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Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences

Hai T Vo, Mary L Phillips, Jeremy H Herskowitz, Gwendalyn D King
Klotho-deficient mice rapidly develop cognitive impairment and show some evidence of the onset of neurodegeneration. However, it is impossible to investigate the long-term consequences on the brain because of the dramatic shortening of lifespan caused by systemic klotho deficiency. As klotho expression is downregulated with advancing organismal age, understanding the mechanisms of klotho action is important for developing novel strategies to support healthy brain aging. Previously, we reported that klotho-deficient mice show enhanced long-term potentiation prior to the onset of cognitive impairment...
April 13, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
A Foster, D Scott, R Layfield, S L Rea
Elevated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). In response to oxidative stress, the Nrf2 transcription factor activates protective antioxidant genes. A critical regulator of Nrf2 is the inhibitory protein Keap1, which mediates Nrf2 degradation. In response to cellular stress an interaction between Keap1 and SQSTM1/p62 (p62), a signalling adaptor protein, allows for increased Nrf2 signalling as it escapes degradation...
April 4, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Darryll M A Oliver, P Hemachandra Reddy
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a central protagonist of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction stems from various factors including mitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species, membrane and ionic gradient destabilization, and interaction with toxic proteins such as amyloid beta (Aβ). Therapeutic drugs such as cholinesterase and glutamate inhibitors have proven to improve synaptic neurotransmitters, but do not address mitochondrial dysfunction. Researchers have demonstrated that oxidative damage may be reduced by increasing endogenous antioxidants, and/or increasing exogenous antioxidants such as vitamin C & E, beta-carotene and glutathione...
March 12, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Walid Albanna, Jan Niklas Lüke, Gerrit Alexander Schubert, Maxine Dibué-Adjei, Konstantin Kotliar, Jürgen Hescheler, Hans Clusmann, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Daniel Hänggi, Marcel A Kamp, Toni Schneider, Felix Neumaier
Elevated levels of unbound unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) can lead to bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus. In spite of a large number of studies demonstrating UCB-induced changes in central neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether these effects involve alterations in the function of specific ion channels. To assess how different UCB concentrations and UCB:albumin (U/A) molar ratios affect neuronal R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, we evaluated their effects on whole-cell currents through recombinant Cav 2...
March 12, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Heidi Matos, Raymond Quiles, Rodrigo Andrade, Maria Bykhovskaia
Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins that fine-tune synaptic transmission and suppress seizure activity. Synapsin II (SynII) deletion produces epileptic seizures and overexcitability in neuronal networks. Early studies in primary neuronal cultures have shown that SynII deletion results in a delay in synapse formation. More recent studies at hippocampal slices have revealed increased spontaneous activity in SynII knockout (SynII(-)) mice. To reconcile these observations, we systematically re-examined synaptic transmission, synapse formation, and neurite growth in primary hippocampal neuronal cultures...
March 8, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Paul Zeun, Rachael I Scahill, Sarah J Tabrizi, Edward J Wild
Huntington's disease is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative condition for which there is no disease-modifying treatment. The known genetic cause of Huntington's disease makes it possible to identify individuals destined to develop the disease and instigate treatments before the onset of symptoms. Multiple trials are already underway that target the cause of HD, yet clinical measures are often insensitive to change over typical clinical trial duration. Robust biomarkers of drug target engagement, disease severity and progression are required to evaluate the efficacy of treatments and concerted efforts are underway to achieve this...
February 23, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Kerstin Heurling, Nicholas J Ashton, Antoine Leuzy, Eduardo R Zimmer, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Jonas Eriksson, Mark Lubberink, Michael Schöll
Measuring synaptic density in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging-based biomarkers targeting the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) has received much attention recently due to its potential research and clinical applications in synaptopathies, including neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Fluid-based biomarkers in proteinopathies have previously been suggested to provide information on pathology and disease status that is complementary to PET-based measures, and the same can be hypothesized with respect to SV2A...
