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Zhifu Shen, Siyi Yu, Minyu Wang, Tianwei She, Ya Yang, Yanan Wang, Wei Wei, Xiaoli Guo, Youping Hu, Fanrong Liang, Jie Yang
Neuroimaging studies have manifested functional abnormalities in pain-related brain regions in patients with primary dysmenorrhea (PDM). However, as the key region in brain pain matrix, whether and how the amygdala functional network alteration in PDM is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity (AFC) network alteration in patients with PDM during ovulatory period. Thirty-six PDM patients and 35 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The AFC was constructed using amygdala-based functional connectivity using resting-state functional MRI data...
February 11, 2019: Neuroreport
Jee Su Suh, Luciano Minuzzi, Lauren E Cudney, William Maich, Maha Eltayebani, Claudio N Soares, Benicio N Frey
Thickness of the cerebral cortex has been previously investigated for its potential as a biomarker in major depressive disorder (MDD). This is the first study to examine the longitudinal effects of a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS), on whole-brain cortical thickness (CT) in patients treated for MDD. We also aimed to replicate a previous finding of an association between improvement in clinical severity and CT in one of five predefined regions-of-interest (ROI). Twenty-five individuals with MDD received treatment with DVS (50 mg/day) for 8 weeks, with 19 completing the study...
February 7, 2019: Neuroreport
Xiao-Min Zhang, Ling-Zhi Wang, Bo He, Yu-Ke Xiang, Li-Xia Fan, Qin Wang, Liang Tao
Gap junctions (GJs) are novel molecular targets for pain therapeutics due to their pain-promoting function. INI-0602, a new GJ inhibitor, exerts a neuroprotective role, while its role in neuropathic pain is unclear. The objective was to investigate the analgesic role and mechanisms of INI-0602 in neuropathic pain induced by spared nerve injury (SNI), and whether INI-0602 attenuated pain-induced depression-like behaviors. Rats were randomly assigned to saline treatment groups (sham+NS and SNI+NS) or INI-0602 treatment groups (sham+INI-0602 and SNI+INI-0602)...
February 7, 2019: Neuroreport
Amairani Ruíz-Díaz, Joaquín Manjarrez, Concepción Nava-Ruíz, Verónica Zaga-Clavellina, Pilar Flores-Espinosa, Araceli Díaz-Ruíz, Petra Yescas-Gómez, Marisela Méndez-Armenta
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder of the central nervous system characterized by hypersynchronized neuronal activity and has been associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress interferes with the expression of genes as well as transcriptional factors such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). We evaluated the expression of Nrf2 in the rat brain in treated with kainic acid (KA) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Nrf2 immunoreactivity was observed in astrocytes of the hippocampal region in rats exposed at KA...
February 4, 2019: Neuroreport
Kazuki Ohuchi, Michinori Funato, Shiori Ando, Satoshi Inagaki, Arisu Sato, Chizuru Kawase, Junko Seki, Shinsuke Nakamura, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideo Kaneko, Hideaki Hara
Survival motor neuron (SMN) deficiency indicates that various cellular processes are impaired in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Previous reports have shown that SMN deficiency causes motor neuron degeneration, whereas the numbers of astrocytes and microglia are significantly increased or activated in SMA model systems. Only a few groups have studied the role of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineages such as OL precursor cell and nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2)-glia in SMA pathology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether OL lineages are impaired in SMA model systems...
February 4, 2019: Neuroreport
Yuxin He, Huiying Yan, Hongbin Ni, Weibang Liang, Wei Jin
Secondary brain injury imposes great effects on the prognosis of patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Accumulating evidence suggests that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) could play a neuroprotective role in experimental TBI models by regulating the expression of numerous antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective proteins. However, whether Nrf2 is activated in patients following TBI is still unknown. In this study, human brain tissues were obtained during surgery from patients suffering from TBI...
February 4, 2019: Neuroreport
Mai Oda, Hajime Ogino, Yoshihiro Kubo, Osamu Saitoh
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) from tetrapod vertebrates except rodents are activated by high temperature with a relatively clear threshold. Our recent investigation suggested that a gradual heat activation without clear threshold might be a common feature for TRPA1 of fish. To approach which animal first acquires TRPA1 as a threshold detector instead of a gradual heat sensor, here, we focused on TRPA1 from axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum). We isolated a full-length cDNA of axolotl transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (axTRPA1) and studied the functional properties by two-electrode voltage clamp method using Xenopus oocytes...
