Hirak Saxena, Nakita Buenbrazo, Won-Yong Song, Connie Li, Denis Brochu, Anna Robotham, Wen Ding, Luc Tessier, Rui Chen, John Kelly, Warren Wakarchuk
The actinobacterial species Cellulomonas fimi ATCC484 has long been known to secrete mannose-containing proteins, but a closer examination of glycoproteins associated with the cell has never been reported. Using ConA lectin chromatography and mass spectrometry we have surveyed the cell associated glycoproteome from C. fimi and collected detailed information on the glycosylation sites of 19 cell-associated glycoproteins. In addition, we have expressed a previously known C. fimi secreted cellulase, Celf_3184, (formerly CenA), a putative peptide prolyl-isomerase, Celf_2022, and a penicillin binding protein, Celf_0189, in the mannosylation capable host, Corynebacterium glutamicum...
March 21, 2023: Glycobiology
Diana Egorova, Yoshihiro Nomura, Shinji Miyata
Hyaluronan (HA) is a central component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the brain and plays a pivotal role in neural development and plasticity. Brain HA exists in two distinct forms of the ECM: the diffuse ECM, which is soluble in saline and detergents, and the condensed ECM, which forms aggregates, such as perineuronal nets. Although the physiological functions of HA significantly differ depending on its size, size differences in HA have not yet been examined in the two ECM types, which is partly due to the lack of methods to rapidly and accurately measure the molecular weight (MW) of HA...
March 16, 2023: Glycobiology
Hao Cui, Qingwen Li, Peipei Wang, Jianping Fang
Heparin, a highly sulfated and epimerized form of heparan sulfate, is a linear polysaccharide with anticoagulant activity widely used in the clinic to prevent and treat thrombotic diseases. However, there are several noteworthy drawbacks associated with animal-sourced heparin during the preparation process. The in vitro enzymatic synthesis of heparin has become a promising substitute for animal-derived heparin. The synthesis of bioengineered heparin involves recombinant expression and preparation of polymerases, sulfotransferases, and an epimerase...
March 13, 2023: Glycobiology
Michael Boyce, Stacy A Malaker, Nicholas M Riley, Jennifer J Kohler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2023: Glycobiology
Katherine F Warfel, Eugénie Laigre, Sarah E Sobol, Emilie Gillon, Annabelle Varrot, Olivier Renaudet, Jerome Dejeu, Michael C Jewett, Anne Imberty
Lectins are important biological tools for binding glycans, but recombinant protein expression poses challenges for some lectin classes, limiting the pace of discovery and characterization. To discover and engineer lectins with new functions, workflows amenable to rapid expression and subsequent characterization are needed. Here, we present bacterial cell-free protein synthesis as a means for efficient, small-scale expression of multivalent, disulfide bond-rich, rhamnose-binding lectins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the cell-free expressed lectins can be directly coupled with bio-layer interferometry (BLI) analysis, either in solution or immobilized on the sensor, to measure interaction with carbohydrate ligands without purification...
March 7, 2023: Glycobiology
Gaurang P Bhide, Natalie E Bohrer, Danying Song, Jeanne Cabel, Marc R Lake, John E Harlan, Laura J Miesbauer
Monoclonal antibodies comprise a major class of biologic therapeutics and are also extensively studied in immunology. Given the importance of glycans on antibodies, fluorescent labeling of enzymatically released glycans and their LC/MS analysis is routinely used for in-depth characterization of antibody glycosylation. In this technical note, we propose a method for facile characterization of glycans in the variable region of antibodies using sequential enzymatic digests with Endoglycosidase-S2 and Rapid™ Peptide-N-Glycosidase-F followed by labeling with a fluorescent dye carrying an NHS-carbamate moiety...
March 6, 2023: Glycobiology
Rohit Pujari, Shiv Kumar Dubey
Altered and aberrant glycosylation signatures have been linked to being a hallmark in a variety of human disorders including cancers. Cancer stem cells, capable of self-renewal and differentiation, have recently been credited with a unique notion of disease genesis and implicated as the cause for initiation and recurrence of the disease in a new regime of neoplastic transformations hypothesis. Many biomarkers relating to diagnostic and prognostic intents have been discovered using the ubiquitous and abundant surface glycan patterns on cancer stem cells...
