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Seminars in Cancer Biology

Katerina Lawlor, Salvador Pérez-Montero, Ana Lima, Tristan A Rodríguez
The maintenance of tissue homeostasis and health relies on the efficient removal of damaged or otherwise suboptimal cells. One way this is achieved is through cell competition, a fitness quality control mechanism that eliminates cells that are less fit than their neighbours. Through this process, cell competition has been shown to play diverse roles in development and in the adult, including in homeostasis and tumour suppression. However, over the last few years it has also become apparent that certain oncogenic mutations can provide cells with a competitive advantage that promotes their expansion via the elimination of surrounding wild-type cells...
May 15, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Massimo Mallardo, Palmiro Poltronieri, Ammad A Farooqi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Simona Paglia, Manuela Sollazzo, Simone Di Giacomo, Silvia Strocchi, Daniela Grifoni
Cancer has long been regarded and treated as a foreign body appearing by mistake inside a living organism. However, now we know that cancer cells communicate with neighbours, thereby creating modified environments able to support their unusual need for nutrients and space. Understanding the molecular basis of these bi-directional interactions is thus mandatory to approach the complex nature of cancer. Since their discovery, MYC proteins have been showing to regulate a steadily increasing number of processes impacting cell fitness, and are consistently found upregulated in almost all human tumours...
May 15, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Shams Tabrez, Nasimudeen R Jabir, Mohammad Imran Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz Khan, Shazi Shakil, Ali Nasir Siddiqui, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed, Mohammad Amjad Kamal
Cancer and autoimmune diseases are the two devastating conditions that together constitute a leading health problem worldwide. The rising burden of these disorders in the developing world demands a multifaceted approach to address the challenges it poses. Understanding the root causes and specific molecular mechanisms by which the progression of the diseases takes place is the need of the hour. A strong inflammatory background and common developmental pathways, such as activation of immune cells, proliferation, increased cell survival and migration which are controlled by growth factors and inflammatory cytokines have been considered as the critical culprits in the progression and complications of these disorders...
May 14, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Maria A Gubbiotti, Simone Buraschi, Aastha Kapoor, Renato V Iozzo
The need for more effective cancer therapies is omnipresent as the ever-complex, and highly adaptive, mechanisms of tumor biology allow this disease to elude even the most stringent treatment options. The expanding field of proteoglycan signaling is enticing as a reservoir of potential drug targets and prospects for novel therapeutic strategies. The newest trend in proteoglycan biology is the interplay between extracellular signaling and autophagy fueled by the close link between autophagy and angiogenesis...
May 9, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Fei Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Romain Levayer
The regulation of cell growth, cell proliferation and cell death is at the basis of the homeostasis of tissues. While they can be regulated by intrinsic and genetic factors, their response to external signals emanating from the local environment is also essential for tissue homeostasis. Tumour initiation and progression is based on the misregulation of growth, proliferation and death mostly through the accumulation of genetic mutations. Yet, there is an increasing body of evidences showing that tumour microenvironment also has a strong impact on cancer initiation and progression...
May 8, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Mahesh Chandra Patra, Masaud Shah, Sangdun Choi
Immune cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to recognize pathogenic components or cellular debris and activate the immune system through the secretion of cytokines. Cytokines are signaling molecules that are structurally and functionally distinct from one another, although their secretion profiles and signaling cascades often overlap. This situation gives rise to pleotropic cell-to-cell communication pathways essential for protection from infections as well as cancers...
May 2, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Chiara Vidoni, Alessandra Ferraresi, Eleonora Secomandi, Letizia Vallino, Danny N Dhanasekaran, Ciro Isidoro
Despite the undeniable progress made in the last decades, cancer continues to challenge the scientists engaged in searching for an effective treatment for its prevention and cure. One of the malignant hallmarks that characterize cancer cell biology is the altered metabolism of sugars and amino acids. Autophagy is a pathway allowing the macromolecular turnover via recycling of the substrates resulting from the lysosomal degradation of damaged or redundant cell molecules and organelles. As such, autophagy guarantees the proteome quality control and cell homeostasis...
May 2, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Pengchen Chen, Qingshui Wang, Jianwei Xie, Hang Fai Kwok
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare diseases with a prevalence that has been increasing over the past three decades. The unsatisfactory outcome of these diseases has encouraged a great amount of research attention and discussion. Currently, to the best of our knowledge, studies on transcriptome screening and molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of GEP-NETs are limited. In this review, we have summarized the signaling network of GEP-NETs and the recent meta-analysis-related studies, and we have discussed the potential research direction for GEP-NETs, especially based on computational analysis...