January 29, 2019: Neuroreport
Pan Meng, Qing Zhu, Hui Yang, Dan Liu, Xiaoyuan Lin, Jian Liu, Jingying Fan, Xiaodan Liu, Wei Su, Lin Liu, Yuhong Wang, Xiong Cai
Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that affects almost 10% of children and adolescents worldwide. Numerous synthetic chemical antidepressants used to treat depression have adverse side effects. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches for depression treatment are urgently needed. Leonurus cardiaca has recently been shown to be effective for the treatment of nervous system diseases such as depression, but its mechanism is not clear. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanism underlying leonurine's antidepressant activity...
January 28, 2019: Neuroreport
Tingting Zhou, Jingjing Zhuang, Zhiwei Wang, Yaodong Zhou, Wen Li, Zhimin Wang, Zhiyuan Zhu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder correlated with age, characterized by the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important protein that regulates Aβ clearance and tau phosphorylation. Therefore, mTOR has become a pivotal therapeutic target for AD treatment. In this study, we discovered a natural product, glaucocalyxin A (GLA), as a new mTOR inhibitor based on a high-throughput screening platform with α-screen technology against our natural product library...
January 25, 2019: Neuroreport
Liusheng Wang, Ting Liu, Yan Chen, Ruitao Zhong, Haiyan Zhang, Meijuan Dai
A number of studies have found a concreteness effect and an abstractness effect in word processing. The triple-component hypothesis proposed that the emotional aspect of words, such as the valence of words, contributes to the abstractness effect. Although there is no direct evidence for the role of affective characteristics of individuals in the abstractness effect, some studies have found a negative bias of highly neurotic individuals. The current study was designed to examine the abstractness effect of words for individuals who were highly neurotic...
January 25, 2019: Neuroreport
Xiang Yu, Kaiming Zeng, Xing Liu, Yi Peng, Chunhua Li, Ke Fu, Hui Liang
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine expressed in the skin, gut, lungs, and thymus. TSLP triggers dendritic cell-mediated T helper 2 inflammatory responses by formation of a ternary complex consisting of a heterodimer of interleukin-7 (IL-7) receptor α chain (IL-7Rα), TSLP, and the TSLP receptor chain (TSLPR). The present study aimed to investigate the expression of this ternary complex and its interaction with signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) in a ischemic stroke model using middle cerebral artery occlusion...
January 22, 2019: Neuroreport
Hua Li, Xuhui Li, Wei Luo, Xiaolong Zhu
This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of (Z)-7,4'-dimethoxy-6-hydroxy-aurone-4-O-β-glucopyranoside (DHG) against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage in PC12 cells and further evaluated its effects on doxorubicin-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats. PC12 cells were treated with different concentrations of DHG (1-10 µM) for 24 h and then exposed to 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide for 12 h. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay...
January 22, 2019: Neuroreport
Rui Huang, Jun Zhang, Changjun Ren, Xuhui Zhang, Licai Gu, Yan Dong, Juan Zhang, Jing Zhang
Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) occurs due to intrauterine hypoxia ischemia influencing the energy supply for fetal brain cells, which affects the metabolism of the brain to make the brain suffer a severe damage. Erythropoietin (EPO), which regulates hemacytopoiesis, is a kind of cytokine. EPO is sensitive to hypoxia ischemia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of EPO on the expression of Fas/FasL in brain tissues of neonatal rats with HIBD. Neonatal rats were assigned randomly to sham, HIBD, and EPO groups...
January 18, 2019: Neuroreport
Qie Shuyan, Gong Weijun, Xi Jianin, Wang Congxiao, Wang Luyi, Yue Shouwei
This study was aimed to investigate whether 4e-binding protein 1 is activated during temporal lobe epileptogenesis. We used the hippocampus of patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), diagnosed with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) or non-HS, to examine the distribution of phospho-4e-binding protein 1 (p4EBP1) by immunohistochemical staining (n=3-5). We also examined p4EBP1 in the kainic acid (KA)-induced mouse model of TLE before and after anticonvulsant treatment (n=3 per group). The results showed that the hippocampus of both patients with HS and KA mouse model displayed significantly upregulated p4EBP1 immunoreactivity in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes in hippocampus...
