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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

Shiva Kumara Tagginahalli Nagendrappa, Tushar Kanti Dutta, Sonam Chaudhary, Stephan H von Reuss, Valerie Williamson, Uma Rao
Nematode chemosensation is a vital component of their host-seeking behaviour. The globally important phytonematode, Meloidogyne incognita, perceives and responds (via their sensory organs such as amphids and phasmids) differentially to various chemical cues emanating from the rhizosphere during the course of host finding. However, compared to the free-living worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, the molecular intricacies behind the plant nematode chemotaxis are yet an unexploited territory. In the present study, four putative chemosensory genes of M...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Guixia Hao, Susan McCormick, Martha Vaughan, Todd Naumann, Hye-Seon Kim, Robert H Proctor, Amy Kelly, Todd Ward
Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum reduces crop yield and contaminates grain with mycotoxins. In this study, we investigated two exo-1, 5-α-L-arabinanases (Arb93A and Arb93B) secreted by F. graminearum, and their effect on wheat head blight development. Arabinan is an important component of plant cell walls, but it was not known if these arabinanases play a role in FHB. Both ARB93A and ARB93B were induced during the early stages of infection. arb93A mutants did not exhibit a detectable change in ability to cause FHB, whereas, arb93B mutants caused lower levels of FHB symptoms and deoxynivalenol contamination compared to the wild type...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Michael Bacht, Mika T Tarkka, Ivan Fernandez-Lopez, Markus Bönn, Roland Brandl, François Buscot, Lasse Feldhahn, Thorsten Grams, Sylvie Herrmann, Martin Schädler
Herbivores and mycorrhizal fungi interactively influence the growth, resource utilization, and plant defense responses. We studied these interactions in a tri-trophic system comprising Quercus robur, the herbivore Lymantria dispar and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Piloderma croceum under controlled laboratory conditions at the levels of gene expression and carbon/nitrogen allocation. Taking advantage of the endogenous rhythmic growth displayed by oaks, we thereby compared gene transcript abundances and resource shifts during shoot growth with those during the alternating root growth flushes...
February 12, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Hui-Ling Liao, Gregory Bonito, J Alejandro Rojas, Khalid Hameed, Steven Wu, Christopher W Schadt, Jessy L Labbe, Gerald Tuskan, Francis M Martin, Igor V Grigoriev, Rytas Vilgalys
Mortierella and Ilyonectria include common species of soil fungi which are frequently detected as root endophytes in many plants including Populus spp. However, the ecological roles of these and other endophytic fungi with respect to plant growth and function are still not well understood. The functional ecology of two key taxa from the Populus rhizobiome, Mortierella elongata PMI93 and Ilyonectria europaea PMI82, was studied by coupling forest soil bioassays with environmental metatranscriptomics. Using soil bioassay experiments amended with fungal inoculants, M...
January 30, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Kegui Chen, Behnam Khatabi, Vincent N Fondong
Geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae) are among the most devastating plant viruses worldwide, causing severe damage in crops of economic and subsistence importance. These viruses have very compact genomes and many of the encoded proteins are multi-functional. Here, we investigated the role of the East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) AC4 on virus infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana. Results showed that plants inoculated with EACMCV containing a knockout mutation in AC4 ORF, displayed symptoms two to three days later than plants inoculated with wild-type virus, and these plants recovered from infection whereas plants inoculated with the wild-type virus did not...
January 30, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Tiago P Lelis, Jingyu Peng, Inderjit Barphagha, Ruoxi Hyun Chen, Jong Hyun Ham
Bacterial panicle blight caused by Burkholderia glumae is a major bacterial disease of rice. Our preliminary RNA-seq study showed that a serine metalloprotease gene, prtA, is regulated in a similar manner to the genes for the biosynthesis and transport of toxoflavin, which is a known major virulence factor of B. glumae. prtA null mutants of the virulent strain B. glumae 336gr-1 did not show a detectable extracellular protease activity, indicating that prtA is the solely responsible gene for the extracellular protease activity detected from this bacterium...
January 29, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Vijay Shankar Singh, Prajna Tripathi, Parul Pandey, Durgesh Narain Singh, Basant Dubey, Chhaya Singh, Surendra Singh, Rachana Pandey, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting bacterium which colonizes the roots of a large number of plants including C3 and C4 grasses. Malate has been used as a preferred source of carbon for the enrichment and isolation Azospirillum spp. But, the genes involved in their transport and utilization are not characterized yet. In this study, we investigated the role of the two types of dicarboxylate transporters (DctP and DctA) of A. brasilense in its ability to colonize and promote growth of the roots of a C4 grass...
