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Journal of Applied Phycology

Camila M Crnkovic, Daniel S May, Jimmy Orjala
Cultured cyanobacteria produce secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities and are an important source of natural products. In the context of secondary metabolite discovery, microbial culture conditions are expected to support optimum growth, induce maximum chemical diversity, and be suitable for the majority of cyanobacterial strains. We investigated the effect of nitrate and phosphate on biomass production and metabolomic profiles of three filamentous freshwater cyanobacterial strains: cf...
February 2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Scott W Mattner, Mirko Milinkovic, Tony Arioli
The withdrawal of soil fumigants like methyl bromide is forcing strawberry growers to consider supplementary and alternative ways of producing crops. In addition to controlling soil-borne pests, soil fumigation causes an increased growth response in strawberry roots, and the use of biostimulants may offer an alternative to replace this response. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with a commercial extract (Seasol®) from the seaweeds Duvillaea potatorum and Ascophyllum nodosum can increase root growth, and transplant (runner) and fruit yields of strawberry...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Miriam Bernard, Sylvie Rousvoal, Bertrand Jacquemin, Marion Ballenghien, Akira F Peters, Catherine Leblanc
Morphological changes-such as dark spots, twisted stipes and deformed blades-have been observed in wild and cultivated Saccharina latissima . The putative cause for the disease symptoms is the filamentous endophytic brown alga Laminarionema elsbetiae , which is known to invade stipes and fronds of its hosts. Little is known about this interaction and its occurrence in the field, although former studies indicated high endophyte prevalence in kelp populations. Previous epidemiological studies on kelp endophytes were mainly based on the examination of microscopic sections, followed by time-consuming isolation and cultivation steps in order to identify the endophyte and a reliable method to quantify endophyte infections was missing...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Elisabeth Stein, Marijana Stojanovic, Nadine Schuerer, Ehsan Ghasemian, Ana Filipovic, Emilija Marinkovic, Dejana Kosanovic, Talin Barisani-Asenbauer
Ocular chlamydial infections with the ocular serovars A, B, Ba, and C of Chlamydia trachomatis represent the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. Carrageenans are naturally occurring, sulfated polysaccharides generally considered safe for food and topical applications. Carrageenans can inhibit infection caused by a variety of viruses and bacteria. To investigate whether iota -carrageenan (I-C) isolated from the red alga Chondrus crispus could prevent ocular chlamydial infection, we assessed if targeted treatment of the conjunctival mucosa with I-C affects chlamydial attachment, entry, and replication in the host cell...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Hau Nhu Le, Adam D Hughes, Philip D Kerrison
The phaeophyte macroalgae Sargassum muticum is under investigation as a cultivation crop within its native range in SE Asia, alongside other members of the Sargassum genus. During the critical hatchery phase, germlings are grown to ≥ several millimeters ready for outplanting. By optimising the growth medium and twine substrate used for the germling attachment, hatcheries can become more efficient and cost-effective. An 8-week replicated laboratory experiment investigated these factors. It found that adding 0...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Rui Santos, Ricardo A Melo
Bacteriological and technical agars are in short supply with potential consequences for research, public health, and clinical labs around the world. To diagnose bottlenecks and sustainability problems that may be putting the industry at risk, we analyzed the available time series for the global landings of Gelidium , the most important raw materials for the industry. Data on the harvest of Gelidium spp. have been reported since1912, when Japan was the only producer. After World War II the diversification of harvested species and producing countries resulted in a strong increase in global landings...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Joe A Gallagher, Lesley B Turner, Jessica M M Adams, Sara Barrento, Philip W Dyer, Michael K Theodorou
Seaweeds can be a valuable resource for biorefinery and biotechnology applications, but their high water content is a recurrent problem and one of the key bottlenecks for their sustainable use. Treatments to increase dry matter content of the kelp Laminaria digitata were recently described by the authors. However macroalgae are an extremely diverse group of organisms and compositional variation between species may influence the effects of particular treatments. In this study, potential dewatering treatments including drying, osmotic media, and the application of both organic and mineral acids all followed by screw-pressing have been tested on two other species of kelp ( Laminaria hyperborea and Saccharina latissima ) and a red seaweed ( Palmaria palmata )...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Sujin Lee, Yong Jae Lee, Saehae Choi, Su-Bin Park, Quynh-Giao Tran, Jina Heo, Hee-Sik Kim
