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Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN

Santino Gaudio, Filippo Carducci, Claudia Piervincenzi, Gaia Olivo, Helgi B. Schiöth
Background: Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are complex mental disorders, and their etiology is still not fully understood. This paper reviews the literature on diffusion tensor imaging studies in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa to explore the usefulness of white matter microstructural analysis in understanding the pathophysiology of eating disorders. Methods: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify diffusion tensor imaging studies that compared patients with an eating disorder to control groups...
April 17, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Ana Alves-Pinto, Oana Georgiana Rus, Tim Jonas Reess, Afra Wohlschläger, Gerd Wagner, Götz Berberich, Kathrin Koch
Background: Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by anxiety-provoking, obsessive thoughts. Patients usually react to these thoughts with repetitive behaviours that reduce anxiety and are perceived as rewarding. Hence, reward plays a major role in the psychopathology of OCD. Previous studies showed altered activation in frontostriatal networks, among others, in association with the processing of reward in patients with OCD. Potential alterations in connectivity within these networks have, however, barely been explored...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Lena Lim, Heledd Hart, Henrietta Howells, Mitul A. Mehta, Andrew Simmons, Kah Mirza, Katya Rubia
Background: Childhood abuse is associated with structural brain abnormalities. Few studies have investigated white matter tract abnormalities in medication-naive, drug-free individuals who experienced childhood abuse. We examined the association between childhood abuse and abnormalities in white matter tracts in that population, controlling for psychiatric comorbidities. Methods: We collected diffusion tensor imaging data for age- and sex-matched youth with childhood abuse, psychiatric controls (matched for psychiatric diagnoses) and healthy controls...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Salvatore Torrisi, Gabriella M. Alvarez, Adam X. Gorka, Bari Fuchs, Marilla Geraci, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
Background: The central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are involved primarily in phasic and sustained aversive states. Although both structures have been implicated in pathological anxiety, few studies with a clinical population have specifically focused on them, partly because of their small size. Previous work in our group used high-resolution imaging to map the restingstate functional connectivity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the central nucleus of the amygdala in healthy subjects at 7 T, confirming and extending structural findings in humans and animals, while providing additional insight into cortical connectivity that is potentially unique to humans...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Agnes Lamers, Max Toepper, Silvia Carvalho Fernando, Nicole Schlosser, Eva Bauer, Friedrich Woermann, Martin Driessen, Thomas Beblo
Background: Emotion dysfunction is a key symptom in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and is considered a consequence of dysfunctional emotion regulation (e.g., reduced emotion acceptance). In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study, we investigated the neural correlates of habitual emotion acceptance in individuals with BPD. Methods: Female patients with BPD and female healthy controls passively viewed negative and neutral movie clips of faces during fMRI...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Iselin Meluken, Ninja Ottesen, Catherine Harmer, Julian Macoveanu, Hartwig Siebner, Lars Kessing, Maj Vinberg, Kamilla Miskowiak
Background: Aberrant neural and cognitive response to emotional faces has been observed in people at familial risk of an affective disorder. In this functional MRI study of monozygotic twins, we explored neural correlates of the attentional avoidance of emotional faces that we had previously observed in high-risk versus affected twins, and whether an abnormal neural response to emotional faces represents a risk endophenotype. Methods: We recruited unaffected monozygotic twins with a co-twin history of mood episodes (high-risk), monozygotic twins with previous mood episodes (affected) and monozygotic twins with no personal or first-degree history of mood episodes (low-risk) between December 2014 and January 2017 based on a nationwide register linkage...
April 3, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Deanna L. Kelly, Haley K. Demyanovich, Katrina M. Rodriguez, Daniela Ciháková, Monica V. Talor, Robert P. McMahon, Charles M. Richardson, Gopal Vyas, Heather A. Adams, Sharon M. August, Alessio Fasano, Nicola G. Cascella, Stephanie M. Feldman, Fang Liu, MacKenzie A. Sayer, Megan M. Powell, Heidi J. Wehring, Robert W. Buchanan, James M. Gold, William T. Carpenter, William W. Eaton
Background: Approximately one-third of people with schizophrenia have elevated levels of anti-gliadin antibodies of the immunoglobulin G type (AGA IgG) — a higher rate than seen in healthy controls. We performed the first double-blind clinical trial of gluten-free versus gluten-containing diets in a subset of patients with schizophrenia who were positive for AGA IgG. Methods: In this pilot feasibility study, 16 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had elevated AGA IgG (≥ 20 U) but were negative for celiac disease were admitted to an inpatient unit for a 5-week trial...