March 2, 2023: Glycobiology
Jeet Vora, Rahi Navelkar, K Vijay-Shanker, Nathan Edwards, Karina Martinez, Xiying Ding, Tianyi Wang, Peng Su, Karen Ross, Frederique Lisacek, Catherine Hayes, Robel Kahsay, Rene Ranzinger, Michael Tiemeyer, Raja Mazumder
Recent technological advances in glycobiology have resulted in a large influx of data and the publication of many papers describing discoveries in glycoscience. However, the terms used in describing glycan structural features are not standardized, making it difficult to harmonize data across biomolecular databases, hampering the harvesting of information across studies and hindering text mining and curation efforts. To address this shortcoming, the Glycan Structure Dictionary has been developed as a reference dictionary to provide a standardized list of widely used glycan terms that can help in the curation and mapping of glycan structures described in publications...
February 17, 2023: Glycobiology
Freeha Kanwal, Dingxin Ren, Wajiha Kanwal, Mengying Ding, Junqing Su, Xiaoya Shang
Based on factual scientific health claims, prebiotics has gained significant importance in ever-growing food and pharmaceutical industries. The diverse nature of distinct prebiotics influences the host differently in distinguishable patterns. Functional oligosaccharides are either plant-derived or commercially prepared. Raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose are three types of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) that have been extensively used as medicine, cosmetic, and food additives. These dietary fiber fractions avert the adhesion and colonization by enteric pathogens and add nutrition metabolites for a healthy immune system...
February 16, 2023: Glycobiology
Fang Cheng, Lars-Åke Fransson, Katrin Mani
In Parkinson's disease there is accumulation of α-synuclein (SYN) aggregates in neurons, which is promoted by neuroinflammation. In neural cells, cytokine-induced SYN aggregation is modulated by heparan sulfate (HS) derived from glypican-1 (GPC1) by amyloid precursor protein (APP) and NO-dependent cleavage. We have explored possible interplay between APP, GPC1 and SYN in undifferentiated and differentiated neural progenitor cells (NPC) by modulating APP and GPC1 processing. Effects were monitored by immunofluorescence microscopy and slot immunoblotting using antibodies recognizing APP degradation products, HS released from GPC1, and SYN aggregates (SYNfil)...
February 15, 2023: Glycobiology
Farah Maarfi, Saheem Ahmad, Sultan Alouffi, Rihab Akasha, M Salman Khan, Zeeshan Rafi, Hemashri Basnet, Mohd Yasir Khan
Hyperglycemia is a poorly controlled diabetic condition, affects about 70 percent of people all round the world. In the year 2015, about 41.5 crore people were diabetic and is expected to reach around 64.3 crore by the year 2040. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are considered as one of the major risk factors that cause more than half of the death of diabetic patients and promote related comorbidities. Atherosclerosis and amyloidosis are the prime rudimentary cause associated with CVDs. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have protective action against CVDs, participate in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) mechanism and lipid metabolism, but gets easily glycated under prolonged hyperglycemic aura i...
February 10, 2023: Glycobiology
Meenakshi B Tellis, Hemlata M Kotkar, Rakesh S Joshi
Trehalose is a major circulatory sugar in the haemolymph of insects. It provides instant energy and protection against stress. Trehalose metabolism is associated with insect growth and development. The architecture and spatio-temporal expression dynamics of trehalose metabolism and transport genes are key for regulation. These genes are controlled by various transcription factors, largely linked to nutrition, insect development, and metamorphosis. Also, trehalose levels are affected by substrate affinities and modifications of enzymes involved in the pathway...
February 10, 2023: Glycobiology
Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Osamu Shimomura, Tatsuya Oda, Keiko Hiemori, Kayoko Shimizu, Kenya Yamase, Mutsuhiro Date, Hiroaki Tateno
Early detection is urgently needed to improve the patient's pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) survival. Previously, we identified a novel tumor-associated glycan, H-type3, which is expressed on PDAC cells and is detected by rBC2LCN lectin. Here, we identified that SERPINA3 is an rBC2LCN-reactive glycoprotein (BC2-S3) secreted from PDAC cells into the blood in patients with PDAC by LC-MS/MS analysis and lectin blotting. In immune staining, BC2-S3 was detected specifically in the tumor, but not in normal tissues of PDAC...
February 2, 2023: Glycobiology
Sarah Okun, Allyson Peek, Suleiman A Igdoura
Sialidases are found in viruses, bacteria, fungi, avians, and mammals. Mammalian sialidases differ in their specificity, optimum pH, subcellular localization, and tissue expression. To date, four genes encoding mammalian sialidases (NEU1-4) have been cloned. This review examines the functional impact of NEU4 sialidase on complex physiological and cellular processes. The intracellular localization and trafficking of NEU4 and its potential target molecules are discussed along with its impact on cancer, lysosomal storage disease, and cellular differentiation...
