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European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30996041/the-time-controlled-adaptive-ventilation-protocol-mechanistic-approach-to-reducing-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#1
REVIEW
Michaela Kollisch-Singule, Penny Andrews, Joshua Satalin, Louis A Gatto, Gary F Nieman, Nader M Habashi
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a ventilator mode that has previously been considered a rescue mode, but has gained acceptance as a primary mode of ventilation. In clinical series and experimental animal models of extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the early application of APRV was able to prevent the development of ARDS. Recent experimental evidence has suggested mechanisms by which APRV, using the time-controlled adaptive ventilation (TCAV) protocol, may reduce lung injury, including: 1) an improvement in alveolar recruitment and homogeneity; 2) reduction in alveolar and alveolar duct micro-strain and stress-risers; 3) reduction in alveolar tidal volumes; and 4) recruitment of the chest wall by combating increased intra-abdominal pressure...
June 30, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30996040/endobronchial-valves-for-severe-emphysema
#2
REVIEW
Jorine E Hartman, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Eva M van Rikxoort, Karin Klooster, Dirk-Jan Slebos
The results of the randomised controlled trials investigating the bronchoscopic lung volume reduction treatment using endobronchial valves (EBV) are promising, and have led to their inclusion in treatment guidelines, US Food and Drug Administration approval and inclusion in routine care in an increasing number of countries. The one-way valve treatment has advanced and is now a regular treatment option. However, this new phase will lead to new challenges in terms of implementation. We believe that key issues in future research concern advanced patient selection, improved methods for target lobe selection, increased knowledge on the predictive risk of a pneumothorax, positioning of pulmonary rehabilitation in conjunction with the EBV treatment, the positioning of lung volume reduction surgery versus EBV treatment, and the long-term efficacy, adverse events, impact on exacerbations and hospitalisations, costs and survival...
June 30, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30996039/dismantling-the-pathophysiology-of-asthma-using-imaging
#3
Gregory G King, Catherine E Farrow, David G Chapman
Asthma remains an important disease worldwide, causing high burden to patients and healthcare systems and presenting a need for better management and ultimately prevention and cure. Asthma is a very heterogeneous condition, with many different pathophysiological processes. Better measurement of those pathophysiological processes are needed to better phenotype disease, and to go beyond the current, highly limited measurements that are currently used: spirometry and symptoms. Sophisticated three-dimensional lung imaging using computed tomography and ventilation imaging (single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography) and magnetic resonance imaging and methods of lung imaging applicable to asthma research are now highly developed...
June 30, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30918023/dismantling-airway-disease-with-the-use-of-new-pulmonary-function-indices
#4
Sabine C Zimmermann, Katrina O Tonga, Cindy Thamrin
We are currently limited in our abilities to diagnose, monitor disease status and manage chronic airway disease like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conventional lung function measures often poorly reflect patient symptoms or are insensitive to changes, particularly in the small airways where disease may originate or manifest. Novel pulmonary function tests are becoming available which help us better characterise and understand chronic airway disease, and their translation and adoption from the research arena would potentially enable individualised patient care...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30918022/cancer-associated-thrombosis-the-when-how-and-why
#5
REVIEW
Caio J Fernandes, Luciana T K Morinaga, José L Alves, Marcela A Castro, Daniela Calderaro, Carlos V P Jardim, Rogerio Souza
Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) is a condition in which relevance has been increasingly recognised both for physicians that deal with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and for oncologists. It is currently estimated that the annual incidence of VTE in patients with cancer is 0.5% compared to 0.1% in the general population. Active cancer accounts for 20% of the overall incidence of VTE. Of note, VTE is the second most prevalent cause of death in cancer, second only to the progression of the disease, and cancer is the most prevalent cause of deaths in VTE patients...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30918021/receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-environmental-exposure-related-obstructive-airways-disease-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Syed H Haider, Assad Oskuei, George Crowley, Sophia Kwon, Rachel Lam, Jessica Riggs, Mena Mikhail, Angela Talusan, Arul Veerappan, James S Kim, Erin J Caraher, Anna Nolan
BACKGROUND: Our group has identified the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) as a predictor of World Trade Center particulate matter associated lung injury. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the relationship between RAGE and obstructive airways disease secondary to environmental exposure. METHODS: A comprehensive search using PubMed and Embase was performed on January 5, 2018 utilising keywords focusing on environmental exposure, obstructive airways disease and RAGE and was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018093834)...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872400/a-systematic-review-of-pharmacotherapeutic-clinical-trial-end-points-for-bronchiectasis-in-adults
