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International Journal of Legal Medicine

Man Chen, He Ren, Zhiyong Liu, Jing Zhao, Chong Chen, Yan Shi, Li Jia, Feng Cheng, Tong Chen, Qingwei Fan, Yaran Yang, Yacheng Liu, Gengqian Zhang, Jiangwei Yan
The above article was published online with incorrect author name.
April 22, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Samia Saleem, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Muhammad Shafique, Aqsa Rubab, Faqeeha Javed, Tayyab Husnain
This population data pertains to 250 unrelated male residents of the Christian population of Lahore, Pakistan. AmpF/STR®Yfiler PCR amplification kit was utilized for evaluation of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs loci. Ancestral lineages and parameters of forensic importance were examined leading to recognition of 135 unique out of 175 total haplotypes with diversity value of 0.991. All Y-STRs portrayed high discrimination power where DYS385 depicted the maximum value of 0.917. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) were generated using YHRD (Y-Chromosome STR Haplotype Reference Database) tools...
April 17, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Brendan Le Daré, Sophie Allard, Renaud Bouvet, Alain Baert, Pierre-Marie Allard, Isabelle Morel, Thomas Gicquel
Acebutolol is a β1-selective adrenergic receptor antagonist with moderate membrane-stabilizing activity and intrinsic sympathomimetic activity; accordingly, the drug is indicated in hypertension, angina pectoris, and arrhythmia. However, acebutolol's beta-blocking properties also extend the QRS and QTc intervals, and may predispose the patient to ventricular tachydysrhythmia. Here, we report autopsy and toxicological findings on a fatal case of acebutolol self-poisoning in a 70-year-old woman. Toxicological analyses of post-mortem samples (using a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) method) highlighted high concentrations of acebutolol and its metabolite diacetolol in femoral blood (92...
April 17, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Xiyong Pan, Changhui Liu, Weian Du, Ling Chen, Xiaolong Han, Xingyi Yang, Chao Liu
This study aims to investigate the population-wide genetic data and forensic efficiency of 47 autosomal InDels in the four Chinese populations of Chinese Han, Tibetan, Uighur, and Chinese Hui. The allele frequencies and forensic parameters of the 47 InDels were investigated in 638 unrelated individuals from these four populations. The results can serve as a reference database that includes InDels in the populations, and they can contribute to population diversity studies.
April 17, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mari Metsäniitty, Janna Waltimo-Sirén, Helena Ranta, Steffen Fieuws, Patrick Thevissen
Estimation of an individual's age has important applications in forensics. In young individuals, it often relies on separate evaluations of permanent teeth (PT) and third molars (TM) development. Here, we analysed the age prediction performance of combined information from PT and TM in an unusual sample of healthy Somalis, born and living in Finland. PT development was staged according to Demirjian et al. (Hum Biol, 1973) and TM development according to Köhler et al. (Ann Anat, 1994), using panoramic radiographs from 803 subjects (397 males, 406 females) aged 3-23 years...
April 16, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Pengyu Chen, Li Luo, Hongyan Gao, Jian Wu, Yudan Wang, Guanglin He, Yanyan Han
Binary markers of insertion and deletion (InDel) play an important role in forensic personal identification, parentage testing, and individual ancestry inference. We first genotyped 30 InDels included in the Investigator DIPplex in 403 unrelated healthy Zunyi Miao people and analyzed the genetic polymorphisms, as well as explored the genetic relationship between Miao and 32 Chinese reference populations. No departures from the HWE were observed. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion were 0...
April 15, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Markéta Čechová, Ján Dupej, Jaroslav Brůžek, Šárka Bejdová, Martin Horák, Jana Velemínská
Sex estimation is a task of utmost importance in forensic anthropology and bioarcheology. Along with the pelvic bone, the skull is the most important source of sexual dimorphism. On the human skull, the upper third of the face (i.e., the frontal bone) is one of the most significant sexually dimorphic structures useful in anthropological research, especially when studied by methods of virtual anthropology. This study was focused on sex estimation using the form and shape of the external surface of the frontal bone with or without the inclusion of its sinuses...
