journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38772363/coincident-development-and-synchronization-of-sleep-dependent-delta-in-the-cortex-and-medulla
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Midha Ahmad, Jangjin Kim, Brett Dwyer, Greta Sokoloff, Mark S Blumberg
In early development, active sleep is the predominant sleep state before it is supplanted by quiet sleep. In rats, the developmental increase in quiet sleep is accompanied by the sudden emergence of the cortical delta rhythm (0.5-4 Hz) around postnatal day 12 (P12). We sought to explain the emergence of the cortical delta by assessing developmental changes in the activity of the parafacial zone (PZ), a medullary structure thought to regulate quiet sleep in adults. We recorded from the PZ in P10 and P12 rats and predicted an age-related increase in neural activity during increasing periods of delta-rich cortical activity...
May 16, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38772360/translocated-wild-birds-are-predisposed-to-learn-songs-of-their-ancestral-population
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Samyuktha Rajan, Koosje P Lamers, Christiaan Both, David Wheatcroft
Population differences in socially learned mating signals like oscine birdsong are particularly vulnerable to breakdown through dispersal.1 Despite this challenge, geographic variation in learned signals is ubiquitous.2 A proposed explanation for this pattern is that birds express predispositions to selectively learn and produce population-typical songs.3 , 4 , 5 While experimental studies on lab-reared birds have shown the existence of within-species learning predispositions,6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 it remains unclear whether and how learning predispositions influence song acquisition in the wild...
May 16, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38761801/ediacaran-marine-animal-forests-and-the-ventilation-of-the-oceans
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Susana Gutarra, Emily G Mitchell, Frances S Dunn, Brandt M Gibson, Rachel A Racicot, Simon A F Darroch, Imran A Rahman
The rise of animals across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition marked a step-change in the history of life, from a microbially dominated world to the complex macroscopic biosphere we see today.1 , 2 , 3 While the importance of bioturbation and swimming in altering the structure and function of Earth systems is well established,4 , 5 , 6 the influence of epifaunal animals on the hydrodynamics of marine environments is not well understood. Of particular interest are the oldest "marine animal forests,"7 which comprise a diversity of sessile soft-bodied organisms dominated by the fractally branching rangeomorphs...
May 15, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38772361/elevated-sleep-quota-in-a-stress-resilient-drosophila-species
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jessica Yano, Ceazar Nave, Katherine Larratt, Phia Honey, Makayla Roberts, Cassandra Jingco, Melanie L Fung, Damion Trotter, Xin He, Gazmend Elezi, Julian P Whitelegge, Sara Wasserman, Jeffrey M Donlea
Sleep is broadly conserved across the animal kingdom but can vary widely between species. It is currently unclear which selective pressures and regulatory mechanisms influence differences in sleep between species. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become a successful model system for examining sleep regulation and function, but little is known about the sleep patterns in many related fly species. Here, we find that fly species with adaptations to extreme desert environments, including D. mojavensis, exhibit strong increases in baseline sleep compared with D...
May 14, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38759651/evolutionary-patterns-of-cat-like-carnivorans-unveil-drivers-of-the-sabertooth-morphology
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Narimane Chatar, Margot Michaud, Davide Tamagnini, Valentin Fischer
The sabertooth morphology stands as a classic case of convergence, manifesting recurrently across various vertebrate groups, prominently within two carnivorans clades: felids and nimravids. Nonetheless, the evolutionary mechanisms driving these recurring phenotypes remain insufficiently understood, lacking a robust phylogenetic and spatiotemporal framework. We reconstruct the tempo and mode of craniomandibular evolution of Felidae and Nimravidae and evaluate the strength of the dichotomy between conical and saber-toothed species, as well as within saber-toothed morphotypes...