#7
REVIEW
Megan L Crichton, Stefano Aliberti, James D Chalmers
Bronchiectasis is an increasing clinical problem, but multiple recent clinical trials have failed to reach their primary end-point. Difficulties in achieving "positive" bronchiectasis trials is reflected in a lack of agreement from trialists and regulators on what are the optimal end-points.To evaluate the use of end-points in bronchiectasis trials, we conducted a systematic review of published bronchiectasis trials from 2008 to 2018 and extracted end-points used, definitions, methods of analysis and responsiveness...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872399/prioritising-children-and-adolescents-in-the-tuberculosis-response-of-the-who-european-region
#8
REVIEW
Matthias I Gröschel, Martin van den Boom, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Masoud Dara
In 2017, in recognition of the challenges faced by Member States in managing childhood and adolescent tuberculosis (TB) at a country level, the WHO Regional Office for Europe held a Regional Consultation. In total, 35 countries participated in the consultations representing both high- and low-incidence Member States. Here, we provide an overview of the existing World Health Organization (WHO) documents and guidelines on childhood and adolescent TB and describe the outcomes of this regional meeting. National childhood and adolescent TB guidelines are available in 25% of Member States, while 33% reported that no such guidelines are at hand...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872398/obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome
#9
Juan F Masa, Jean-Louis Pépin, Jean-Christian Borel, Babak Mokhlesi, Patrick B Murphy, Maria Ángeles Sánchez-Quiroga
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is defined as a combination of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg·m-2 ), daytime hypercapnia (arterial carbon dioxide tension ≥45 mmHg) and sleep disordered breathing, after ruling out other disorders that may cause alveolar hypoventilation. OHS prevalence has been estimated to be ∼0.4% of the adult population. OHS is typically diagnosed during an episode of acute-on-chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure or when symptoms lead to pulmonary or sleep consultation in stable conditions...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872397/telemedicine-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-sleep-apnoea
#10
Marie Bruyneel
Telemedicine (TM) is a current tool in the landscape of medicine. It helps to address public health challenges such as increases in chronic disease in an ageing society and the associated burden in healthcare costs. Sleep TM refers to patient data exchange with the purpose of enhancing disease management. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome is a chronic disorder associated with a significant morbidity, mainly cardiometabolic, and mortality. Obtaining adequate compliance to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remains the greatest challenge related to OSA treatment, and the adoption of TM to support OSA management makes sense...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872396/respiratory-viral-infection-a-potential-missing-link-in-the-pathogenesis-of-copd
#11
REVIEW
Dermot Linden, Hong Guo-Parke, Peter V Coyle, Derek Fairley, Danny F McAuley, Clifford C Taggart, Joe Kidney
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third most common cause of global mortality. Acute exacerbations of COPD frequently necessitate hospital admission to enable more intensive therapy, incurring significant healthcare costs. COPD exacerbations are also associated with accelerated lung function decline and increased risk of mortality. Until recently, bacterial pathogens were believed to be responsible for the majority of disease exacerbations. However, with the advent of culture-independent molecular diagnostic techniques it is now estimated that viruses are detected during half of all COPD exacerbations and are associated with poorer clinical outcomes...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30814139/fibrosing-interstitial-lung-diseases-knowns-and-unknowns
#12
REVIEW
Vincent Cottin, Lutz Wollin, Aryeh Fischer, Manuel Quaresma, Susanne Stowasser, Sergio Harari
Patients with certain types of fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD) are at risk of developing a progressive phenotype characterised by self-sustaining fibrosis, decline in lung function, worsening quality of life, and early mortality. It has been proposed that such progressive fibrosing ILDs, which show commonalities in clinical behaviour and in the pathogenetic mechanisms that drive progressive fibrosis, may be "lumped" together for the purposes of clinical research and, potentially, for treatment...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30814138/women-and-copd-do-we-need-more-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Christophe Gut-Gobert, Arnaud Cavaillès, Adrien Dixmier, Stéphanie Guillot, Stéphane Jouneau, Christophe Leroyer, Sylvain Marchand-Adam, David Marquette, Jean-Claude Meurice, Nicolas Desvigne, Hugues Morel, Christine Person-Tacnet, Chantal Raherison
