Current Biology: CB

Marie-Christin Fellner, Gerd T Waldhauser, Nikolai Axmacher
Selectively remembering or forgetting newly encountered information is essential for goal-directed behavior. It is still an open question, however, whether intentional forgetting is an active process based on the inhibition of unwanted memory traces or whether it occurs passively through reduced recruitment of selective rehearsal [1, 2]. Here, we show that intentional control of memory encoding relies on both, enhanced active inhibition and decreased selective rehearsal, and that these two processes can be separated in time and space...
May 19, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Ryosuke Tanaka, Damon A Clark
Visual systems are often equipped with neurons that detect small moving objects, which may represent prey, predators, or conspecifics. Although the processing properties of those neurons have been studied in diverse organisms, links between the proposed algorithms and animal behaviors or circuit mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we have investigated behavioral function, computational algorithm, and neurochemical mechanisms of an object-selective neuron, LC11, in Drosophila. With genetic silencing and optogenetic activation, we show that LC11 is necessary for a visual object-induced stopping behavior in walking flies, a form of short-term freezing, and its activity can promote stopping...
May 18, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Mohamed Rezk, Stephanie Cattoir, Ceren Battal, Valeria Occelli, Stefania Mattioni, Olivier Collignon
The human occipito-temporal region hMT+ /V5 is well known for processing visual motion direction. Here, we demonstrate that hMT+ /V5 also represents the direction of auditory motion in a format partially aligned with the one used to code visual motion. We show that auditory and visual motion directions can be reliably decoded in individually localized hMT+ /V5 and that motion directions in one modality can be predicted from the activity patterns elicited by the other modality. Despite shared motion-direction information across the senses, vision and audition, however, overall produce opposite voxel-wise responses in hMT+ /V5...
May 18, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Michael H Alpert, Dominic D Frank, Evan Kaspi, Matthieu Flourakis, Emanuela E Zaharieva, Ravi Allada, Alessia Para, Marco Gallio
Animals react to environmental changes over timescales ranging from seconds to days and weeks. An important question is how sensory stimuli are parsed into neural signals operating over such diverse temporal scales. Here, we uncover a specialized circuit, from sensory neurons to higher brain centers, that processes information about long-lasting, absolute cold temperature in Drosophila. We identify second-order thermosensory projection neurons (TPN-IIs) exhibiting sustained firing that scales with absolute temperature...
May 18, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Elena Bollati, Cecilia D'Angelo, Rachel Alderdice, Morgan Pratchett, Maren Ziegler, Jörg Wiedenmann
Coral bleaching, caused by the loss of brownish-colored dinoflagellate photosymbionts from the host tissue of reef-building corals, is a major threat to reef survival. Occasionally, bleached corals become exceptionally colorful rather than white. These colors derive from photoprotective green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments produced by the coral host. There is currently no consensus regarding what causes colorful bleaching events and what the consequences for the corals are. Here, we document that colorful bleaching events are a recurring phenomenon in reef regions around the globe...
May 16, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Alexandre Santinho, Veijo T Salo, Aymeric Chorlay, Shiqian Li, Xin Zhou, Mohyeddine Omrane, Elina Ikonen, Abdou Rachid Thiam
Lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis begins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bilayer, but how the ER topology impacts this process is unclear. An early step in LD formation is nucleation, wherein free neutral lipids, mainly triacylglycerols (TGs) and sterol esters (SEs), condense into a nascent LD. How this transition occurs is poorly known. Here, we found that LDs preferably assemble at ER tubules, with higher curvature than ER sheets, independently of the LD assembly protein seipin. Indeed, the critical TG concentration required for initiating LD assembly is lower at curved versus flat membrane regions...
May 15, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Hindol Gupta, Resmi Rajeev, Ranjan Sasmal, Renjith M Radhakrishnan, Ushma Anand, Haritha Chandran, Nurni R Aparna, Sarit Agasti, Tapas K Manna
Centrioles are essential components of centrosome, the main microtubule-organizing center of animal cells required for robust spindle bipolarity [1, 2]. They are duplicated once during the cell cycle [3], and the duplication involves assembly of a cartwheel on the pre-existing centriole followed by assembly of triplet microtubules around the cartwheel [4, 5]. Although the molecular details of cartwheel formation are understood [6-13], the mechanisms initiating the formation of centriolar microtubules are not known...