February 2, 2023: Glycobiology
Yongjing Xie, Michael Butler
With the global spread of the corona virus disease-2019 pandemic, new spike variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continuously emerge due to increased possibility of virus adaptive amino acid mutations. However, the N-glycosylation profiles of different spike variants are yet to be explored extensively, although the spike protein is heavily glycosylated and surface glycans are well-established to play key roles in viral infection and immune response. Here, we investigated quantitatively the N-glycosylation profiles of seven major emerging spike variants including Original, Alpha (B...
February 1, 2023: Glycobiology
Steven J Berardinelli, Andrew R Sillato, Richard C Grady, Sanjiv Neupane, Atsuko Ito, Robert S Haltiwanger, Bernadette C Holdener
Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) is a secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates a variety of cellular and physiological processes. THBS1's diverse functions are attributed to interactions between the modular domains of THBS1 with an array of proteins found in the extracellular matrix. THBS1's three Thrombospondin Type 1 Repeats (TSRs) domains are modified with O-linked glucose-fucose disaccharide and C-mannose. It is unknown whether these modifications impact trafficking and/or function of THBS1 in vivo...
January 31, 2023: Glycobiology
Jacob Melamed, Inka Brockhausen
The O157:H7 strain of Escherichia coli is responsible for frequent outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis worldwide. Its lipopolysaccharide is a virulence factor and contains an O antigen having repeating units with the tetrasaccharide structure [2-D-PerNAcα1-3-L-Fucα1-4-D-Glcβ1-3-D-GalNAcα1-]n. Genes encoding glycosyltransferases WbdN, WbdO, and WbdP are responsible for the biosynthesis of this repeating unit. We have previously characterized the second enzyme in the pathway, WbdN, which transfers Glc in β1-3 linkage to GalNAcα-O-PO3-PO3-(CH2)11-O-Ph (GalNAc-PP-PhU)...
January 28, 2023: Glycobiology
Kebo Cai, Qihang Chen, Danfang Shi, Sijing Huang, Cong Wang, Zhilong Ai, Jianhai Jiang
The monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is an early step in chronic inflammation. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is regarded as a master regulator of inflammation development. However, the significance of IFN-γ in the monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that IFN-γ increased PD-L1 transcription in endothelial cells through IRF-1 transcription factor, and subsequently enhanced the adhesion of monocyte to endothelial cells. PD-L1 in endothelial cells interacted with CD169/Siglec 1 in monocyte depending on the α2,3-sialylation of PD-L1...
January 18, 2023: Glycobiology
Troels Boldt Rømer, Fawzi Khoder-Agha, Mikkel Koed Møller Aasted, Noortje de Haan, Sabrina Horn, August Dylander, Tao Zhang, Emil Marek Heymans Pallesen, Sally Dabelsteen, Manfred Wuhrer, Christine Flodgaard Høgsbro, Emil Aagaard Thomsen, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Hans H Wandall
In epithelial cancers, truncated O-glycans, such as the Thomson-nouveau antigen (Tn) and its sialylated form (STn), are up-regulated on the cell surface and associated with poor prognosis and immunological escape. Recent studies have shown that these carbohydrate epitopes facilitate cancer development and can be targeted therapeutically; however, the mechanism underpinning their expression remains unclear. To identify genes directly influencing the expression of cancer-associated O-glycans, we conducted an unbiased, positive-selection, whole genome CRISPR knockout-screen using monoclonal antibodies against Tn and STn...
January 16, 2023: Glycobiology
Amanda L Lewis, Philip Toukach, Evan Bolton, Xi Chen, Martin Frank, Thomas Lütteke, Yuriy Knirel, Ian Schoenhofen, Ajit Varki, Evgeny Vinogradov, Robert J Woods, Natasha Zachara, Jian Zhang, Johannis P Kamerling, Sriram Neelamegham
Nonulosonic acids or non-2-ulosonic acids (NulOs) are an ancient family of 2-ketoaldonic acids (α-ketoaldonic acids) with a 9-carbon backbone. In nature, these monosaccharides occur either in a 3-deoxy form (referred to as "sialic acids") or in a 3,9-dideoxy "sialic-acid-like" form. The former sialic acids are most common in the deuterostome lineage, including vertebrates, and mimicked by some of their pathogens. The latter sialic-acid-like molecules are found in bacteria and archaea. NulOs are often prominently positioned at the outermost tips of cell surface glycans, and have many key roles in evolution, biology and disease...
January 15, 2023: Glycobiology
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