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Cerebral Cortex

Giulia V Elli, Connor Lane, Marina Bedny
What is the neural organization of the mental lexicon? Previous research suggests that partially distinct cortical networks are active during verb and noun processing, but what information do these networks represent? We used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate whether these networks are sensitive to lexicosemantic distinctions among verbs and among nouns and, if so, whether they are more sensitive to distinctions among words in their preferred grammatical class. Participants heard 4 types of verbs (light emission, sound emission, hand-related actions, mouth-related actions) and 4 types of nouns (birds, mammals, manmade places, natural places)...
February 15, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Marco Lanzilotto, Carolina Giulia Ferroni, Alessandro Livi, Marzio Gerbella, Monica Maranesi, Elena Borra, Lauretta Passarelli, Michela Gamberini, Leonardo Fogassi, Luca Bonini, Guy A Orban
Current knowledge regarding the processing of observed manipulative actions (OMAs) (e.g., grasping, dragging, or dropping) is limited to grasping and underlying neural circuitry remains controversial. Here, we addressed these issues by combining chronic neuronal recordings along the anteroposterior extent of monkeys' anterior intraparietal (AIP) area with tracer injections into the recorded sites. We found robust neural selectivity for 7 distinct OMAs, particularly in the posterior part of AIP (pAIP), where it was associated with motor coding of grip type and own-hand visual feedback...
February 15, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Alexandra L Petrache, Aarib Rajulawalla, Anqi Shi, Andrea Wetzel, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C Saido, Kirsten Harvey, Afia B Ali
Synaptic dysfunction is widely proposed as an initial insult leading to the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesize that the initial insult originates in the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) due to deficits in key interneuronal functions and synaptic signaling mechanisms, in particular, Wnt (Wingless/integrated). To investigate this hypothesis, we utilized the first knock-in mouse model of AD (AppNL-F/NL-F), expressing a mutant form of human amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein. This model shows an age-dependent accumulation of Aβ, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration...
February 15, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Lauren F Harkin, Susan J Lindsay, Yaobo Xu, Ayman Alzu'bi, Alexandra Ferrera, Emily A Gullon, Owen G James, Gavin J Clowry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Natalie E Zlebnik, Iness Gildish, Thibaut Sesia, Aurelie Fitoussi, Ellen A Cole, Brian P Carson, Roger Cachope, Joseph F Cheer
Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as avolition, apathy, and anhedonia, precede the onset of debilitating motor symptoms in Huntington's disease (HD), and their development may give insight into early disease progression and treatment. However, the neuronal and circuit mechanisms of premanifest HD pathophysiology are not well-understood. Here, using a transgenic rat model expressing the full-length human mutant HD gene, we find early and profound deficits in reward motivation in the absence of gross motor abnormalities...
February 7, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Daniel Kaiser, Radoslaw Martin Cichy, Gyula Kovács
In real-life situations, the appearance of a person's face can vary substantially across different encounters, making face recognition a challenging task for the visual system. Recent fMRI decoding studies have suggested that face recognition is supported by identity representations located in regions of the occipitotemporal cortex. Here, we used EEG to elucidate the temporal emergence of these representations. Human participants viewed a set of highly variable face images of 4 highly familiar celebrities (2 males and 2 females), while performing an orthogonal task...
February 7, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Maryam Vaziri-Pashkam, Yaoda Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Jesus Pujol, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Dídac Maciá, Pino Alonso, Ben J Harrison, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Joan Deus, José M Menchón, Narcís Cardoner, Carles Soriano-Mas
We mapped alterations of the functional structure of the cerebral cortex using a novel imaging approach in a sample of 160 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Whole-brain functional connectivity maps were generated using multidistance measures of intracortical neural activity coupling defined within isodistant local areas. OCD patients demonstrated neural activity desynchronization within the orbitofrontal cortex and in primary somatosensory, auditory, visual, gustatory, and olfactory areas. Symptom severity was significantly associated with the degree of functional structure alteration in OCD-relevant brain regions...
