Marie d'Amours, Farah Ettis, Lauriane Ginefri, Johnny Lim, Angela-Sinlan Lin Poo Yuan, Jennifer Fontaine, Dana Wazzan, David Williamson, Vincent Dagenais-Beaulé
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Psychotropic medications are frequently prescribed during acute care, even in older patients. They represent a risk for inappropriate long-term use and increase the overall risk of morbidity and mortality in this population. Our project aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a psychotropic medication stewardship program led by pharmacists. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational pilot study in patients aged 75 years and older, admitted to a surgical unit with at least one active prescription of a psychotropic medication (antipsychotic, benzodiazepine or non-benzodiazepine receptor agonist)...
September 27, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Amie Blaszczyk, Nicole Brandt, Jeremy Ashley, Nancy Tuders, Hannah Doles, Richard G Stefanacci
Dysphagia is increasingly common in older adults; it is especially prevalent in long-term care settings. Patients with dysphagia likely require pharmacologic treatment for multiple comorbidities but may find it difficult or impossible to swallow oral medications. Administering crushed medications mixed with a soft food or liquid vehicle, or via a feeding tube, is a common strategy to circumvent swallowing difficulties in patients with dysphagia. However, inappropriate medication use and improper crushing technique can reduce the medication dose a patient receives, alter medication pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and compromise treatment efficacy and patient safety...
September 14, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Shelly L Gray, Subashan Perera, Tim Soverns, Joseph T Hanlon
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that interventions to optimize medication use reduced adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by 21% and serious ADRs by 36% in older adults. With new evidence, we sought to update the systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD: We searched OVID, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar from 30 April 2017-30 April 2023. Included studies had to be randomized controlled trials of older adults (mean age ≥65 years) taking medications that examined the outcome of ADRs...
September 13, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Samuel W Terman, Joshua D Niznik, Matthew E Growdon, Lauren B Gerlach, James F Burke
BACKGROUND: Data comprehensively examining trends in central nervous system (CNS)-active polypharmacy are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to characterize the composition of and trends in CNS-active medication use in US adults. METHODS: We included all participants ≥ 18 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES), 2009-2020. The primary outcome was the percent of adults with CNS-active polypharmacy. This was defined as ≥ 3 medications among antidepressants [tricyclic, selective and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and SNRIs), opioids, antiepileptics, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonists ("Z-drugs")]...
September 11, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Nadine Bittner, Cleo S M Funk, Alexander Schmidt, Felix Bermpohl, Eva J Brandl, Engi E A Algharably, Reinhold Kreutz, Thomas G Riemer
BACKGROUND: The acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine are commonly used in the management of various forms of dementia. OBJECTIVES: While these drugs are known to induce classic cholinergic adverse events such as diarrhea, their potential to cause psychiatric adverse events has yet to be thoroughly examined. METHODS: We sought to determine the risk of psychiatric adverse events associated with the use of AChEIs through a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials involving patients with Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's dementia...
September 8, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Karl Sebastian Johansson, Tonny Studsgaard Petersen, Mikkel Bring Christensen, Anton Pottegård
INTRODUCTION: Certain clinical events reduce life expectancy and necessitate a reassessment of patient treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe medication changes in relation to a cancer diagnosis and the end of life and to highlight challenges and limitations with such descriptions. METHODS: From a cohort with all Danish patients with type 2 diabetes, we matched patients with incident cancer during 2000-2021 (n = 41,745) with patients without cancer (n = 166,994) using propensity scores...
September 1, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Udit Saraf, Amit Batla, Ryuji Sakakibara, Jalesh N Panicker
Lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms are a common presentation of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Symptoms significantly impact quality of life and are associated with worsening of motor symptoms and increased risk for falls. Different medical co-morbidities can often contribute to LUT symptoms, and a thorough evaluation therefore becomes essential. The effects of medications used for Parkinson's disease and other co-existing medical co-morbidities on LUT symptoms is often underestimated. Treatment options include behavioural therapy, oral agents such as antimuscarinic and beta-3 receptor agonist agents, botulinum toxin and neuromodulation...