May 15, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Carola Städele, Mehmet F Keleş, Jean-Michel Mongeau, Mark A Frye
Several fundamental aspects of motion vision circuitry are prevalent across flies and mice. Both taxa segregate ON and OFF signals. For any given spatial pattern, motion detectors in both taxa are tuned to speed, selective for one of four cardinal directions, and modulated by catecholamine neurotransmitters. These similarities represent conserved, canonical properties of the functional circuits and computational algorithms for motion vision. Less is known about feature detectors, including how receptive field properties differ from the motion pathway or whether they are under neuromodulatory control to impart functional plasticity for the detection of salient objects from a moving background...
May 15, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Emilie Neveu, Dany Khalifeh, Nicolas Salamin, Dirk Fasshauer
A defining feature of eukaryotic cells is the presence of numerous membrane-bound organelles that subdivide the intracellular space into distinct compartments. How the eukaryotic cell acquired its internal complexity is still poorly understood. Material exchange among most organelles occurs via vesicles that bud off from a source and specifically fuse with a target compartment. Central players in the vesicle fusion process are the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins...
May 14, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Raphael Zinn, Jessica Leake, Franklin B Krasne, Laura H Corbit, Michael S Fanselow, Bryce Vissel
The context in which sudden fearful events occur can be poorly encoded into memory. Yet, the consequences of the resulting context-impoverished memories remain unknown. We demonstrate that restricting the time available for context encoding during contextual fear conditioning causes maladaptively overgeneralized and inextinguishable fear. However, post-conditioning context exposure enables further context encoding through hippocampal reconsolidation-dependent memory updating. Updating in the conditioning context alleviates overgeneralization and restores capacity for extinction...
May 12, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Spencer S Wong, Jingfang Yu, Frank C Schroeder, Dennis H Kim
Population density can modulate the developmental trajectory of Caenorhabditis elegans larvae by promoting entry into dauer diapause, which is characterized by metabolic and anatomical remodeling and stress resistance [1, 2]. Genetic analysis of dauer formation has identified the involvement of evolutionarily conserved endocrine signaling pathways, including the DAF-2/insulin-like receptor signaling pathway [3-7]. Chemical and metabolomic analysis of dauer-inducing pheromone has identified a family of small molecules, ascarosides, which act potently to communicate increased population density and promote dauer formation [1, 8-10]...
May 12, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Arne F Meyer, John O'Keefe, Jasper Poort
Animals actively interact with their environment to gather sensory information. There is conflicting evidence about how mice use vision to sample their environment. During head restraint, mice make rapid eye movements coupled between the eyes, similar to conjugate saccadic eye movements in humans. However, when mice are free to move their heads, eye movements are more complex and often non-conjugate, with the eyes moving in opposite directions. We combined head and eye tracking in freely moving mice and found both observations are explained by two eye-head coupling types, associated with vestibular mechanisms...
May 12, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Natalie J Kirkland, Alice C Yuen, Melda Tozluoglu, Nancy Hui, Ewa K Paluch, Yanlan Mao
Cell divisions are essential for tissue growth. In pseudostratified epithelia, where nuclei are staggered across the tissue, each nucleus migrates apically before undergoing mitosis. Successful apical nuclear migration is critical for planar-orientated cell divisions in densely packed epithelia. Most previous investigations have focused on the local cellular mechanisms controlling nuclear migration. Inter-species and inter-organ comparisons of different pseudostratified epithelia suggest global tissue architecture may influence nuclear dynamics, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive...
May 12, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Hong Zhou, Xing Chen, Tao Hu, Juan Li, Hao Song, Yanran Liu, Peihan Wang, Di Liu, Jing Yang, Edward C Holmes, Alice C Hughes, Yuhai Bi, Weifeng Shi
The unprecedented pandemic of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in China and beyond has had major public health impacts on a global scale [1, 2]. Although bats are regarded as the most likely natural hosts for SARS-CoV-2 [3], the origins of the virus remain unclear. Here, we report a novel bat-derived coronavirus, denoted RmYN02, identified from a metagenomic analysis of samples from 227 bats collected from Yunnan Province in China between May and October 2019. Notably, RmYN02 shares 93.3% nucleotide identity with SARS-CoV-2 at the scale of the complete virus genome and 97...