February 4, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Mihaela Bobic Rasonja, Darko Oreškovic, Vinka Knezovic, Ivana Pogledic, Daniela Pupacic, Mario Vukšic, Peter C Brugger, Daniela Prayer, Zdravko Petanjek, Nataša Jovanov Miloševic
To uncover the ontogenesis of the human indusium griseum (IG), 28 post-mortem fetal human brains, 12-40 postconceptional weeks (PCW) of age, and 4 adult brains were analyzed immunohistochemically and compared with post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 28 fetal brains (14-41 PCW). The morphogenesis of the IG occurred between 12 and 15 PCW, transforming the bilateral IG primordia into a ribbon-like cortical lamina. The histogenetic transition of sub-laminated zones into the three-layered cortical organization occurred between 15 and 35 PCW, concomitantly with rapid cell differentiation that occurred from 18 to 28 PCW and the elaboration of neuronal connectivity during the entire second half of gestation...
February 4, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, April A Benasich
During early development, the infant brain is highly plastic and sensory experiences modulate emerging cortical maps, enhancing processing efficiency as infants set up key linguistic precursors. Early interactive acoustic experience (IAE) with spectrotemporally-modulated non-speech has been shown to facilitate optimal acoustic processing and generalizes to novel non-speech sounds at 7-months-of-age. Here we demonstrate that effects of non-speech IAE endure well beyond the immediate training period and robustly generalize to speech processing...
February 4, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Ke Chen, Roberto Vincis, Alfredo Fontanini
Dysfunction of motor cortices is thought to contribute to motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known on the link between cortical dopaminergic loss, abnormalities in motor cortex neural activity and motor deficits. We address the role of dopamine in modulating motor cortical activity by focusing on the anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) of mice performing a cued-licking task. We first demonstrate licking deficits and concurrent alterations of spiking activity in ALM of head-fixed mice with unilateral depletion of dopaminergic neurons (i...
February 4, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Christian P Müller, Congying Chu, Liya Qin, Chunyu Liu, Bing Xu, He Gao, Barbara Ruggeri, Saskia Hieber, Julia Schneider, Tianye Jia, Nicole Tay, Shizuo Akira, Takashi Satoh, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Eric Artiges, Herve Lemaitre, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Sabina Millenet, Juliane H Fröhner, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Georgy Bakalkin, Yun Liu, Sylvane Desrivières, Paul Elliott, Volker Eulenburg, Daniel Levy, Fulton Crews, Gunter Schumann
Alcohol abuse is a major public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control regular drinking may help to reduce hazards of alcohol consumption. While immunological mechanisms have been related to alcohol drinking, most studies reported changes in immune function that are secondary to alcohol use. In this report, we analyse how the gene "TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator" (TANK) affects alcohol drinking behavior. Based on our recent discovery in a large GWAS dataset that suggested an association of TANK, SNP rs197273, with alcohol drinking, we report that SNP rs197273 in TANK is associated both with gene expression (P = 1...
February 4, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Anna Plachti, Simon B Eickhoff, Felix Hoffstaedter, Kaustubh R Patil, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Katrin Amunts, Sarah Genon
The hippocampus displays a complex organization and function that is perturbed in many neuropathologies. Histological work revealed a complex arrangement of subfields along the medial-lateral and the ventral-dorsal dimension, which contrasts with the anterior-posterior functional differentiation. The variety of maps has raised the need for an integrative multimodal view. We applied connectivity-based parcellation to 1) intrinsic connectivity 2) task-based connectivity, and 3) structural covariance, as complementary windows into structural and functional differentiation of the hippocampus...
February 4, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Shreya Rana, Rosita Shishegar, Sebastian Quezada, Leigh Johnston, David W Walker, Mary Tolcos
In many species of Mammalia, the surface of the brain develops from a smooth structure to one with many fissures and folds, allowing for vast expansion of the surface area of the cortex. The importance of understanding what drives cortical folding extends beyond mere curiosity, as conditions such as preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal alcohol syndrome are associated with impaired folding in the infant and child. Despite being a key feature of brain development, the mechanisms driving cortical folding remain largely unknown...