May 13, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38749425/ultrastructural-differences-impact-cilia-shape-and-external-exposure-across-cell-classes-in-the-visual-cortex
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Carolyn M Ott, Russel Torres, Tung-Sheng Kuan, Aaron Kuan, JoAnn Buchanan, Leila Elabbady, Sharmishtaa Seshamani, Agnes L Bodor, Forrest Collman, Davi D Bock, Wei Chung Lee, Nuno Maçarico da Costa, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
A primary cilium is a membrane-bound extension from the cell surface that contains receptors for perceiving and transmitting signals that modulate cell state and activity. Primary cilia in the brain are less accessible than cilia on cultured cells or epithelial tissues because in the brain they protrude into a deep, dense network of glial and neuronal processes. Here, we investigated cilia frequency, internal structure, shape, and position in large, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy volumes of mouse primary visual cortex...
May 13, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38772362/binocular-receptive-field-construction-in-the-primary-visual-cortex
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Farzaneh Olianezhad, Jianzhong Jin, Sohrab Najafian, Carmen Pons, Reece Mazade, Jens Kremkow, Jose-Manuel Alonso
ON and OFF thalamic afferents from the two eyes converge in the primary visual cortex to form binocular receptive fields. The receptive fields need to be diverse to sample our visual world but also similar across eyes to achieve binocular fusion. It is currently unknown how the cortex balances these competing needs between receptive-field diversity and similarity. Our results demonstrate that receptive fields in the cat visual cortex are binocularly matched with exquisite precision for retinotopy, orientation/direction preference, orientation/direction selectivity, response latency, and ON-OFF polarity/structure...
May 12, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38754424/early-jurassic-origin-of-avian-endothermy-and-thermophysiological-diversity-in-dinosaurs
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alfio Alessandro Chiarenza, Juan L Cantalapiedra, Lewis A Jones, Sara Gamboa, Sofía Galván, Alexander J Farnsworth, Paul J Valdes, Graciela Sotelo, Sara Varela
A fundamental question in dinosaur evolution is how they adapted to long-term climatic shifts during the Mesozoic and when they developed environmentally independent, avian-style acclimatization, becoming endothermic.1 , 2 The ability of warm-blooded dinosaurs to flourish in harsher environments, including cold, high-latitude regions,3 , 4 raises intriguing questions about the origins of key innovations shared with modern birds,5 , 6 indicating that the development of homeothermy (keeping constant body temperature) and endothermy (generating body heat) played a crucial role in their ecological diversification...
May 10, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38749426/interactions-between-pili-affect-the-outcome-of-bacterial-competition-driven-by-the-type-vi-secretion-system
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Simon B Otto, Richard Servajean, Alexandre Lemopoulos, Anne-Florence Bitbol, Melanie Blokesch
The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread, kin-discriminatory weapon capable of shaping microbial communities. Due to the system's dependency on contact, cellular interactions can lead to either competition or kin protection. Cell-to-cell contact is often accomplished via surface-exposed type IV pili (T4Ps). In Vibrio cholerae, these T4Ps facilitate specific interactions when the bacteria colonize natural chitinous surfaces. However, it has remained unclear whether and, if so, how these interactions affect the bacterium's T6SS-mediated killing...
May 10, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38754425/cell-type-specific-hypothalamic-pathways-to-brainstem-drive-context-dependent-strategies-in-response-to-stressors
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Mehran Ahmadlou, Maria Giannouli, Jacqueline F M van Vierbergen, Tom van Leeuwen, Wouter Bloem, Janou H W Houba, Maryam Yasamin Shirazi, J Leonie Cazemier, Robin Haak, Mohit Dubey, Fred de Winter, J Alexander Heimel
Adaptive behavioral responses to stressors are critical for survival. However, which brain areas orchestrate switching the appropriate stress responses to distinct contexts is an open question. This study aimed to identify the cell-type-specific brain circuitry governing the selection of distinct behavioral strategies in response to stressors. Through novel mouse behavior paradigms, we observed distinct stressor-evoked behaviors in two psycho-spatially distinct contexts characterized by stressors inside or outside the safe zone...