August 31, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Chukwuma Okoye, Tessa Mazzarone, Cristina Cargiolli, Daniela Guarino
Loop diuretics (LDs) represent the cornerstone treatment for relieving pulmonary congestion in patients with heart failure (HF). Their benefit is well-recognized in the short term because of their ability to eliminate fluid retention. However, long term, they could adversely influence prognosis due to activation of the neurohumoral mechanism, particularly in older, frail patients. Moreover, the advent of new drugs capable of improving outcomes and reducing pulmonary and systemic congestion signs in HF emphasizes the possibility of a progressive reduction and discontinuation of LD treatment...
August 25, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Alessio Novella, Chiara Elli, Aladar Ianes, Luca Pasina
BACKGROUND: Medications with anticholinergic effects are commonly used in nursing homes, and their cumulative effect is of particular concern for the risk of adverse effects on cognition. OBJECTIVE: The relation between cognitive function and anticholinergic burden measured with four scales, the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) Scale, the Anticholinergic Risk Scale, the German Anticholinergic Burden Scale, and the CRIDECO Anticholinergic Load Scale, is assessed according to the hypothesis that a higher anticholinergic burden is associated with reduced cognitive performance...
August 24, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Xiyuan Zhou, Ge Yang, Xuejun Chen, Lixia Zhang
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis presents unique challenges in the older population owing to age-related changes in skin barrier function and immune regulation. However, there is limited evidence on the efficacy and safety of dupilumab, an anti-interleukin-4Rα monoclonal antibody, in patients with atopic dermatitis aged 80 years and above. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of dupilumab treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis aged 80 years and above...
August 23, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Dee Mangin, Larkin Lamarche, Jeffrey A Templeton, Jennifer Salerno, Henry Siu, Johanna Trimble, Abbas Ali, Jobin Varughese, Amy Page, Christopher Etherton-Beer
BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy, particularly among older adults, is gaining recognition as an important risk to health. The harmful effects on health arise from disease-drug and drug-drug interactions, the cumulative burden of side effects from multiple medications and the burden to the patient. Single-disease clinical guidelines fail to consider the complex reality of optimising treatments for patients with multiple morbidities and medications. Efforts have been made to develop and implement interventions to reduce the risk of harmful effects, with some promising results...
August 21, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Kaiyan Hu, Gang Zhou, Mengyao Jiang, Xiaohong Wei, Jing Yu, Li Liu, Zhe Wang, Liyuan Feng, Mei Wu, Tao Li, Bin Ma
BACKGROUND: Managing hypertension in frail older patients is challenging. Several institutions and organizations have published up-to-date hypertension guidelines suggesting frailty screening among older hypertensive patients, with new recommendations for blood pressure-lowering treatment among the frail population. However, the quality of current hypertension guidelines and the consistency of antihypertension treatment recommendations for frail older patients and their supporting evidence remain unknown...
August 18, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Minnie Merrick, Robert Grange, Sarah Rudd, David Shipway
In the context of an ageing population, the demographic sands of trauma are shifting. Increasingly, trauma units are serving older adults who have sustained injuries in low-energy falls from a standing height. Older age is commonly associated with changes in physiology, as well as an increased prevalence of frailty and multimorbidity, including cardiac, renal and liver disease. These factors can complicate the safe and effective administration of analgesia in the older trauma patient. Trauma services therefore need to adapt to meet this demographic shift and ensure that trauma clinicians are sufficiently skilled in treating pain in complex older people...
