anshika Sharma, Sunil K Lal
Tetherin, an interferon-inducible gene was first discovered to be an antiviral factor in 2008. A vast range of viruses, such as influenza A virus (IAV), dengue virus, Ebola virus, HIV, and RSV, have been reported to be susceptible to the antiviral activity of tetherin. Multiple reports have been published encompassing the role of tetherin in the IAV life cycle. To date, nine reports have been published regarding the role of tetherin in the IAV life cycle, with four reports supporting tetherin as an antiviral factor while five other reports suggesting no effect...
January 31, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30614135/rotavirus-vp6-as-a-potential-vaccine-candidate
#6
REVIEW
Atefeh Afchangi, Somayeh Jalilvand, Nasir Mohajel, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Zabihollah Shoja
By the age of 5 years, virtually all children have been infected by group A rotavirus (RVA), which is responsible for around half million mortality annually prior to vaccination. Relatively high rate of the morbidity and mortality highlights the necessity of applying preventive procedures particularly in developing countries. Two live attenuated RVA vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) are licensed and now being used in many countries worldwide. Although these vaccines are shown to reduce the mortality up to 50%, several key questions yet remained to answer...
January 6, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30614131/hepatitis-c-virus-protein-interaction-network-for-hcv-clearance-and-association-of-daa-to-hcc-occurrence-via-data-mining-approach-a-systematic-review-and-critical-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Ikram Sghaier, Etienne Brochot, Besma Y Loueslati, Wassim Y Almawi
HCV has been associated with pro-inflammatory state, which predisposes to liver cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the different molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of HCV infection on the HCC progression have remained unclear. Although HCV infection illustrates the role of host genetics in the outcome of infectious diseases, there is no clear overview of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing spontaneous or treatment-induced HCV eradication. In the present study, we studied the possible role of HCV infection in the processes of HCC initiation, and we performed a systemic analysis using data mining approaches to identify host polymorphisms associated with treatment response and HCC development using topological analysis of protein-proteins interactions (PPI) networks...
January 6, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30614127/the-interplay-between-vitamin-d-and-viral-infections
#8
REVIEW
Majid Teymoori-Rad, Fazel Shokri, Vahid Salimi, Sayed Mahdi Marashi
The pleiotropic role of vitamin D has been explored over the past decades and there is compelling evidence for an epidemiological association between poor vitamin D status and a variety of diseases. While the potential anti-viral effect of vitamin D has recently been described, the underlying mechanisms by which vitamin D deficiency could contribute to viral disease development remain poorly understood. The possible interactions between viral infections and vitamin D appear to be more complex than previously thought...
January 6, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30614117/expressional-activation-and-functional-roles-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancers
#9
REVIEW
Mengwen Zhang, Jessie Qiaoyi Liang, Shu Zheng
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are widely believed to be remnants of ancestral germ line infections by exogenous retroviruses. Although HERVs are deemed as "nonfunctional DNAs" due to loss of most of their viral protein coding capacity during evolution as part of the human genome, cumulative evidences are showing the expressional activation and potential roles of HERVs in diseases especially cancers. Work by other researchers and us has observed the dysregulation of HERVs in cancers, identified new HERV-related genes, and revealed their potential importance in cancer development...
January 6, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609250/the-interplay-between-viruses-and-trim-family-proteins
#10
REVIEW
Ramisha Khan, Amna Khan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Idrees
Novel therapeutic options are urgently needed to improve the global treatment of viral infections. Tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins are involved in various biological and cellular functions including differentiation, development, proliferation, oncogenesis, innate immunity, and viral autophagy. Various TRIM proteins show antiviral properties against different viral infections and are now transitioning from ubiquitin proteins to an efficient and emerging therapeutic class of proteins. TRIM proteins combat viruses by targeting them at pre/post transcription levels...
January 4, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609200/tat-basic-domain-a-swiss-army-knife-of-hiv-1-tat
#11
REVIEW
Margarita A Kurnaeva, Eugene V Sheval, Yana R Musinova, Yegor S Vassetzky
Tat (transactivator of transcription) regulates transcription from the HIV provirus. It plays a crucial role in disease progression, supporting efficient replication of the viral genome. Tat also modulates many functions in the host genome via its interaction with chromatin and proteins. Many of the functions of Tat are associated with its basic domain rich in arginine and lysine residues. It is still unknown why the basic domain exhibits so many diverse functions. However, the highly charged basic domain, coupled with the overall structural flexibility of Tat protein itself, makes the basic domain a key player in binding to or associating with cellular and viral components...
January 4, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609190/disease-severity-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-role-of-host-genetic-variation
#12
REVIEW
Alireza Tahamtan, Fatemeh Sana Askari, Louis Bont, Vahid Salimi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in the pediatric population worldwide. The immunopathology of RSV infection varies considerably and severe disease occurs only in a minority of the population. There are many factors (host, viral, and environmental) that contribute to the complicated disease phenotype. In this regard, host factors are decisive for pulmonary susceptibility to RSV infection. Host genetic diversity certainly affects the balance between control of viral replication and tissue damage during RSV infection, consequently impacting on diseases outcome...