May 8, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38754423/camelus-knoblochi-genome-reveals-the-complex-evolutionary-history-of-old-world-camels
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Junxia Yuan, Jiaming Hu, Wenhui Liu, Shungang Chen, Fengli Zhang, Siren Wang, Zhen Zhang, Linying Wang, Bo Xiao, Fuqiang Li, Michael Hofreiter, Xulong Lai, Michael V Westbury, Guilian Sheng
Extant Old World camels (genus Camelus) contributed to the economic and cultural exchanges between the East and West for thousands of years.1 , 2 Although many remains have been unearthed,3 , 4 , 5 we know neither whether the prevalent hybridization observed between extant Camelus species2 , 6 , 7 also occurred between extinct lineages and the ancestors of extant Camelus species nor why some populations became extinct while others survived. To investigate these questions, we generated paleogenomic and stable isotope data from an extinct two-humped camel species, Camelus knoblochi...
May 8, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38749424/whi5-hypo-and-hyper-phosphorylation-dynamics-control-cell-cycle-entry-and-progression
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jordan Xiao, Jonathan J Turner, Mardo Kõivomägi, Jan M Skotheim
Progression through the cell cycle depends on the phosphorylation of key substrates by cyclin-dependent kinases. In budding yeast, these substrates include the transcriptional inhibitor Whi5 that regulates G1/S transition. In early G1 phase, Whi5 is hypo-phosphorylated and inhibits the Swi4/Swi6 (SBF) complex that promotes transcription of the cyclins CLN1 and CLN2. In late G1, Whi5 is rapidly hyper-phosphorylated by Cln1 and Cln2 in complex with the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1. This hyper-phosphorylation inactivates Whi5 and excludes it from the nucleus...
May 8, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38744283/superfast-lombard-response-in-free-flying-echolocating-bats
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Michael Bjerre Pedersen, Martin Egenhardt, Kristian Beedholm, Marie Rosenkjær Skalshøi, Astrid Særmark Uebel, Antoniya Hubancheva, Kaloyana Koseva, Cynthia F Moss, Jinhong Luo, Laura Stidsholt, Peter Teglberg Madsen
Acoustic cues are crucial to communication, navigation, and foraging in many animals, which hence face the problem of detecting and discriminating these cues in fluctuating noise levels from natural or anthropogenic sources. Such auditory dynamics are perhaps most extreme for echolocating bats that navigate and hunt prey on the wing in darkness by listening for weak echo returns from their powerful calls in complex, self-generated umwelts.1 , 2 Due to high absorption of ultrasound in air and fast flight speeds, bats operate with short prey detection ranges and dynamic sensory volumes,3 leading us to hypothesize that bats employ superfast vocal-motor adjustments to rapidly changing sensory scenes...
May 7, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38733991/differential-representation-of-sensory-information-and-behavioral-choice-across-layers-of-the-mouse-auditory-cortex
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Raphael Steinfeld, André Tacão-Monteiro, Alfonso Renart
The activity of neurons in sensory areas sometimes covaries with upcoming choices in decision-making tasks. However, the prevalence, causal origin, and functional role of choice-related activity remain controversial. Understanding the circuit-logic of decision signals in sensory areas will require understanding their laminar specificity, but simultaneous recordings of neural activity across the cortical layers in forced-choice discrimination tasks have not yet been performed. Here, we describe neural activity from such recordings in the auditory cortex of mice during a frequency discrimination task with delayed report, which, as we show, requires the auditory cortex...
May 7, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38718799/biases-in-hand-perception-are-driven-by-somatosensory-computations-not-a-distorted-hand-model
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Valeria C Peviani, Luke E Miller, W Pieter Medendorp
To sense and interact with objects in the environment, we effortlessly configure our fingertips at desired locations. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the underlying control mechanisms rely on accurate knowledge about the structure and spatial dimensions of our hand and fingers. This intuition, however, is challenged by years of research showing drastic biases in the perception of finger geometry.1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 This perceptual bias has been taken as evidence that the brain's internal representation of the body's geometry is distorted,6 leading to an apparent paradox regarding the skillfulness of our actions...