March 27, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Glenda M. MacQueen, Stefanie Hassel, Stephen R. Arnott, Addington Jean, Christopher R. Bowie, Signe L. Bray, Andrew D. Davis, Jonathan Downar, Jane A. Foster, Benicio N. Frey, Benjamin I. Goldstein, Geoffrey B. Hall, Kate L. Harkness, Jacqueline Harris, Raymond W. Lam, Catherine Lebel, Roumen Milev, Daniel J. Müller, Sagar V. Parikh, Sakina Rizvi, Susan Rotzinger, Gulshan B. Sharma, Claudio N. Soares, Gustavo Turecki, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Joanna Yu, Mojdeh Zamyadi, Stephen C. Strother, Sidney H. Kennedy
Studies of clinical populations that combine MRI data generated at multiple sites are increasingly common. The Canadian Biomarker Integration Network in Depression (CAN-BIND; is a national depression research program that includes multimodal neuroimaging collected at several sites across Canada. The purpose of the current paper is to provide detailed information on the imaging protocols used in a number of CAN-BIND studies. The CAN-BIND program implemented a series of platform-specific MRI protocols, including a suite of prescribed structural and functional MRI sequences supported by real-time monitoring for adherence and quality control...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Paul R. Albert, Brice Le François, Faranak Vahid-Ansari
Major depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and involve chronic dysregulation of serotonin, but they remain poorly understood. Here, we review novel transcriptional (genetic, epigenetic) and posttranscriptional (microRNA, alternative splicing) mechanisms implicated in mental illness, focusing on a key serotonin-related regulator, the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor. Functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms and stress-induced DNA methylation of the 5-HT1A promoter converge to differentially alter pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor expression associated with major depression and reduced therapeutic response to serotonergic antidepressants...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jee In Kang, Deog Young Kim, Chang-il Lee, Chan-Hyung Kim, Se Joo Kim
Background: Deficits in cortical inhibitory processes have been suggested as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). We examined whether patients with OCD have altered cortical excitability using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We also tested associations between TMS indices and OCD-related characteristics, including age of onset and response inhibition in the go/no-go paradigm, to examine whether altered cortical excitability contributes to symptom formation and behavioural inhibition deficit in patients with OCD...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Joana Straub, Rebecca Brown, Kathrin Malejko, Martina Bonenberger, Georg Grön, Paul L. Plener, Birgit Abler
Background: Investigating adolescents and young adults may provide a unique opportunity to understand developmental aspects of the neurobiology of depression. During adolescence, a considerable physiologic reorganization of both grey and white matter of the brain takes place, and it has been suggested that differences in grey-matter volumes during adolescence may reflect different maturational processes. Methods: We investigated grey-matter volumes in a comparatively large sample (n = 103) of adolescents and young adults (aged 12 to 27 years), 60 of them with a diagnosis of current depression...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Nikhil Bhagwat, Jon Pipitone, Aristotle N. Voineskos, M. Mallar Chakravarty
Background: The development of diagnostic and prognostic tools for Alzheimer disease is complicated by substantial clinical heterogeneity in prodromal stages. Many neuroimaging studies have focused on case–control classification and predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease, but predicting scores from clinical assessments (such as the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale or the Mini Mental State Examination) using MRI data has received less attention...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Shayan Sehatzadeh, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Belinda Yap, Hong-Anh Tu, Stefan Palimaka, James M. Bowen, Daria J. O’Reilly
Background: Approximately 35% of people with depression do not respond to 2 courses of antidepressant medications of adequate dosage, and treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is still a major clinical concern with a great impact on patients, their families, society and the health system. The present meta-analysis evaluates antidepressant efficacy of unilateral and bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with unipolar TRD. Methods: We searched for randomized controlled trials that compared rTMS with sham treatment and were published by Apr...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Howard Steiger, Linda Booij, `Esther Kahan, Kevin McGregor, Lea Thaler, Emilie Fletcher, Aurelie Labbe, Ridha Joober, Mimi Israël, Moshe Szyf, Luis B. Agellon, Lise Gauvin, Annie St-Hilaire, Erika Rossi
Background: This study explored state-related tendencies in DNA methylation in people with anorexia nervosa. Methods: We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in 75 women with active anorexia nervosa (active), 31 women showing stable remission of anorexia nervosa (remitted) and 41 women with no eating disorder (NED). We also obtained post-intervention methylation data from 52 of the women from the active group. Results: Comparisons between members of the active and NED groups showed 58 differentially methylated sites (Q < 0...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Anastasios A. Daskalakis, Zafiris J. Daskalakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Miao Chang, Elliot K. Edmiston, Fay Y. Womer, Qian Zhou, Shengnan Wei, Xiaowei Jiang, Yifang Zhou, Yuting Ye, Haiyan Huang, Xi-Nian Zuo, Ke Xu, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
Background: Growing evidence indicates both shared and distinct features of emotional perception in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. In these disorders, alterations in spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations have been reported in the neural system for emotional perception, but the similarities and differences in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) across the 3 disorders are unknown. Methods: We compared ALFF and its signal balance in the neural system for emotional perception at 2 frequency bands (slow-5 and slow-4) in 119 participants with schizophrenia, 100 with bipolar disorder, 123 with major depressive disorder and 183 healthy controls...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Alfonso Abizaid, Zul Merali, Hymie Anisman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Yu Fukuda, Teresa Katthagen, Lorenz Deserno, Leila Shayegan, Jakob Kaminski, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Background: Working-memory impairment is a core cognitive dysfunction in people with schizophrenia and people at mental high risk. Recent imaging studies on working memory have suggested that abnormalities in prefrontal activation and in connectivity between the frontal and parietal regions could be neural underpinnings of the different stages of psychosis. However, it remains to be explored whether comparable alterations are present in people with subclinical levels of psychosis, as experienced by a small proportion of the general population who neither seek help nor show constraints in daily functioning...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
David D. Kim, Alasdair M. Barr, Randall F. White, William G. Honer, Ric M. Procyshyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Carolina Makowski, Martin Lepage, Alan C. Evans
Psychiatry is at a crossroads when choosing final samples for analysis of neuroimaging data. Many patient populations exhibit significantly increased motion in the scanner compared with healthy controls, suggesting that more patients would need to be excluded to obtain a clean sample. However, this need is often overshadowed by the extensive amount of time and effort required to recruit these valuable and uncommon samples. This commentary sheds light on the impact of motion on imaging studies, drawing examples from psychiatric patient samples to better understand how head motion can confound interpretation of clinically oriented questions...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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