January 28, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Małgorzata Marczak, Kamil Żebracki, Piotr Koper, Anna Turska-Szewczuk, Andrzej Mazur, Jerzy Wydrych, Magdalena Wójcik, Anna Skorupska
In this study, functional characterization of the mgl2 gene located closely to the Pss-I exopolysaccharide biosynthesis region in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii TA1 was described. The hypothetical protein encoded by the mgl2 gene was found to be similar to methyltransferases. Protein homology/template-based modeling facilitated prediction of the Mgl2 structure, which vastly resembled class I methyltransferases with a SAM-binding cleft. The Mgl2 protein was engaged in exopolysaccharide but not lipopolysaccharide synthesis...
January 25, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Niloofar Vaghefi, Alex Silva, Lori Blair Koenick, Sarah Jane Pethybridge
Neocamarosporium betae (syn. Phoma betae, Pleospora betae) is the cause of Phoma leaf spot and root decay on Beta vulgaris worldwide. Despite the economic importance of the pathogen, many aspects of its life cycle and population biology remains unknown. The first genome assembly of N. betae was constructed to facilitate identification of mating-type loci and development of microsatellite markers for population genetics studies. The de novo assembled genome is provided as a resource for future genetic studies to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying disease development and host-pathogen interactions...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Matthew Helm, Mingsheng Qi, Shayan Sarkar, Haiyue Yu, Steven A Whitham, Roger W Innes
In Arabidopsis, recognition of the AvrPphB effector protease from Pseudomonas syringae is mediated by the disease resistance (R) protein RPS5, which is activated by AvrPphB-induced cleavage of the Arabidopsis protein kinase PBS1. The recognition specificity of RPS5 can be altered by substituting the AvrPphB cleavage site within PBS1 with cleavage sequences for other proteases, including proteases from viruses. AvrPphB also activates defense responses in soybean (Glycine max), suggesting that soybean may contain an R protein analogous to RPS5...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Meltem Lammertz, Hannah Kuhn, Sebastian Pfeilmeier, Jacob G Malone, C Zipfel, Mark Kwaaitaal, Nai-Chun Lin, Brian H Kvitko, Ralph Panstruga
Successful pathogens must efficiently defeat or delay host immune responses, including those triggered by release or exposure of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Knowledge on the molecular details leading to this phenomenon in plant-pathogen interactions is still scarce. We took advantage of the well-established Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) patho-system to explore the molecular prerequisites for the suppression of MAMP-triggered host defense by the bacterial invader...
January 21, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Andrea Chane, Corinne Barbey, Magalie Robert, Annabelle Merieau, Yoan Konto-Ghioghi, Amélie Beury-Cirou, Marc Feuilloley, Miroslav Patek, Virginie Gobert, Xavier Latour
Confocal laser scanning microscopy was chosen to observe the colonization and damage caused by the soft-rot Pectobacterium atrosepticum and the protection mediated by the biocontrol agent Rhodococcus erythropolis. We developed dual-color reporter strains suited for monitoring quorum-sensing and quorum-quenching activities leading to maceration or biocontrol, respectively. A constitutively expressed cyan or red fluorescent protein served as a cell tag for plant colonization, while an inducible expression reporter system based on the green fluorescent protein gene enabled the simultaneous recording of signaling molecule production, detection and/or degradation...
January 15, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Larissa J Osterbaan, Jiyeong Choi, Jaimie Kenney, Madison Flasco, Emmanuelle Vigne, Corinne Schmitt-Keichinger, Ana Rita Rebelo, Michelle Cilia, Marc Fuchs
The mechanisms underlying host plant symptom development upon infection by viruses of the genus Nepovirus in the family Secoviridae, including grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), are poorly understood. In the systemic host Nicotiana benthamiana, GFLV strain GHu produces characteristic vein clearing symptoms in apical leaves unlike other GFLV strains, such as F13, which cause an asymptomatic infection. In this study, we expanded on earlier findings and used reverse genetics to identify residue 802 (lysine, K) of the GFLV-GHu RNA1-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (1EPol ) as a modulator of vein clearing symptom development in N...