The increasingly female face of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence among women has equalled that of men since 2008, due in part to increased tobacco use among women worldwide and exposure to biomass fuels. This finding is supported by a number of characteristics. There is evidence of susceptibility to smoking and other airborne contaminants, along with epidemiological and phenotypic manifestations. COPD has thus become the leading cause of death in women in the USA. The clinical presentation is characterised by increasingly pronounced dyspnoea with a marked tendency towards anxiety and depression, undernutrition, nonsmall cell lung cancer (especially adenocarcinoma) and osteoporosis...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728163/the-european-respiratory-review-continuing-the-success-and-targeting-new-challenges
#14
EDITORIAL
Yochai Adir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728162/tumoral-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Laura C Price, Michael J Seckl, Peter Dorfmüller, S John Wort
Tumoral pulmonary hypertension (PH) comprises a variety of subtypes in patients with a current or previous malignancy. Tumoral PH principally includes the tumour-related pulmonary microvascular conditions pulmonary tumour microembolism and pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy. These inter-related conditions are frequently found in post mortem specimens but are notoriously difficult to diagnose ante mortem The outlook for patients remains extremely poor although there is some emerging evidence that pulmonary vasodilators and anti-inflammatory approaches may improve survival...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578338/beyond-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-the-world-of-progressive-fibrosing-interstitial-lung-disease
#16
EDITORIAL
Sergio Harari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578337/healthcare-utilisation-and-costs-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-progressive-fibrosing-interstitial-lung-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Colin Holtze, Kevin Flaherty, Michael Kreuter, Fabrizio Luppi, Teng Moua, Carlo Vancheri, Mary B Scholand
There are over 200 interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). In addition to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a percentage of patients with other ILDs also develop progressive fibrosis of the lung during their disease course. Patients with progressive-fibrosing ILDs may show limited response to immunomodulatory therapy, worsening symptoms and lung function and, ultimately, early mortality. There are few data for ILDs that may present a progressive fibrosing phenotype specifically, but we believe the burden and healthcare costs associated with these conditions may be comparable to those reported in IPF...
December 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578336/the-epidemiology-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-interstitial-lung-diseases-at-risk-of-a-progressive-fibrosing-phenotype
#18
REVIEW
Amy L Olson, Alex H Gifford, Naohiko Inase, Evans R Fernández Pérez, Takafumi Suda
The availability of epidemiological data relating to interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) has increased over recent years, but information on the prevalence and incidence of ILDs of different aetiologies remains limited. Despite global distribution, the proportion of patients who develop a progressive phenotype across different ILDs is not well known. Disease behaviour is well documented in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis but idiosyncratic in other ILDs that may present a progressive fibrosing phenotype. Possible reasons may include the heterogeneous nature of the aetiology, the complexity of diagnosis (and subsequent documentation of cases) and the methods employed to retrospectively analyse patient databases...
December 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578335/presentation-diagnosis-and-clinical-course-of-the-spectrum-of-progressive-fibrosing-interstitial-lung-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Vincent Cottin, Nikhil A Hirani, David L Hotchkin, Anoop M Nambiar, Takashi Ogura, María Otaola, Dirk Skowasch, Jong Sun Park, Hataya K Poonyagariyagorn, Wim Wuyts, Athol U Wells
Although these conditions are rare, a proportion of patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) may develop a progressive-fibrosing phenotype. Progressive fibrosis is associated with worsening respiratory symptoms, lung function decline, limited response to immunomodulatory therapies, decreased quality of life and, potentially, early death. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be regarded as a model for other progressive-fibrosing ILDs. Here we focus on other ILDs that may present a progressive-fibrosing phenotype, namely idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, unclassifiable idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue disease-associated ILDs ( e...
December 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578334/patients-perceptions-and-patient-reported-outcomes-in-progressive-fibrosing-interstitial-lung-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Jeffrey J Swigris, Kevin K Brown, Rayid Abdulqawi, Ketan Buch, Daniel F Dilling, Dirk Koschel, Krishna Thavarajah, Rade Tomic, Yoshikazu Inoue
The effects of interstitial lung disease (ILD) create a significant burden on patients, unsettling almost every domain of their lives, disrupting their physical and emotional well-being and impairing their quality of life (QoL). Because many ILDs are incurable, and there are limited reliably-effective, life-prolonging treatment options available, the focus of many therapeutic interventions has been on improving or maintaining how patients with ILD feel and function, and by extension, their QoL. Such patient-centred outcomes are best assessed by patients themselves through tools that capture their perceptions, which inherently incorporate their values and judgements...
December 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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