February 20, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
M V Turovskaya, S G Gaidin, V N Mal'tseva, V P Zinchenko, E A Turovsky
Cerebral blood flow disturbances lead to the massive death of brain cells. The death of >80% of cells is observed in hippocampal cell cultures after 40 min of oxygen and glucose deprivation (ischemia-like conditions, OGD). However, there are some populations of GABAergic neurons which are characterized by increased vulnerability to oxygen-glucose deprivation conditions. Using fluorescent microscopy, immunocytochemical assay, vitality tests and PCR-analysis, we have shown that population of GABAergic neurons are characterized by a different (faster) Ca2+ dynamics in response to OGD and increased basal ROS production under OGD conditions...
February 15, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Mariana Oliveira Mendes, Alexandra Isabel Rosa, Andreia Neves Carvalho, Maria João Nunes, Pedro Dionísio, Elsa Rodrigues, Daniela Costa, Sara Duarte-Silva, Patrícia Maciel, Cecília Maria Pereira Rodrigues, Maria João Gama, Margarida Castro-Caldas
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder, mainly characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and by the presence of intracellular inclusions, known as Lewy bodies. Despite SNpc being considered the primary affected region in PD, the neuropathological features are confined solely to the nigro-striatal axis. With disease progression other brain regions are also affected, namely the cerebral cortex, although the spreading of the neurologic damage to this region is still not completely unraveled...
February 13, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Anna Zaia Carolina Rodrigues, Zhong-Min Wang, María Laura Messi, Osvaldo Delbono
Increasing evidence indicates that, first, the sympathetic nervous system interacts extensively with both vasculature and skeletal muscle fibers near neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and, second, its neurotransmitter, noradrenaline, influences myofiber molecular composition and function and motor innervation. Since sympathomimetic agents have been reported to improve NMJ transmission, we examined whether two in clinical use, salbutamol and clenbuterol, affect the motor axon terminal via extracellular Ca2+ and molecular targets, such as TRPV1 and P/Q- and N-type voltage-activated Ca2+ channels...
February 11, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Juan José Casañas, Macarena González-Corrales, Jesús David Urbano-Gámez, Alexandra Alves-Sampaio, José Antonio Troca-Marín, María Luz Montesinos
Trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome (DS), is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual impairment. In mouse models of DS, deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity have been observed, in conjunction with alterations to local dendritic translation that are likely to influence plasticity, learning and memory. Here we show that expression of a local translational regulator, the Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Protein 1 (CPEB1), is enhanced in hippocampal neurons from the Ts1Cje DS mouse model...
February 11, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Shehla U Hridi, Aimée J P M Franssen, Hui-Rong Jiang, Trevor J Bushell
Interleukin 16 (IL-16) is a cytokine that is primarily associated with CD4+ T cell function, but also exists as a multi-domain PDZ protein expressed within cerebellar and hippocampal neurons. We have previously shown that lymphocyte-derived IL-16 is neuroprotective against excitotoxicity, but evidence of how it affects neuronal function is limited. Here, we have investigated whether IL-16 modulates neuronal excitability and synaptic activity in mouse primary hippocampal cultures. Application of recombinant IL-16 impairs both glutamate-induced increases in intracellular Ca2+ and sEPSC frequency and amplitude in a CD4- and CD9-independent manner...
February 6, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Isak Martinsson, Estibaliz Capetillo-Zarate, Mathilde Faideau, Katarina Willén, Noemi Esteras, Susanne Frykman, Lars O Tjernberg, Gunnar K Gouras
The normal role of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain remains incompletely understood. Previous studies have reported that lack of APP has detrimental effects on spines and electrophysiological parameters. APP has been described to be important in synaptic pruning during development. The effect of APP knockout on mature synapses is complicated by this role in development. We previously reported on differential changes in synaptic proteins and receptors in APP mutant AD transgenic compared to wild-type neurons, which revealed selective decreases in levels of pre- and post-synaptic proteins, including of surface glutamate receptors...