January 18, 2019: Neuroreport
Dengxin Zhang, Bingxin Xue, Jie You, Bin Zhang, Gaoshang Chai
Although it has been shown that sevoflurane exposure could impair the cognitive function, there are few effective treatments to prevent this disorder. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, plays an important role in hippocampal memory formation, which has been proven to enhance memory. As such, we explored whether SAHA could improve the memory impairment induced by sevoflurane in adult mice. In the present study, adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 6 h, and then the cognitive impairment in Morris water maze was found at 24 h after anesthesia...
January 18, 2019: Neuroreport
Phu V Tran
In vitro excitotoxic cell death experiments can be considered a screening model of stroke to evaluate the neuroprotective property of specific compounds. Survival of neurons following excitotoxicity is influenced by the neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor). Here, a novel 12 amino-acid peptide [AYKSYVRALPLL (TUF1)] with a high level of evolutionary conservation was assessed for its neuroprotective property in an in vitro model of glutamate-induced N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor hyperactivation and excitotoxicity...
January 14, 2019: Neuroreport
Ann-Katrin Wesslein, Ewald Naumann, Charles Spence, Christian Frings
Negative priming (NP) refers to the finding that responses to previously irrelevant stimuli are impeded relative to responses to new stimuli. To date, NP has been demonstrated in the visual, auditory, and tactile sensory modalities with both inhibitory processes and retrieval-based processes contributing to the effect. To gain deeper insights into the role of both processes, event-related potentials (ERPs) have been measured during NP tasks with visual and separately with auditory stimuli. The specific patterns of ERP correlates are mixed, yet it can generally be concluded from previous research that amplitudes of both the N2 and the P3 reflect important components of NP...
January 14, 2019: Neuroreport
Min Qiao, Qing-Song Jiang, Ying-Ju Liu, Xiao-Ya Hu, Li-Jia Wang, Qi-Xin Zhou, Hong-Mei Qiu
Venlafaxine (VEN) is a widely used antidepressant as a serotonin-reuptake and norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitor. It is used primarily in depression, especially with generalized anxiety disorder or chronic pain. This medicine is of interest because its mechanisms involved multiple aspects. In the current study, the antidepressant action of VEN was investigated by studying the histone acetylation and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in rats exposed to chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) for 28 days...
January 11, 2019: Neuroreport
Eun Jung Sohn, Yun-Kyeong Nam, Hwan Tae Park
Early growth response protein 2 (EGR2) is an essential transcription factor for peripheral nerve myelination. Schwann cells (SCs), the peripheral myelin-forming glial cells, express high levels of EGR2 during postnatal myelination. In contrast, SCs exhibit low EGR2 expression during Wallerian degeneration after injury. In this study, we screened 10 potential microRNAs (miRNAs) (20a-5p, 137-5p, 140-5p, 148b-3p, 150-5p, 17-5p, 93-5p, 20b-5p, 106b-5p, and 152-3p) that potentially target EGR2 using miRNA algorithms and identified that miRNAs 106b-5p, 140-5p, 93-5p, and 17-5p target EGR2 in SCs...
January 5, 2019: Neuroreport
Rui Yuan, Yu Wang, Qingyun Li, Fei Zhen, Xinyu Li, Qingwei Lai, Peng Hu, Xiao Wang, Yansha Zhu, Hongbin Fan, Ruiqin Yao
According to the previous research, metformin, a medication utilized for type 2 diabetes management, inhibits neural aging and reduces infarct size by enhancing angiogenesis in a mouse stroke model. What is more, metformin administration also promotes neural precursor cells proliferation, migration, as well as differentiation for newborn mice with hypoxia-ischemia brain injury. However, whether metformin regulates neurogenesis in an adult rat ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model remains unclear. The current research found that metformin administration reduced neuronal damage in the CA1 area of hippocampus in a rat model of I/R...
January 4, 2019: Neuroreport
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