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Current Opinion in Lipidology

Ernst J Schaefer, Andrew S Geller, Gregory Endress
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine recent advances in our knowledge on the diagnosis of lipid disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Fasting values above the 99th percentile for direct LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein(a), and triglycerides are greater than 225 mg/dl, greater than 160 mg/dl, and greater than 500 mg/dl (>5.82, >394, and >5.65 mmol/l), respectively, whereas such values for plasma lathosterol, β-sitosterol, and cholestanol are greater than 8.0, 8...
January 31, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Zuhier A Awan, Nabeel S Bondagji, Mary A Bamimore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolemia is an inherited disorder where cases have a significantly higher risk of having premature myocardial infarction than noncases. The prevalence of this genetic disease is currently unknown in countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. Given that a high percentage of marriages are consanguineous in this region, the prevalence may be much higher than assumed. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify case-related mutations reported within the last 4 years and since our first report in 2014...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jacqueline S Dron, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With improved next-generation sequencing technology, open-access genetic databases and increased awareness of complex trait genetics, we are entering a new era of risk assessment in which genetic-based risk scores (GRSs) will play a clinical role. We review the concepts underlying polygenic models of disease susceptibility and challenges in clinical implementation. RECENT FINDINGS: Polygenic risk scores are currently used in genetic research on dyslipidemias and cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
January 22, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
David Rhainds, Jean-Claude Tardif
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The validity of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) elevation as a therapeutic target has been questioned, in comparison to enhancing HDL functionality. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is an in-vitro assay that measures the ability of an individual's HDL to promote cholesterol efflux from cholesterol donor cells such as macrophages. CEC of HDL is a predictor of cardiovascular risk independent of HDL-C levels. However, molecular determinants of CEC and the effects of diseases and therapeutic interventions on CEC have not been completely defined...
January 21, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Robert A Hegele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Michael A Iacocca, Jacqueline S Dron, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: DNA copy number variations (CNVs) are large-scale mutations that include deletions and duplications larger than 50 bp in size. In the era when single-nucleotide variations were the major focus of genetic technology and research, CNVs were largely overlooked. However, CNVs clearly underlie a substantial proportion of clinical disorders. Here, we update recent progress in identifying CNVs in dyslipidemias. RECENT FINDINGS: Until last year, only the LDLR and LPA genes were appreciated as loci within which clinically relevant CNVs contributed to familial hypercholesterolemia and variation in Lp(a) levels, respectively...
January 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Collin S Pryma, Carleena Ortega, Joshua A Dubland, Gordon A Francis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the major cell type in human atherosclerosis-prone arteries and take up excess lipids, thereby contributing to luminal occlusion. Here we provide a focused review on pathways by which smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can become foam cells in atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: A synthesis of recent and older investigations provides key mechanistic insights into SMC foam cell formation. LDL and other apoB-containing lipoproteins are modified by a diverse array of oxidative, enzymatic, and nonenzymatic processes present in the arterial intima...
January 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Benjamin R Joris, Gregory B Gloor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Not all of the risk of cardiovascular disease can be explained by diet and genetics, and the human microbiome, which lies at the interface of these two factors, may help explain some of the unaccounted risk. This review examines some of the well established links between the microbiome and cardiovascular health, and proposes relatively unexplored associations. RECENT FINDINGS: Byproducts of microbial metabolism are associated with health and disease: Trimethylamine N oxide is associated with atherosclerosis; whereas short-chain fatty acids are associated with decreased inflammation and increased energy expenditure...
January 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Marcio H Miname, Marcio S Bittencourt, Khurram Nasir, Raul D Santos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the heterogeneity of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and evidence and limitations of clinical risk scores and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (SCA) imaging to evaluate risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk evaluation in contemporary familial hypercholesterolemia cohorts needs to consider the cause of the familial hypercholesterolemia phenotype, for example the presence of autosomal molecular defects that impart a greater ASCVD risk than in polygenic hypercholesterolemia, prospective follow-up and the impact of statin treatment...
January 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Brian Tomlinson, Miao Hu, Elaine Chow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia often went unrecognized in China when population cholesterol levels were low, but rapid economic development has changed the situation. This review will discuss the current position of awareness, diagnosis, and management of familial hypercholesterolemia in Chinese populations. RECENT FINDINGS: The phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia in China and other Chinese populations has become similar to that in Western countries, although it may still be somewhat less severe...
January 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Julieta Lazarte, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The endocannabinoid system affects several physiological functions. A family of endocannabinoid receptors is susceptible to cannabis constituents. Cannabis is widely used in our society and following its recent legalization in Canada, we focus on how exposure to cannabis and pharmacologic cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) inhibition affect lipoprotein levels. RECENT FINDINGS: Several groups have reported that exposure to cannabis does not increase weight despite the marked increase in caloric intake...
January 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Mark Trinder, John H Boyd, Liam R Brunham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sepsis is a common syndrome of multiorgan system dysfunction caused by a dysregulated inflammatory response to an infection and is associated with high rates of mortality. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels and composition change profoundly during sepsis and have emerged as both biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for this condition. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in the understanding of the molecular regulation of lipid metabolism during sepsis...
January 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Emile Levy, Pierre Poinsot, Schohraya Spahis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chylomicron retention disease (CRD) is an autosomic recessive disorder, in which intestinal fat malabsorption is the main cause of diverse severe manifestations. The specific molecular defect was identified in 2003 and consists of mutations in the SAR1B or SARA2 gene encoding for intracellular SAR1B GTPase protein. The aim of this review is first to provide an update of the recent biochemical, genetic and clinical findings, and second to discuss novel mechanisms related to hallmark symptoms...
January 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Maria Camila Perez-Matos, Bynvant Sandhu, Alan Bonder, Zhenghui Gordon Jiang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The liver is the central hub of lipoprotein metabolism. A complex relationship exists between dyslipidemia and chronic liver diseases (CLDs). Recent advances in the genetics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) exemplify the pivotal role of lipoprotein metabolism in the pathogenesis of CLD. We review these relationships in four quintessential forms of CLD: NAFLD, ALD, cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis, with a focus on recent discoveries...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Amy C Burke, Dawn E Telford, Murray W Huff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bempedoic acid has emerged as a potent inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), a target for the reduction of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). We review the impact of bempedoic acid treatment on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in preclinical models and patients with hypercholesterolemia. RECENT FINDINGS: The liver-specific activation of bempedoic acid inhibits ACLY, a key enzyme linking glucose catabolism to lipogenesis by catalyzing the formation of acetyl-CoA from mitochondrial-derived citrate for de novo synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Daniel Engelbertsen, Sara Rattik, Harry Björkbacka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Uwe J F Tietge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Deepak Bhatnagar, Prachi Bhatnagar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Brandon C Farmer, Lance A Johnson, Angela J Hanson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Various groups have explored the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) on neurodegeneration through nutritional and metabolic alterations. In this review, we hope to summarize recent findings in humans as well as preclinical APOE models. RECENT FINDINGS: Metabolic pathways including lipid metabolism appear to play a large role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Carrier status of the E4 variant of the APOE gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, and increasing evidence suggests that E4 carriers may respond differently to a host of dietary and metabolic-related treatments...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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