March 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Gabriela Delevati Colpo, Erin Furr Stimming, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder encoding a mutant form of the huntingtin protein (HTT). HD is pathologically characterized by loss of neurons in the striatum and cortex, which leads to progressive motor dysfunction, cognitive decline and behavioral symptoms. Stem cell-based therapy has emerged as a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and may be effective in alleviating and/or halting the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying HD...
January 24, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
A S M Hasan Mahmood, Santosh K Mandal, Khaggeswar Bheemanapally, Mostafa M H Ibrahim, K P Briski
The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is a critical component of the neural circuitry that regulates glucostasis. Astrocyte glycogen is a vital reserve of glucose and its oxidizable metabolite L-lactate. In hypoglycemic female rats, estradiol-dependent augmentation of VMN glycogen phosphorylase (GP) protein requires hindbrain catecholamine input. The research here investigated the premise that norepinephrine (NE) regulation of VMN astrocyte metabolism shapes local glucoregulatory neurotransmitter signaling in this sex...
January 17, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Megha Verma, Jay S Schneider
Reduced levels of brain gangliosides GD1a, GD1b, GT1b and to a lesser extent GM1 have been found in substantia nigra (SN) from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, along with decreased gene expression for key enzymes (B3Galt4, St3gal2) involved in synthesis of these gangliosides. Based on these observations, the present study examined the extent to which decreased expression of B3GALT4 mRNA and resulting decreased levels of GM1 ganglioside in dopaminergic cells may increase the vulnerability of these cells to degeneration in response to a neurotoxicant exposure that under normal circumstances would not result in neurodegeneration...
January 3, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Hiroshi Ueno, Kazuki Fujii, Keizo Takao, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Yosuke Matsumoto, Motoi Okamoto, Takeshi Ishihara
Aging is associated with decline in cognitive function, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Normal activity of pyramidal cells and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV neurons) is essential for cognitive function. PV neurons participate in the regulation of pyramidal-cell firing. Abnormal function of PV neurons may occur with aging. We analyzed the density and the percentage of PV neurons surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs) in the entire cortex of adult (3-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) mice...
January 2, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Ha-Lim Song, Atanas Vladimirov Demirev, Na-Young Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Seung-Yong Yoon
The number of neurofibrillary tangles containing abnormal hyperphosphorylated tau protein correlates with the degree of dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, autophagosome accumulation and disturbance of autophagy, the process by which toxic aggregate proteins are degraded in the cytosol, are also found in AD models. These indicate that regulation of the autophagy-lysosome system may be a potential therapeutic target for AD. Activation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome system gene transcription, reduces the amount of tau in APP mice...
December 27, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Oeystein Roed Brekk, Manousos Makridakis, Panagiota Mavroeidi, Antonia Vlahou, Maria Xilouri, Leonidas Stefanis
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a substrate-specific mode of lysosomal proteolysis, with multiple lines of evidence connecting its dysfunction to both ageing and disease. We have recently shown that CMA impairment through knock-down of the lysosomal receptor LAMP2A is detrimental to neuronal viability in vivo; however, it is not clear which subset of proteins regulated by the CMA pathway mediate such changes. In this study, we have manipulated CMA function through alterations of LAMP2A abundance of utilizing primary rat cortical neurons, to identify potential changes to the neuronal proteome occurring prior to actual toxic effects...
December 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Fabian Maass, Isabel Schulz, Paul Lingor, Brit Mollenhauer, Mathias Bähr
In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a wide field of recent and ongoing search for useful biomarkers for early and differential diagnosis, disease monitoring or subtype characterization. Up to now, no biofluid biomarker has entered the daily clinical routine. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is often used as a source for biomarker development in different neurological disorders because it reflects changes in central-nervous system homeostasis. This review article gives an overview about different biomarker approaches in PD, mainly focusing on CSF analyses...
December 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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