May 1, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Lingzhi Li, Zhuoyu Bi, Priya Wadgaonkar, Yongju Lu, Qian Zhang, Yao Fu, Chitra Thakur, Li Wang, Fei Chen
At present, the belief that genetic mutations control every aspect of tumorigenesis is still very popular. Even for the highly debated "bad luck" theory of cancers, it ascertained that random mutation of genes during the self-renewal of somatic stem cells is responsible for cancer initiation. Logically, most of the new therapeutic strategies so far, from molecular targeting to precision medicine or personalized medicine, are genome-obsessed and focused on identifying and targeting these mutated genes...
April 19, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Samanta Salvi, Massimiliano Bonafè, Sara Bravaccini
The possibility that a receptor for androgen is expressed in Breast Cancer (BC) is fascinating given that the tumor is predominantly estrogen-dependent. The androgen receptor (AR) is emerging as a new marker and a potential new therapeutic target in the treatment of BC patients. The recent availability of selective AR inhibitors (e.g. bicalutamide, enzalutamide, apalutamide) approved for the treatment of prostate cancer has opened up the possibility to use them in BC patients whose tumors express AR. However, AR appears to have various functions according to the BC subtype, e...
April 16, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Qi Yang, Wei Jiang, Peng Hou
Epigenetic alterations, along with genetic alterations, have long been regarded as the most important mechanism participating in carcinogenesis. DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-mediated regulation are involved in many cellular processes that are essential to cancer initiation and progression. A plethora of chromatin-associated proteins and modifying proteins take control of these processes and they are under the modulation of signaling pathways. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway (PI3K/AKT) is in manage of multiple biological processes and is frequently aberrantly activated in human cancers...
April 2, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Wei Jiang, Meiju Ji
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, one of the most commonly activated signaling pathways in human cancers, plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. This pathway is usually activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whose constitutive and aberrant activation is via gain-of-function mutations, chromosomal rearrangement, gene amplification and autocrine. Blockage of PI3K pathway by targeted therapy on RTKs with tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has achieved great progress in past decades; however, there still remain big challenges during their clinical application...
March 31, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Christian Münz
T cells of the adaptive immune system monitor protein degradation products via their presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to recognize infected cells. Both macroautophagy and endocytosis target intra- and extracellular constituents, respectively, for lysosomal degradation. This results in antigen processing for MHC presentation and influences the trafficking of MHC molecules. This review will discuss recent evidence that the molecular machinery of macroautophagy regulates also endocytosis at the level of phagosome maturation and cell membrane internalization...
March 27, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Akira Motegi, Mitsuko Masutani, Ken-Ichi Yoshioka, Tadayoshi Bessho
Cancer cells show various types of mutations and aberrant expression in genes involved in DNA repair responses. These alterations induce genome instability and promote carcinogenesis steps and cancer progression processes. These defects in DNA repair have also been considered as suitable targets for cancer therapies; a most effective target so far clinically demonstrated is "homologous recombination repair defect" such as BRCA1/2 mutations, that were shown to cause synthetic lethality with inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which is involved in DNA repair as well as multiple physiological processes...
March 25, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Takeshi Ijuin
Phosphoinositides are a group of lipids that regulate intracellular signaling and subcellular biological events. The signaling by phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and Akt mediates the action of growth factors that are essential for cell proliferation, gene transcription, cell migration, and polarity. The hyperactivation of this signaling has been identified in different cancer cells; and, it has been implicated in oncogenic transformation and cancer cell malignancy. Recent studies have argued the role of phosphoinositides in cancer cell dynamics, including actin cytoskeletal rearrangement at the plasma membrane and the organization of intracellular compartments...
March 25, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Daniela Grimm, Johann Bauer, Petra Wise, Marcus Krüger, Ulf Simonsen, Markus Wehland, Manfred Infanger, Thomas J Corydon
Cancer is a heavy burden for humans across the world with high morbidity and mortality. Transcription factors including sex determining region Y (SRY)-related high-mobility group (HMG) box (SOX) proteins are thought to be involved in the regulation of specific biological processes. The deregulation of gene expression programs can lead to cancer development. Here, we review the role of the SOX family in breast cancer, prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma, thyroid cancer, brain tumours, gastrointestinal and lung tumours as well as the entailing therapeutic implications...
March 23, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Borong Zhou, Jiao Liu, Rui Kang, Daniel J Klionsky, Guido Kroemer, Daolin Tang
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) involves an intracellular degradation and recycling system that, in a context-dependent manner, can either promote cell survival or accelerate cellular demise. Ferroptosis was originally defined in 2012 as an iron-dependent form of cancer cell death different from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. However, this latter assumption came into question because, in response to ferroptosis activators (e.g., erastin and RSL3), autophagosomes accumulate, and because components of the autophagy machinery (e...
March 14, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Sunny H Wong, William K K Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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