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Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

Sayaka Nose-Ogura, Osamu Yoshino, Michiko Dohi, Mika Kigawa, Miyuki Harada, Osamu Hiraike, Takashi Onda, Yutaka Osuga, Tomoyuki Fujii, Shigeru Saito
BACKGROUND: The female athlete triad (Triad), defined by the American College of Sports Medicine as low energy availability (EA) with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density (BMD), is associated with stress fractures and athletes aged 16-17 years are most susceptible. PURPOSE: To examine whether the Triad increases the risk of stress fractures, athletes were assigned to a "teenage" group and a "20s" group...
May 17, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Alejandro Sal de Rellán-Guerra, Ezequiel Rey, Anton Kalén, Carlos Lago-Peñas
The age of peak performance is likely to vary between sports and competitions, affected by the specific skills and attributes needed to succeed in the particular competition. However, no studies using modern tracking techniques have examined on the effects of age on competitive match play performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age on match physical and technical performance using a large-scale analysis of match performance in professional soccer players. A total of 14,546 individual match observations were undertaken in the first German league (Bundesliga) during the 2012-13, 2013-14, and 2014-15 seasons using a computerized tracking system (VISTRACK, by Impire Corp...
May 17, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jonathan M Scott, Josh B Kazman, Jeremy Palmer, James P McClung, Erin Gaffney-Stomberg, Heath G Gasier
Vitamin D's role in regulating immune responses may increase during periods of elevated psychological and physiological stress. Due to the high demands placed on US Marine Corps recruits undergoing 12 weeks of basic military training, we hypothesized that vitamin status would be related to markers of innate mucosal immunity, and daily vitamin D supplementation would augment immune responses during training. Males (n = 75) and females (n = 74) entering recruit basic training during the summer and winter volunteered to participate in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study...
May 16, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Stefan Heber, Marina Sallaberger-Lehner, Maria Hausharter, Ivo Volf, Helmuth Ocenasek, Harald Gabriel, Rochus Pokan
The heart rate (HR) rises with increased power output, whereby in most healthy individuals the slope of HR levels off with higher intensity. This corresponds to a downward deflection of the heart rate performance curve (HRPC). Conversely, in patients after myocardial infarction, an upward HRPC deflection is frequently observed that is especially pronounced in patients with compromised left-ventricular ejection fraction. To investigate whether regular endurance training during cardiac rehabilitation might normalize HRPC, data of 128 male patients were analyzed...
May 10, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Andrea H Hams, Kerrie Evans, Roger Adams, Gordon Waddington, Jeremy Witchalls
Water polo players have greater isokinetic shoulder strength than age-matched controls. Due to the repetitive demands of throwing, however, water polo players demonstrate an altered strength ratio, with greater internal rotation (IR) strength relative to external rotation (ER). The relationship between shoulder strength and risk of shoulder injury is unknown. In addition, the effect on test position for strength testing on the reliability of hand-held dynamometry (HHD) in this population is not known. The aims were to determine the; 1...
May 7, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Kim D Lu, Ronen Bar-Yoseph, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Dan M Cooper
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity and fitness are essential for healthy growth in children. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) evaluated fitness by estimating V̇O2 max from submaximal measurements of heart rate (HR) during graded treadmill exercise. Our aims were: 1) to examine how well NHANES methodology used to estimate V̇O2 max correlated with actual VO2 max and 2) to evaluate a novel fitness metric using actual data collected during exercise and its relationship to physical activity and sedentary time, lipid profiles and body composition...
