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Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine

Valentina Bucciarelli, Anna Laura Caterino, Francesco Bianco, Cristiano Giovanni Caputi, Sara Salerni, Susanna Sciomer, Silvia Maffei, Sabina Gallina
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) constitutes a leading worldwide health problem, with increasing evidence of differences between women and men both in epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical management, and outcomes. Data from the literature suggest that women experience a doubled incidence of CVD related deaths, while angina, heart failure and stroke are increasingly prevalent in females. About 20-25% of women go through depression during their life, and depressive symptoms have been considered a relevant emergent, non-traditional risk factor for CVD in this part of the general population...
May 11, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Terrence D Ruddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Carl E Orringer
Patients who are at high or very high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events derive the greatest benefit when clinicians prescribe evidence-based preventive therapies. The writing process used in the creation of the 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol employed a thorough evaluation of the highest quality evidence, and synthesis of this evidence into actionable recommendations for ASCVD risk reduction. Clinical trials supporting the addition of ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors, or both to evidence-based statins provide the basis for the updated recommendations for the preventive care of these patients...
May 4, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Shamone R Gore-Panter, David R Van Wagoner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Michael K Southworth, Jonathan R Silva, Jennifer N Avari Silva
Recent miniaturization of electronic components and advances in image processing software have facilitated the entry of extended reality technology into clinical practice. In the last several years, the number of applications in cardiology has multiplied, with many promising to become standard of care. We review many of these applications in the areas of patient and physician education, cardiac rehabilitation, pre-procedural planning and intraprocedural use. The rapid integration of these approaches into the many facets of cardiology suggests that they will one day become an every-day part of physician practice...
April 30, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Mikhail S Dzeshka, Gregory Y H Lip
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Holly R Middlekauff
The majority of premature deaths related to tobacco cigarettes (TCs) are attributable to cardiovascular disease, so it is fitting and timely to review the overall cardiovascular impact of electronic cigarettes (ECs), which have recently exploded onto the tobacco product market. Longitudinal studies of EC users are necessary, but not yet available, to answer the question whether cardiovascular disease is lower in chronic EC users compared to TC smokers, so we must rely on biomarker studies. Several biomarkers that portend increased cardiovascular risk, including markers of increased sympathetic nerve activity, oxidative stress and inflammation, vascular dysfunction, and thrombosis, have been reported to be abnormal after EC use, although often not to the degree found in TC smokers...
April 25, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
John M Aalen, Otto A Smiseth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Selim R Krim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Scott R Levin, Nkiruka Arinze, Jeffrey J Siracuse
Lower extremity critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents symptoms related to end-stage atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease manifested by rest pain and tissue loss. It is associated with increased risk of limb amputation and cardiovascular-related mortality. The prevalence and cost of CLI are expected to increase with both the aging of the U.S. population and continued influence of smoking and diabetes. Treatments encompass measures to reduce cardiovascular risk and preserve limb viability. Despite increasing popularity of endovascular modalities, revascularization with either surgical bypass or endovascular intervention is the cornerstone of therapy...
April 15, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Theodore M Murphy, John W McEvoy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Simon Calle, Christophe Delens, Victor Kamoen, Jan De Pooter, Frank Timmermans
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been a major step in the treatment of heart failure patients and intraventricular conduction delay. As a considerable number of patients do not respond adequately to CRT, echocardiographic dyssynchrony selection criteria have been proposed to improve CRT response, but these parameters eventually failed to provide superior selection of CRT candidates. In the last decade, an echo-dyssynchrony parameter called "septal flash" was been reported by several investigators and opinion leaders in the field of CRT...
April 8, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Lauren Sinnenberg, Michael M Givertz
Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the most common causes for hospital admission and is associated with a high risk of mortality. Compared to chronic heart failure, there is less robust evidence to guide diagnosis, risk stratification and management of AHF. This state-of-the art review aims to summarize new developments in this field. We also highlight areas of ongoing work including novel vasoactive agents, alternative models to traditional hospital admission and strategies to improve patient engagement.
April 2, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Peter Libby
Inflammation drives the formation, evolution, and complication of atherosclerotic plaques. Yet, we have not yet captured the culprits who light the fire that burns within the atherosclerotic plaque. The arsonist remains at large. A rigorous analysis exculpates many of the usual suspects. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) itself engenders little inflammation. Clinical trials do not support an actionable role of oxidized LDL in atherothrombosis. In contrast, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins do promote inflammation, and provide a promising target for intervention...
March 28, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Truman J Milling, Christopher M Ziebell
Oral anticoagulants, old and new, are effective therapies for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and reduction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, blocking elements of the clotting cascade carries an inherent risk of bleeding. Also, anticoagulated patients sometimes require urgent surgery or invasive procedures. This has led to the emergence of a body of scientific literature on the reversal of anticoagulation in these two settings. Traditionally, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), which indirectly inactivate clotting factors II, VII, IX and X (and natural anticoagulant proteins C and S), had been the mainstay of oral anticoagulation for half a century...
March 26, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Hamzeh Rezaei, Saedeh Khadempar, Najmeh Farahani, Elaheh Zadeh Hosseingholi, Seyed Mohammad Gheibi Hayat, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Amir Hossein Sahebkar
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a precisely targeted bacterial defense system, used to control invading viruses. This technology has many potential applications including genetic changes in somatic and germ cells and the creation of knockout animals. Compared to other genome editing techniques such as zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENS), the CRISPR/Cas9 system is much easier and more efficient. Most importantly, the multifunctional capacity of this technology allows simultaneous editing of several genes...
March 26, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Vadzim Chyzhyk, Alan S Brown
Familial Chylomicronemia Syndrome (FCS) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid disorder characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent pancreatitis. Because the disorder is often misdiagnosed or not diagnosed and because traditional triglyceride lowering medications are often ineffective, the disease leads to a tremendous physical, social and emotional burden on afflicted patients and their caretakers. Mutations in 5 different genes have been implicated in the development of FCS, all of which have an effect on the activity of lipoprotein lipase...
March 19, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Massimo Volpe, Giovanna Gallo, Giuliano Tocci
Blood pressure (BP) control remains insufficient worldwide, mostly due to poor adherence to treatments, clinical inertia, adverse effects and underuse of drug-combination strategies. Monotherapy and its uptitration have been long considered the first-line strategy in the treatment of hypertension, often leading to ineffective, time consuming and frustrating results. On the other hand, several studies have demonstrated that starting and continuing antihypertensive therapy based on a drug combination is associated with a greater reduction of BP, an earlier achievement of therapeutic goals and a higher proportion of patients achieving targets with favorable implications on cardiovascular events...
March 14, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Joseph Yeboah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Antonis A Manolis, Theodora A Manolis, Helen Melita, Antonis S Manolis
Subclinical thyroid dysfunction (STD), presenting as subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo) or subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper), defined as abnormal serum thyrotropin (TSH) and normal free thyroid hormones, is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality. Depending on the degree of such dysfunction, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias, predominantly atrial fibrillation, characterize both disorders and increase CV and total mortality compared to euthyroid persons...
March 5, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
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