May 2, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38718798/the-neural-representation-of-an-auditory-spatial-cue-in-the-primate-cortex
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jaime A Undurraga, Robert Luke, Lindsey Van Yper, Jessica J M Monaghan, David McAlpine
Humans make use of small differences in the timing of sounds at the two ears-interaural time differences (ITDs)-to locate their sources. Despite extensive investigation, however, the neural representation of ITDs in the human brain is contentious, particularly the range of ITDs explicitly represented by dedicated neural detectors. Here, using magneto- and electro-encephalography (MEG and EEG), we demonstrate evidence of a sparse neural representation of ITDs in the human cortex. The magnitude of cortical activity to sounds presented via insert earphones oscillated as a function of increasing ITD-within and beyond auditory cortical regions-and listeners rated the perceptual quality of these sounds according to the same oscillating pattern...
May 2, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38723636/a-subclass-of-evening-cells-promotes-the-switch-from-arousal-to-sleep-at-dusk
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Matthew P Brown, Shubha Verma, Isabelle Palmer, Adler Guerrero Zuniga, Anuradha Mehta, Clark Rosensweig, Mehmet F Keles, Mark N Wu
Animals exhibit rhythmic patterns of behavior that are shaped by an internal circadian clock and the external environment. Although light intensity varies across the day, there are particularly robust differences at twilight (dawn/dusk). These periods are also associated with major changes in behavioral states, such as the transition from arousal to sleep. However, the neural mechanisms by which time and environmental conditions promote these behavioral transitions are poorly defined. Here, we show that the E1 subclass of Drosophila evening clock neurons promotes the transition from arousal to sleep at dusk...
April 30, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38718797/division-of-labor-for-defensive-retaliation-and-preemption-by-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-systems-in-the-nudibranch-berghia
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jeffrey W Brown, Ondine H Berg, Anastasiya Boutko, Cody Stoerck, Margaret A Boersma, William N Frost
Relatively little is known about how peripheral nervous systems (PNSs) contribute to the patterning of behavior in which their role transcends the simple execution of central motor commands or mediation of reflexes. We sought to draw inferences to this end in the aeolid nudibranch Berghia stephanieae, which generates a rapid, dramatic defense behavior, "bristling." This behavior involves the coordinated movement of cerata, dozens of venomous appendages emerging from the animal's mantle. Our investigations revealed that bristling constitutes a stereotyped but non-reflexive two-stage behavior: an initial adduction of proximate cerata to sting the offending stimulus (stage 1) followed by a coordinated radial extension of remaining cerata to create a pincushion-like defensive screen around the animal (stage 2)...
April 30, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38703773/ancient-mycobacterium-leprae-genome-reveals-medieval-english-red-squirrels-as-animal-leprosy-host
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Christian Urban, Alette A Blom, Charlotte Avanzi, Kathleen Walker-Meikle, Alaine K Warren, Katie White-Iribhogbe, Ross Turle, Phil Marter, Heidi Dawson-Hobbis, Simon Roffey, Sarah A Inskip, Verena J Schuenemann
Leprosy, one of the oldest recorded diseases in human history, remains prevalent in Asia, Africa, and South America, with over 200,000 cases every year.1 , 2 Although ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches on the major causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, have elucidated the disease's evolutionary history,3 , 4 , 5 the role of animal hosts and interspecies transmission in the past remains unexplored. Research has uncovered relationships between medieval strains isolated from archaeological human remains and modern animal hosts such as the red squirrel in England...
April 30, 2024: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38714199/infralimbic-activity-during-rem-sleep-facilitates-fear-extinction-memory
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jiso Hong, Kyuhyun Choi, Marc V Fuccillo, Shinjae Chung, Franz Weber
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is known to facilitate fear extinction and play a protective role against fearful memories.1 , 2 Consequently, disruption of REM sleep after a traumatic event may increase the risk for developing PTSD.3 , 4 However, the underlying mechanisms by which REM sleep promotes extinction of aversive memories remain largely unknown. The infralimbic cortex (IL) is a key brain structure for the consolidation of extinction memory.5 Using calcium imaging, we found in mice that most IL pyramidal neurons are intensively activated during REM sleep...
April 27, 2024: Current Biology: CB
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