May 7, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jasper Most, Kristi B Adamo, Leanne M Redman
In the manuscript by Fazzi et al. entitled 'Activity behaviors in lean and morbidly obese pregnant women',1 physical activity assessed by questionnaire and accelerometry was reported to be lower in pregnant women with morbid obesity compared to pregnant women of normal weight. Total daily energy expenditure however, was higher in women with morbid obesity. Thus, the authors conclude, "energy expenditure might not be the key factor to obesity". This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
May 6, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Emir Benca, Pejman Ziai, Lena Hirtler, Reinhard Schuh, Shahin Zandieh, Reinhard Windhager
Ankle orthoses are commonly used for prevention of recurrent ankle sprains. While there is some data on their functional performance or restriction of range of motion, there is little knowledge on the quantifiable passive mechanical effectiveness of various devices. This study aimed to determine the prophylactic stabilization effect for commonly prescribed ankle orthoses in a simulated recurrent ankle sprain. Eleven anatomic lower leg specimens were tested in plantar flexion and hindfoot inversion in a simulated ankle sprain in a quasi-static and dynamic test mode at 0...
May 6, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Andrea Ermolao, Andrea Gasperetti, Alberto Rigon, Alessandro Patti, Francesca Battista, Anna Chiara Frigo, Federica Duregon, Marco Zaccaria, Marco Bergamin, Daniel Neunhaeuserer
PURPOSE: Although both European (EACPR) and American (ACSM) Scientific Societies have devised cardiovascular protocols for the assessment of "middle-aged/older" individuals who are about to participate in sports or physical exercise, there are no data regarding the guidelines' sensitivity of these measures. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different international screening protocols. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study evaluated 525 subjects (80% males; median age 50 (35-85) years) seeking medical certification before participating in sports or regular exercise...
May 6, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Atsuki Fukutani, Kento Shimoho, Tadao Isaka
INTRODUCTION: The isometric force attained after active stretch is greater than that attained in a purely isometric contraction. This phenomenon is called residual force enhancement (RFE). The purpose was to examine the influence of isometric preactivation conducted just before active stretch on the magnitude of RFE in plantar flexors. METHODS: In the control condition, subjects conducted isometric contraction at 15° of dorsiflexion. In the no preactivation condition, the isometric contraction at 15° of dorsiflexion was conducted after an eccentric contraction from 0° to 15° of dorsiflexion...
May 6, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jose Mora-Gonzalez, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Jairo H Migueles, Maria Rodriguez-Ayllon, Pablo Molina-Garcia, Charles H Hillman, Andrés Catena, Matthew B Pontifex, Francisco B Ortega
The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of physical fitness, sedentary time and physical activity (PA) with working memory and neuroelectric activity in children with overweight/obesity. Seventy-nine children with overweight/obesity (10.2 ± 1.1 years old) participated in this cross-sectional study. We assessed physical fitness components (i.e., muscular strength, speed-agility and cardiorespiratory fitness) using the ALPHA battery. Sedentary time and PA were assessed by GT3X+ accelerometers (ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL, USA)...
May 6, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Valentin Benzing, Mirko Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Children with ADHD frequently suffer from deficits in cognitive (i.e. executive functions) and motor abilities. Although medication usually has a positive effect, a lack of commitment and possible side effects result in a need for adjunct or alternative treatments. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of cognitively and physically demanding exergaming on executive functions, ADHD symptoms and motor abilities. METHODS: In a parallel group randomized trial, 51 children between 8-12 years (M = 10...
May 3, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Hellen C G Nabuco, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Rodrigo R Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Danielle Venturini, Décio S Barbosa, Rafael Deminice, Luís B Sardinha, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is an imbalance between antioxidant system and production of free radicals and has been associated with the age-related deleterious changes. The defense system can be modulated by exercise and nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of whey protein supplementation pre- or post- resistance training on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-conditioned older women. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled design, 70 older women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: whey protein placebo (WP-PLA, n = 24), placebo-whey protein (PLA-WP, n = 23) and placebo-placebo (PLA-PLA, n =23)...
May 2, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Dejan Reljic, David Lampe, Franziska Wolf, Yurdagül Zopf, Hans Joachim Herrmann, Joachim Fischer
Recent evidence suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an effective method to improve fitness and various health-markers. However, the tolerability and acceptability of HIIT among sedentary individuals is currently controversially discussed. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of dropout among sedentary individuals in HIIT-based exercise interventions. MEDLINE/PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science were searched systematically for relevant articles until 06/2018...