January 14, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Tao Li, Jun Zhang, Chaohui Shen, Huiru Li, Liyou Qiu
PGPR and fungi-bacterial biofilms are both important biofertilizer inoculants for sustainable agriculture. However, the strongest chemoattractant for bacteria to colonize the rhizosphere and mycelia is not clear. Coincidentally, almost all of the PGPRs possess 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (AcdS) and can utilize ACC as the sole nitrogen source. Here, we found that ACC was a novel, metabolic dependent and methyl-accepting chemoreceptor (MCP)-involved chemoattractant for Pseudomonas putida UW4...
January 14, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Apinya Longya, Chaivarakun Chaipanya, Marina Franceschetti, Josephine H R Maidment, Mark James Banfield, Chatchawan Jantasuriyarat
Higher yield potential and greater yield stability are common targets for crop breeding programs, including those in rice. Despite these efforts, biotic and abiotic stresses continue to impact rice production. Rice blast disease, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is the most devastating disease affecting rice worldwide. In the field, resistant varieties are unstable and can become susceptible to disease within a few years of release due to the adaptive potential of the blast fungus, specifically in the effector (avirulence or AVR) gene pool...
January 2, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Xiaofei Han, Sen Li, Miao Zhang, Liuyi Yang, Yidong Liu, Juan Xu, Shuqun Zhang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades serve as unified signaling modules in plant development and defense responses. Previous report demonstrated an essential role of Arabidopsis GLIP1, a member of the GDSL-like-motif lipase family, in both local and systemic resistance. GLIP1 expression is highly induced by pathogen attack. However, the signaling pathway(s) involved are unknown. Here, we report that two pathogen-responsive MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, are implicated in regulating gene expression of GLIP1, as well as GLIP3 and GLIP4...
December 31, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Shixia Liu, Xi Yuan, Yuyan Wang, Hui Wang, Jiali Wang, Zhihui Shen, Yizhou Gao, Jiating Cai, Dayong Li, Fengming Song
Stress-associated proteins (SAPs) are A20/AN1 domain-containing proteins, some of which play important roles in plant stress signaling. Here, we report the involvement of tomato SlSAP family in immunity. SlSAPs responded with different expression patterns to Botrytis cinerea and defense signaling hormones. Virus-induced gene silencing of each of SlSAPs and disease assays revealed that SlSAP4 and SlSAP10 play roles in immunity against B. cinerea. Silencing of SlSAP4 resulted in attenuated immunity to B. cinerea, accompanying with increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and downregulated expression of JA/ET signaling responsive defense genes...
December 27, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Haiyun Li, Dingrong Xue, Fang Tian, Xiaochen Yuan, Fenghuan Yang, Huamin Chen, William Hutchins, Ching-Hong Yang, Chenyang He
PdeR, a response regulator of the two-component system (TCS) with the cognate histidine kinase PdeK, has been shown to be an active phosphodiesterase (PDE) for intracellular c-di-GMP turnover, and positively regulates the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal pathogen of bacterial blight of rice. To further reveal the key components and pathways involved in the PdeR-mediated c-di-GMP regulation of virulence, 16 PdeR-interacting proteins were identified using the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay...
December 27, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Kathrin Wippel, Sharon R Long
Host specificity in the root nodule symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia is crucial for the establishment of a successful interaction and ammonia provision to the plant. The specificity is mediated by plant-bacterial signal exchange during early stages of interaction. We observed that a Sinorhizobium meliloti mutant ∆relA, which is deficient in initiating the bacterial stringent response, fails to nodulate Medicago sativa (alfalfa), but successfully infects Medicago truncatula. We used biochemical, histological, transcriptomic, and imaging approaches to compare the behavior of the S...
December 21, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Abdelgader Abdeen Diab, Xue-Qiang Cao, Hui Chen, Kai Song, Lian Zhou, Bo Chen, Ya-Wen He
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris uses the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family of quorum-sensing (QS) signals to coordinate virulence and adaptation. DSF family signals have been well-characterized using laboratory-based cell cultures. The in-planta QS signal used during X. campestris pv. campestris infection remains unclear. To achieve this goal, we first mimic in-planta X. campestris pv. campestris growth conditions by supplementing the previously developed XYS medium with cabbage hydrolysate and found that the dominant signal produced in these conditions was BDSF...
December 20, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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