August 11, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Liam Murad, David Bouhadana, David-Dan Nguyen, Bilal Chughtai, Kevin C Zorn, Naeem Bhojani, Dean S Elterman
Benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) is a prevalent condition that affects men, primarily toward their old age. The condition is often accompanied by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which can significantly impair a patient's quality of life and lead to other medical complications. Accurate diagnosis of BPO is essential for effective management of complications secondary to BPO, and treatment plans should be tailored patients, and occasionally according to surgeon experience. As such, this literature review aims to analyze the current available data on male LUTS secondary to BPO by providing a comprehensive overview of relevant studies, as well as the surgical and medical management guidelines from the Canadian Urological Association (CUA), American Urological Association (AUA), and European Association of Urology (EAU)...
August 9, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Sandy Maumus-Robert, Ana Jarne-Munoz, Marie Tournier, Bernard Bégaud, Antoine Pariente
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines (including zolpidem and zopiclone) are often associated with higher-than-recommended intake and durations of use, especially in older adults. The objective of this study was to characterize trajectories of benzodiazepine use according to recommended patterns in older adults, and to assess predictors of the risk of developing each of these trajectories. METHODS: Using the French Health Insurance database, we constituted a cohort of adults aged ≥ 65 years who initiated benzodiazepines in 2007 and were followed for up to 8 years...
August 8, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Miles D Witham, Antoneta Granic, Ewan Pearson, Sian M Robinson, Avan A Sayer
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle strength and mass or quality, is a common condition with major adverse consequences. Although the pathophysiology is incompletely understood, there are common mechanisms between sarcopenia and the phenomenon of accelerated ageing seen in diabetes mellitus. Drugs currently used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus may have mechanisms of action that are relevant to the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, for those with type 2 diabetes and those without diabetes. This review summarises shared pathophysiology between sarcopenia and diabetes mellitus, including the effects of advanced glycation end products, mitochondrial dysfunction, chronic inflammation and changes to the insulin signalling pathway...
July 24, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Marie Perret, Aurélie Bertaut, Julie Niogret, Sophie Marilier, Pierre Jouanny, Patrick Manckoundia, Leïla Bengrine-Lefevre, Valérie Quipourt, Jérémy Barben
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) significantly improves the prognosis for an increasing number of cancers. However, data on geriatric populations taking ICB are rare. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify factors associated with the efficacy and tolerance of ICB in an older population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective monocentric study included consecutive patients aged ≥ 70 years with solid cancer who received ICB between January 2018 and December 2019...
July 10, 2023: Drugs & Aging
Amie Taggart Blaszczyk, Monica Mathys, Jennifer Le
One-third of older adults with depression meet criteria for treatment resistance, typically defined as a lack of response to two or more adequate trials of an antidepressant. Treatment resistance contributes to an unfavorable prognosis, compromised medical outcomes, heightened disability, accelerated cognitive decline, and an elevated risk of developing dementia. Despite this significant morbidity, evidence is sparse for how to proceed with treatment in this population. Non-pharmacologic therapy (e.g., diet, psychotherapy) can be utilized as adjunctive therapy, despite little published evidence of benefit, given that the risks are low...
September 2023: Drugs & Aging
Henry Ukachukwu Michael, Okechukwu Enechukwu, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Robyn Tamblyn, Lesley K Fellows, Nancy E Mayo
BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are commonly prescribed, especially to older adults. Anticholinergic burden scales (ABS) have been used to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple anticholinergics. However, studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the association between anticholinergic burden assessed with ABS and adverse clinical outcomes such as cognitive impairment, functional decline, and frailty. This review aims to identify gaps in research on the development, validation, and evaluation of ABS, and provide recommendations for future studies...
September 2023: Drugs & Aging
Gulistan Bahat, Serdar Ozkok, Mirko Petrovic
Aging is one of the most important factors associated with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) globally. In addition to traditional micro- and macrovascular complications, diabetes mellitus (DM) in older adults is of great importance due to its independent relationship with frailty, which is defined as a decline in functional reserves and vulnerability to stressors. Frailty assessment enables the determination of biological age, thus predicting potential complications in older adults and identifying tailored treatment strategies...
September 2023: Drugs & Aging
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