Microalgae have been widely considered for the production of valuable products, such as lipid-based biofuel, value-added pigments, and anti-photo aging reagents. More recently, microalgae have been considered an alternative host for recombinant protein production because of their economic benefits and ecofriendly characteristics. Additionally, many microalgal strains identified to date are generally recognized as safe (GRAS); therefore, the use of microalgae-based technology is promising. However, basic studies on the genetic engineering of microalgae are rare, despite their importance...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Mahasweta Saha, Franz Goecke, Punyasloke Bhadury
Marine biofouling is a paramount phenomenon in the marine environment and causes serious problems to maritime industries worldwide. Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of chemical compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, antialgal, and anti-macrofouling properties, inhibiting the settlement and growth of other marine fouling organisms. Significant investigations and progress have been made in this field in the last two decades and several antifouling extracts and compounds have been isolated from micro- and macroalgae...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Agata Kulczycka, Maja Łukomska-Kowalczyk, Bożena Zakryś, Rafał Milanowski
Euglena sanguinea Ehrenberg is the only known species of euglenids which forms toxic blooms causing tangible losses to fish farms. Euglena sanguinea produces euglenophycin, a toxin similar in structure to solenopsin, an alkaloid found in fire ant venom. It was proved that euglenophycin exhibits not only ichthyotoxic but also herbicidal and anticancer activity. Recently, a specific mass spectrometric method of identification and quantitation of euglenophycin was developed to facilitate monitoring of that toxin in freshwater ponds...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Chaogang Wang, Yi Li, Jun Lu, Xu Deng, Hui Li, Zhangli Hu
Biodiesel is an alternative energy source which has attracted increasing attention lately. Although algae-based biodiesel production has many benefits, it is still far from industrial application. Research suggests that improving lipid quality and production through genetic engineering of metabolic pathways will be the most promising way. To enhance lipid content, both lysophosphatidic acyltransferase gene ( c-lpaat ) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ( c-gpd1 ), optimized according to the codon bias of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , were inserted into the genomic DNA of model microalga C...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Bożena Muszyńska, Agata Krakowska, Jan Lazur, Barbara Jękot, Łukasz Zimmer, Agnieszka Szewczyk, Katarzyna Sułkowska-Ziaja, Ewa Poleszak, Włodzimierz Opoka
Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck is a spherical, green alga belonging to the genus Chlorella and family Chlorellaceae. It has high nutritional value and shows multiple biological effects. Dietary supplements that contain extracts of C. vulgaris are sold in the form of tablets, capsules, powders, and aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the content of bioelements (zinc, iron, and magnesium), phenolic compounds, and lutein before and after incubation with artificial digestive juices from preparations containing C...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Vitor Ramos, João Morais, Raquel Castelo-Branco, Ângela Pinheiro, Joana Martins, Ana Regueiras, Ana L Pereira, Viviana R Lopes, Bárbara Frazão, Dina Gomes, Cristiana Moreira, Maria Sofia Costa, Sébastien Brûle, Silvia Faustino, Rosário Martins, Martin Saker, Joana Osswald, Pedro N Leão, Vitor M Vasconcelos
Cyanobacteria are a well-known source of bioproducts which renders culturable strains a valuable resource for biotechnology purposes. We describe here the establishment of a cyanobacterial culture collection (CC) and present the first version of the strain catalog and its online database ( The LEGE CC holds 386 strains, mainly collected in coastal (48%), estuarine (11%), and fresh (34%) water bodies, for the most part from Portugal (84%). By following the most recent taxonomic classification, LEGE CC strains were classified into at least 46 genera from six orders (41% belong to the Synechococcales), several of them are unique among the phylogenetic diversity of the cyanobacteria...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Andrzej Stanisław Rybak, Maciej Gąbka