May 2, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Joar Harøy, Espen Guldahl Wiger, Roald Bahr, Thor Einar Andersen
Groin injuries represent a considerable problem in male football, accounting for 4 to 19% of all time-loss injuries. The Adductor Strengthening Programme is the first groin specific prevention programme shown to reduce the risk of groin problems. We aimed to use the RE-AIM framework to examine the players experiences with the implementation of the programme and player attitude towards groin injury prevention in football. Of the 632 players involved in the trial examining the effect of the Adductor Strengthening Programme, 501 agreed to participate in a survey at the end of the season...
May 2, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Hyunsoo Kim, S Jun Son, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
Centrally mediated changes in sensorimotor function have been reported in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, little is known regarding supraspinal/spinal adaptations during lower extremity dynamic movement during a multiplanar, single-leg landing/cutting task. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CAI on landing/cutting neuromechanics, including lower-extremity kinematic, electromyography (EMG) activation, and ground reaction force (GRF) characteristics. 100 CAI patients and 100 matched healthy controls performed five trials of a jump landing/cutting task...
May 2, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Juliana L Teodoro, Larissa X N da Silva, Carolina G Fritsch, Bruno M Baroni, Rafael Grazioli, Francesco P Boeno, Pedro Lopez, Paulo Gentil, Martim Bottaro, Ronei S Pinto, Mikel Izquierdo, Eduardo L Cadore
This study compared the effects of 20 weeks of concurrent training with and without repetitions to failure on neuromuscular and functional adaptations in older men. METHODS: Thirty-six older men (67.1 ± 5.1 years) were randomized into three groups: one performing repetitions to failure (RFG, n = 13), another performing repetitions not to failure and 50% of the repetitions of the RFG (NFG, n = 12), and a third performing repetitions not to failure with equal training volume of the RFG (ENFG, n = 11)...
May 2, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Mathieu Berger, Jérémy Raffin, Vincent Pichot, David Hupin, Martin Garet, Pierre Labeix, Frédéric Costes, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Frédéric Roche
While obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases chemoreflex, leading to an autonomic dysfunction in the long-term, no studies have yet assessed the potential benefit of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential improvement in cardiac autonomic function (CAF) measured through heart rate variability (HRV) after a 9-month physical activity program in patients with OSA. Seventy-four patients with moderate OSA, aged 40-80 y, were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=36, 3x1 h/week) or a control group (n=38) during 9 months...
May 2, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jonathan M Bird, Costas I Karageorghis, Steven Baker, David Brookes
Despite the seemingly ubiquitous presence of audiovisual stimuli in modern exercise facilities, there is a dearth of research examining the effects of audiovisual stimuli in combination during exercise. Accordingly, we examined the influence of a range of audiovisual stimuli on the improvement of affective, perceptual, and enjoyment responses to cycle ergometer exercise at the ventilatory threshold (VT); an intensity that is associated with the most affect-related interindividual variability. A within-subjects design was employed and participants (N = 18) completed a 25-min protocol that consisted of 2 min of seated rest, 5 min warm-up, 10 min exercise at VT, 5 min cooldown, and 3 min of seated rest...
May 2, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Marco Giurgiu, Elena D Koch, Jörg Ottenbacher, Ronald C Plotnikoff, Ulrich W Ebner-Priemer, Markus Reichert
Empirical evidence shows that physical behavior positively impacts human health. Recently, researchers have started to differentiate between physical activity and sedentary behavior showing independent effects on somatic health. However, whether this differentiation is also relevant for mood dimensions is largely unknown. For investigating the dynamic relationships between sedentary behavior and mood dimensions in daily life, Ambulatory Assessment (AA) has become the state-of-the-art methodology. To investigate whether sedentary behaviors influence mood dimensions, we conducted an AA study in the everyday life of 92 university employees over 5 days...
May 2, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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