April 14, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mohaimin Kasu, Jamie Fredericks, Mischa Fraser, Christiaan Labuschagne, Mpasi Lesaoana, Maria Eugenia D'Amato
In forensic casework, Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are essential for differentiating between unrelated males and resolving the male component of admixed biological evidence. While the majority of Y-STRs are adequate for discriminating between different paternal lineages, rapidly mutating Y-STRs are necessary for improving discrimination between males within populations of low Y-chromosome diversity and between paternal relatives. Alternatively, sequencing of Y-STRs may also improve the discrimination between isometric Y-STR alleles by identifying variation in the repeat unit pattern arrangements and by identifying SNPs in the flanking region or within the STR repeat unit itself...
April 13, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Xiaoxi Jing, Yanan Sun, Wenting Zhao, Xingjian Gao, Mi Ma, Fan Liu, Caixia Li
Accurate genomic profiling for adult height is of high practical relevance in forensics genetics. Adult height is a classical reference trait in the field of human complex trait genetics characterized by highly polygenic nature and relatively high heritability. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropocentric Traits (GIANT) consortium has identified 697 DNA variants associated with adult height in Europeans; however, whether these variants will still be informative in non-Europeans is still in question...
April 12, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Julia Becker, Nina Sophia Mahlke, A Reckert, S B Eickhoff, S Ritz-Timme
Several molecular modifications accumulate in the human organism with increasing age. Some of these "molecular clocks" in DNA and in proteins open up promising approaches for the development of methods for forensic age estimation. A natural limitation of these methods arises from the fact that the chronological age is determined only indirectly by analyzing defined molecular changes that occur during aging. These changes are not linked exclusively to the expired life span but may be influenced significantly by intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the complex process of individual aging...
April 11, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Vasiliki Chatzaraki, Jakob Heimer, Michael J Thali, Garyfalia Ampanozi, Wolf Schweitzer
PURPOSE: Pulmonary fat embolism (PFE) is a relevant diagnosis playing a role as a sign of vitality or a cause of death. Its severity is assessed according to histological grading systems like that of Falzi. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of unenhanced postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) for PFE diagnosis based on the detection of fat layers. METHODS: Consecutive cases with PMCT and autopsy were studied retrospectively. The case group consisted of cases with positive PFE, and the control group included cases with negative PFE...
April 10, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
D Botha, N Lynnerup, M Steyn
Population variation of several microscopic structures used in age-at-death estimation was assessed for three different population samples. The aim of the study was to determine if the need exists for population-specific standards when dealing with individuals of African and European origin. A total sample 223 bone sections from the anterior cortex of the femur (n = 99 black South Africans, n = 94 white South Africans and n = 30 Danish individuals) were analysed using a stereological protocol. Variables assessed included the average number of osteons per grid area (OPD), osteon size and Haversian canal size...
April 9, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Yayoi Aoki, Tomoya Ikeda, Naoto Tani, Alissa Shida, Shigeki Oritani, Takaki Ishikawa
We reported the first comprehensive autopsy case of death due to intravenous injection of nicotine. We examined the distribution of nicotine in the body tissues and fluid and exposed the pathophysiology of nicotine poisoning. A 19-year-old woman was rushed to the hospital in cardiorespiratory arrest and was confirmed dead upon arrival. Liquid nicotine, hydrogen peroxide water, and a syringe were found in the hotel room where she stayed. On autopsy, nicotine concentration was the highest (15,023 μg/mg) in the tissue around the injection mark on the right upper arm...
April 7, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Hyojeong Kim, Donghun Lee, Ahra Go, Meejung Park, Sanggil Choi, Sanghwan In, Eunmi Kim, Hunjoo Lee, Kyung-Hoon Shin, Eunyoung Han
Gamma (γ)-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been reported to be an endogenous compound in the mammalian brain. It used to treat symptoms of alcohol, opioid, and drug withdrawal and cataplexy of narcolepsy. However, it is often used for criminal purposes because it is colorless, tasteless, and has short half-life. For this reason, there is a need for a method of distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous GHB administration. Therefore, urine from rat before administration of GHB and GHB urine after the single intraperitoneal injection of GHB as 60 mg/100 g were collected from Sprague-Dawley rats (7 weeks old, 10 males and females)...