Ulva species are characterised by the capacity to achieve rapid biomass increase, which results in the formation of "green tides", particularly in nutrient-rich seawaters. Over the last decade, formation of large-scale Ulva mats has been increasingly observed in freshwater systems in Central Europe. Mass development of Ulva in freshwater ecosystems presents a growing burden in spite of its economic benefits. This study explores the formation dynamics of Ulva flexuosa mats with respect to habitat conditions, using the examples of a number of water systems located in Poland...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
P R Postma, O Cerezo-Chinarro, R J Akkerman, G Olivieri, R H Wijffels, W A Brandenburg, M H M Eppink
The effect of osmotic shock, enzymatic incubation, pulsed electric field, and high shear homogenization on the release of water-soluble proteins and carbohydrates from the green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated in this screening study. For osmotic shock, both temperature and incubation time had a significant influence on the release with an optimum at 30 °C for 24 h of incubation. For enzymatic incubation, pectinase demonstrated being the most promising enzyme for both protein and carbohydrate release...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Yuqin Xiong, Rui Yang, Xiaoxiao Sun, Huatian Yang, Haimin Chen
A variety of different symbiotic microbial communities are harbored on the surface of seaweeds, the interactions of which depend upon nutritional exchanges between the microbes and the hosts. Metabolomic profiling is able to provide a comprehensive and unbiased snapshot of the metabolites associated with seaweed-microbe interactions. In this study, the relationships between phycosphere bacteria and the red alga Pyropia haitanensis were investigated on a metabolomic basis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the pathways of the interactions between the seaweed and its associated phycospheric microbes were revealed...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Siegfried Aigner, Klaus Herburger, Andreas Holzinger, Ulf Karsten
Many alpine streams inhabit conspicuous epilithic biofilms on pebbles and rocks that are formed by members of the cyanobacterial genus Chamaesiphon (Synechococcales). In the Austrian Alps, some Chamaesiphon species can even overgrow up to 70% of the surface of river rocks, and hence they must play an important but still unstudied ecological role in the organic matter flux. Since photo-biological traits have not been investigated so far, photosynthetic features, pigments, and UV-sunscreen compounds were studied in three Chamaesiphon morphospecies ( C...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Hugh L MacIntyre, John J Cullen, Trina J Whitsitt, Brian Petri
Ballast water management systems (BWMS) must be tested to assess their compliance with standards for the discharge of organisms, for example in the ≥ 10- and < 50-μm size category, which is dominated by phytoplankton. Assessment of BWMS performance with the vital stains fluorescein diacetate + 5-chlorofluorescein diacetate, required by regulations in the USA, is problematic in the case of ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. This is because UVC targets nucleotides-and thus reproduction, hence viability-rather than membrane integrity, which is assayed by the stains...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Christian J A Ridley, John G Day, Alison G Smith
Algal-bacterial co-cultures, rather than cultures of algae alone, are regarded as having the potential to enhance productivity and stability in industrial algal cultivation. As with other inocula in biotechnology, to avoid loss of production strains, it is important to develop preservation methods for the long-term storage of these cultures, and one of the most commonly used approaches is cryopreservation. However, whilst there are many reports of cryopreserved xenic algal cultures, little work has been reported on the intentional preservation of both algae and beneficial bacteria in xenic cultures...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Beata Messyasz, Izabela Michalak, Bogusława Łęska, Grzegorz Schroeder, Bogusława Górka, Karolina Korzeniowska, Jacek Lipok, Piotr Wieczorek, Edward Rój, Radosław Wilk, Agnieszka Dobrzyńska-Inger, Henryk Górecki, Katarzyna Chojnacka
The biologically active compounds (fatty acids, pigments, phenolics, and flavonoid content) were studied in supercritical fluid extracts from the biomass of marine ( Ulva clathrata , Cladophora glomerata , Polysiphonia fucoides , and their multi-species mixture) and freshwater ( C. glomerata ) macroalgae. Different extraction techniques were used in order to compare differences in the biologically active compound composition of the macroalgal extracts. The results indicated that the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ranged from C9:0 to C22:0...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
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