May 11, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Gergo Palfalvi, Thomas Hackl, Niklas Terhoeven, Tomoko F Shibata, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Markus Ankenbrand, Dirk Becker, Frank Förster, Matthias Freund, Anda Iosip, Ines Kreuzer, Franziska Saul, Chiharu Kamida, Kenji Fukushima, Shuji Shigenobu, Yosuke Tamada, Lubomir Adamec, Yoshikazu Hoshi, Kunihiko Ueda, Traud Winkelmann, Jörg Fuchs, Ingo Schubert, Rainer Schwacke, Khaled Al-Rasheid, Jörg Schultz, Mitsuyasu Hasebe, Rainer Hedrich
Most plants grow and develop by taking up nutrients from the soil while continuously under threat from foraging animals. Carnivorous plants have turned the tables by capturing and consuming nutrient-rich animal prey, enabling them to thrive in nutrient-poor soil. To better understand the evolution of botanical carnivory, we compared the draft genome of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) with that of its aquatic sister, the waterwheel plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa, and the sundew Drosera spatulata. We identified an early whole-genome duplication in the family as source for carnivory-associated genes...
May 11, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Keir M Balla, Marlen C Rice, James A Gagnon, Nels C Elde
The discovery of new viruses currently outpaces our capacity for experimental examination of infection biology. To better couple virus discovery with immunology, we genetically modified zebrafish to visually report on virus infections. After generating a strain that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) under an interferon-stimulated gene promoter, we repeatedly observed transgenic larvae spontaneously expressing GFP days after hatching. RNA sequencing comparisons of co-housed GFP-positive and GFP-negative zebrafish revealed a naturally occurring picornavirus that induced a canonical interferon-mediated response and hundreds of antiviral defense genes not observed following immunostimulatory treatments or experimental infections with other viruses...
May 10, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Toshitaka N Suzuki
Many animals produce vocal alarm signals when they detect a predator, and heterospecific species sharing predators often eavesdrop on and respond to these calls [1]. Despite the widespread occurrence of interspecific eavesdropping in animals, its underlying cognitive process remains to be elucidated. If alarm calls, like human referential words, denote a specific predator type (e.g., "snake!"), then receivers may retrieve a mental image of the predator when hearing these calls [2-4]. Here, using a recently developed experimental paradigm [5], I test whether heterospecific alarm calls evoke a predator-specific visual search image in wild birds...
May 10, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Tetsuo Kon, Yoshihiro Omori, Kentaro Fukuta, Hironori Wada, Masakatsu Watanabe, Zelin Chen, Miki Iwasaki, Tappei Mishina, Shin-Ichiro S Matsuzaki, Daiki Yoshihara, Jumpei Arakawa, Koichi Kawakami, Atsushi Toyoda, Shawn M Burgess, Hideki Noguchi, Takahisa Furukawa
Although domesticated goldfish strains exhibit highly diversified phenotypes in morphology, the genetic basis underlying these phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, based on analysis of transposable elements in the allotetraploid goldfish genome, we found that its two subgenomes have evolved asymmetrically since a whole-genome duplication event in the ancestor of goldfish and common carp. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of 27 domesticated goldfish strains and wild goldfish. We identified more than 60 million genetic variations and established a population genetic structure of major goldfish strains...
May 8, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Matthieu Koroma, Célia Lacaux, Thomas Andrillon, Guillaume Legendre, Damien Léger, Sid Kouider
Sleep leads to a disconnection from the external world. Even when sleepers regain consciousness during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, little, if any, external information is incorporated into dream content [1-3]. While gating mechanisms might be at play to avoid interference on dreaming activity [4], a total disconnection from an ever-changing environment may prevent the sleeper from promptly responding to informative events (e.g., threat signals). In fact, a whole range of neural responses to external events turns out to be preserved during REM sleep [5-9]...
May 7, 2020: Current Biology: CB
Tugce Yildizoglu, Clemens Riegler, James E Fitzgerald, Ruben Portugues
All animals must transform ambiguous sensory data into successful behavior. This requires sensory representations that accurately reflect the statistics of natural stimuli and behavior. Multiple studies show that visual motion processing is tuned for accuracy under naturalistic conditions, but the sensorimotor circuits extracting these cues and implementing motion-guided behavior remain unclear. Here we show that the larval zebrafish retina extracts a diversity of naturalistic motion cues, and the retinorecipient pretectum organizes these cues around the elements of behavior...
May 7, 2020: Current Biology: CB
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