January 4, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609179/systematic-review-of-spontaneous-splenic-rupture-in-dengue-infected-patients
#13
REVIEW
Ibrahim Radwan, Mohamed Magdy Khattab, Abdalla Reda Mahmoud, Thai Le Ba Nghia, Mai Nhu Y, Dinh The Trung, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
Dengue infection varies from mild febrile form of the disease to more severe disease with plasma leakage, shock, and multiorgan failure. Several serious organ damage complications as cardiomyopathy, encephalopathy, encephalitis, hepatic damage, and neural manifestations occur in dengue infection. Splenic rupture, a less known and life-threatening complication, can occur in dengue. The mechanism of splenic rupture in dengue is still unclear. Lifesaving of patient with this complication depends on using the optimal therapeutic management...
January 4, 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576029/influenza-the-centennial-of-a-zoonosis
#14
EDITORIAL
Philip P Mortimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30556615/systematic-review-of-ganciclovir-pharmacodynamics-during-the-prevention-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-adult-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#15
REVIEW
Diana D Wong, Wendy J van Zuylen, Maria E Craig, William D Rawlinson
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) represents the most common infection among recipients of solid organ transplants (SOTs). Previous meta-analysis showed 0.8% of SOT recipients developed CMV disease whilst receiving valganciclovir (ValGCV) prophylaxis. However, the clinical utility of monitoring ganciclovir (GCV) blood concentrations is unclear. We systematically reviewed the association between GCV concentrations during prophylaxis and the incidence of CMV. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for studies between 1946 and 2018, where GCV pharmacokinetics and incidence of CMV viraemia or disease in SOT were available...
December 17, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30548740/etiology-of-acute-viral-respiratory-infections-common-in-pakistan-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Riffat Naz, Asma Gul, Urooj Javed, Alina Urooj, Sidra Amin, Zareen Fatima
Respiratory infections, especially those of the lower respiratory tract, remain a foremost cause of mortality and morbidity of children greater than 5 years in developing countries including Pakistan. Ignoring these acute-level infections may lead to complications. Particularly in Pakistan, respiratory infections account for 20% to 30% of all deaths of children. Even though these infections are common, insufficiency of accessible data hinders development of a comprehensive summary of the problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rate in various regions of Pakistan and also to recognize the existing viral strains responsible for viral respiratory infections through published data...
December 12, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30548722/research-advancements-in-the-neurological-presentation-of-flaviviruses
#17
REVIEW
Tingting Chen, Xiaoen He, Peiru Zhang, Yawen Yuan, Xinyue Lang, Jianhai Yu, Zhiran Qin, Xujuan Li, Qiwei Zhang, Li Zhu, Bao Zhang, Qinghua Wu, Wei Zhao
Owing to the large-scale epidemic of Zika virus disease and its association with microcephaly, properties that allow flaviviruses to cause nervous system diseases are an important area of investigation. At present, although potential pathogenic mechanisms of flaviviruses in the nervous system have been examined, they have not been completely elucidated. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of blood-brain barrier penetration, the pathological effects on neurons, and the association between virus mutations and neurotoxicity...
December 12, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30511804/rotavirus-infections-in-children-in-turkey-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Anil Tapisiz, Tugba Bedir Demirdag, Burcu Ceylan Cura Yayla, Cemalettin Gunes, Asiye Ugraş Dikmen, Hasan Tezer, Nur Baran Aksakal, Gulendam Bozdayi, Secil Ozkan
We aimed to describe rotavirus epidemiology and clinical findings including extraintestinal manifestations in a setting that has yet to introduce rotavirus vaccines in the national immunization program. A literature search was performed by using the key words "Turkey" and "rotavirus." Ninety-eight studies published between 1987 and 2016 including epidemiological, clinical, and genotypical data at least 1 year duration were included. There were a total of 117 741 children with diarrhea and 26 566 rotavirus gastroenteritis with a median detection rate 31...
December 4, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30511446/dna-methyltransferases-in-virus-associated-cancers
#19
REVIEW
Javad Charostad, Akram Astani, Hossein Goudarzi, Ebrahim Faghihloo
Human tumor viruses are either casually linked or contribute in the development of human cancers. Viruses can stimulate oncogenesis through affecting diverse biological pathways in human cells. Growing data have demonstrated frequent involvement of one of the most characteristic parts of cellular epigenetic machinery, DNA methylation, in the oncogenesis. DNA methylation of cellular genes is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) as a key effector enzyme in this process. Dysregulation of DNMTs can cause aberrant gene methylation in promoter of cancer-related genes including tumor suppressor genes, resulting in gene silencing...
December 3, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30656809/corrigendum-defects-in-interferon-pathways-as-potential-biomarkers-of-sensitivity-to-oncolytic-viruses
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Reviews in Medical Virology
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