February 4, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Tamara Timic Stamenic, Simon Feseha, Robert Valdez, Wanzhu Zhao, Jost Klawitter, Slobodan M Todorovic
Although the central medial nucleus (CeM) of the thalamus is an essential part of the arousal system for sleep and anesthesia initiation, the precise mechanisms that regulate its activity are not well studied. We examined the role of CaV3.1 isoform of T-type calcium channels (T-channels) in the excitability and rhythmic activity of CeM neurons during isoflurane (ISO)-induced anesthesia by using mouse genetics and selective pharmacology. Patch-clamp recordings taken from acute brain slices revealed that CaV3...
January 31, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Lida Kanari, Srikanth Ramaswamy, Ying Shi, Sebastien Morand, Julie Meystre, Rodrigo Perin, Marwan Abdellah, Yun Wang, Kathryn Hess, Henry Markram
A consensus on the number of morphologically different types of pyramidal cells (PCs) in the neocortex has not yet been reached, despite over a century of anatomical studies, due to the lack of agreement on the subjective classifications of neuron types, which is based on expert analyses of neuronal morphologies. Even for neurons that are visually distinguishable, there is no common ground to consistently define morphological types. The objective classification of PCs can be achieved with methods from algebraic topology, and the dendritic arborization is sufficient for the reliable identification of distinct types of cortical PCs...
January 31, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Fabien Menardy, Andrés Pablo Varani, Adèle Combes, Clément Léna, Daniela Popa
In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons is consistently associated with modified metabolic activity in the cerebellum. Here we examined the functional reorganization taking place in the cerebello-cerebral circuit in a murine model of Parkinson's disease with 6-OHDA lesion of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Cerebellar optogenetic stimulations evoked similar movements in control and lesioned mice, suggesting a normal coupling of cerebellum to the motor effectors after the lesion...
January 31, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Sami Abboud, Laurent Cohen
In early blind individuals, brain activation by a variety of nonperceptual cognitive tasks extends to the visual cortex, while in the sighted it is restricted to supramodal association areas. We hypothesized that such activation results from the integration of different sectors of the visual cortex into typical task-dependent networks. We tested this hypothesis with fMRI in blind and sighted subjects using tasks assessing speech comprehension, incidental long-term memory and both verbal and nonverbal executive control, in addition to collecting resting-state data...
January 31, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Andres Parra, Christopher A Baker, M McLean Bolton
The mammalian cerebral cortex is divided into different areas according to their function and pattern of connections. Studies comparing primary visual (V1) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of primates have demonstrated striking pyramidal neuron (PN) specialization not present in comparable areas of the mouse neocortex. To better understand PFC evolution and regional PN specialization, we studied the tree shrew, a species with a close phylogenetic relationship to primates. We defined the tree shrew PFC based on cytoarchitectonic borders, thalamic connectivity and characterized the morphology and electrophysiology of layer II/III PNs in V1 and PFC...
January 31, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
J Eric Schmitt, Armin Raznahan, Liv S Clasen, Greg L Wallace, Joshua N Pritikin, Nancy Raitano Lee, Jay N Giedd, Michael C Neale
The neural substrates of intelligence represent a fundamental but largely uncharted topic in human developmental neuroscience. Prior neuroimaging studies have identified modest but highly dynamic associations between intelligence and cortical thickness (CT) in childhood and adolescence. In a separate thread of research, quantitative genetic studies have repeatedly demonstrated that most measures of intelligence are highly heritable, as are many brain regions associated with intelligence. In the current study, we integrate these 2 streams of prior work by examining the genetic contributions to CT-intelligence relationships using a genetically informative longitudinal sample of 813 typically developing youth, imaged with high-resolution MRI and assessed with Wechsler Intelligence Scales (IQ)...
January 31, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
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