April 2, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Man Chen, He Ren, Zhiyong Liu, Jing Zhao, Chong Chen, Yan Shi, Li Jia, Feng Cheng, Tong Chen, Qingwei Fan, Yaran Yang, Yacheng Liu, Genqian Zhang, Jiangwei Yan
As a supplementary tool in forensic cases, X chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) might bridge large pedigree gaps and bring inspiration to forensic practices for the special mode of inheritance. To standardize the application of X-STRs, the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) presented recommendations concentrating on biostatistical evaluations. Following this guideline, in this study, 1247 (655 females and 592 males) unrelated individuals and 770 families originating from a Han Chinese population of Beijing were investigated with 16 X-STRs...
April 1, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Simone Bohnert, Benjamin Ondruschka, Michael Bohnert, Michael K Schuhmann, Camelia-Maria Monoranu
Due to its protected anatomical location, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a very stable fluid which undergoes comparatively little change in the early post-mortem phase. While many immunohistochemical markers already established for clinical diagnostic issues in tissue samples obtained by biopsy could meanwhile be translated also to post-mortem tissue, no systematic immunocytochemical investigations have generally been conducted on post-mortem body fluids and for CSF specifically, have not been established at all...
March 29, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Verena Wilmes, Stefanie Scheiper, Winta Roehr, Constanze Niess, Stefan Kippenberger, Katja Steinhorst, Marcel A Verhoff, Silke Kauferstein
Increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression has been reported in heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and arteriosclerosis. iNOS is expressed in the heart upon inflammatory stimuli and produces excessive amounts of nitric oxide (NO). The overproduction of NO is cytotoxic and involved in cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, iNOS produces superoxide anion which proceeds with NO to the harmful oxidant peroxynitrite, causing oxidative stress in the heart. The aim of the study was to gain new insights into the role of iNOS in human myocardial infarction (MI) and its contribution to oxidative stress in the heart...
March 29, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Danyan Zhang, Gang Cao, Mingkun Xie, Xuejun Cui, Li Xiao, Chenchen Tian, Yi Ye
Y Chromosomal short-tandem repeats (Y-STRs) provide valuable information that can be used for forensic investigation and population studies. The Yfiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit allows the multiplex amplification of 27 Y-STRs, including seven rapidly mutating markers. With the kit, 447 unrelated males of three minorities (161 Uyghurs, 130 Kazakhs and 156 Huis) from the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China were analysed in this study. The gene diversity values of the 27 Y-STRs in the Uyghur, Kazakh and Hui groups ranged from 0...
March 29, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Fabio De-Giorgio, Matteo Nardini, Federica Foti, Eleonora Minelli, Massimiliano Papi, Ernesto d'Aloja, Vincenzo L Pascali, Marco De Spirito, Gabriele Ciasca
Forensic estimation of post-mortem interval relies on different methods, most of which, however, have practical limitations or provide insufficient results, still lacking a gold standard method. In order to better understand the phenomenon of rigor mortis and its applicability to the post-mortem interval estimation, we decided to use atomic force microscopy, a tool often employed to measure mechanical properties of adherent cells. Thus, we surgically removed skeletal muscle samples of three forensic cases from 0 to 120 h post-mortem and quantitatively evaluate two parameters: the Young's modulus (E), which gives information about the sample stiffness, and the hysteresis (H), which estimates the contribution of viscous forces...
March 27, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mukesh Sunmansingh Batham, K P S Kushwaha, Tanya Chauhan, R K Kumawat, Pankaj Shrivastava
We report here the genomic portrait of Kahar population of Uttar Pradesh, India, drawn by 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in PowerPlex® 21 multiplex system from 147 unrelated individuals.The combined discrimination power (CPD) and combined exclusion power (CPE) observed a value of 1 for all the tested 20 autosomal STR loci. Locus Penta E showed the highest power of discrimination (0.976) in the studied population, whereas TPOX showed the lowest (0.851). The study presents the first global report on genetic data of Kahar population and comparison at common loci with the previously published population...
March 27, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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