journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38912712/scarring-in-utero-an-attempt-to-validate-with-data-unconfounded-by-migration-and-medical-care
#21
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ralph Catalano, Jason Bonham, Alison Gemmill, Tim Bruckner
BACKGROUND: "Scarring in utero" posits that populations exposed to injurious stressors yield birth cohorts that live shorter lives than expected from history. This argument implies a positive historical association between period life expectancy (i.e., average age at death in year t) and cohort life expectancy (i.e., average lifespan of persons born in year t). Tests of the argument have not produced consistent results and appear confounded by autocorrelation, migration, and access to medical care...
July 1, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38912711/associations-of-local-cannabis-control-policies-with-harmful-cannabis-exposures-reported-to-the-california-poison-control-system
#22
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ellicott C Matthay, Leyla M Mousli, Chloe Sun, Justin Lewis, Laurie M Jacobs, Stuart Heard, Raymond Ho, Laura A Schmidt, Dorie E Apollonio
BACKGROUND: Cannabis exposures reported to the California Poison Control System increased following the initiation of recreational cannabis sales on 1 January 2018 (i.e., "commercialization"). We evaluated whether local cannabis control policies adopted by 2021 were associated with shifts in harmful cannabis exposures. METHODS: Using cannabis control policies collected for all 539 California cities and counties in 2020-2021, we applied a differences-in-differences design with negative binomial regression to test the association of policies with harmful cannabis exposures reported to California Poison Control System (2011-2020), before and after commercialization...
July 1, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38630513/erratum-the-effect-of-mobile-stroke-unit-care-on-functional-outcomes-an-application-of-the-front-door-formula
#23
JOURNAL ARTICLE
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38630512/emulating-a-target-trial-of-interventions-initiated-during-pregnancy-with-healthcare-databases-the-example-of-covid-19-vaccination-the-authors-respond
#24
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Krista F Huybrechts, Miguel A Hernán
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38630511/long-term-impact-of-tropical-cyclones-on-disease-exacerbation-among-children-with-asthma-in-the-eastern-united-states-2000-2018
#25
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kate R Weinberger, Nina Veeravalli, Xiao Wu, Nicholas J Nassikas, Keith R Spangler, Nina R Joyce, Gregory A Wellenius
BACKGROUND: Tropical cyclones are associated with acute increases in mortality and morbidity, but few studies have examined their longer-term health consequences. We assessed whether tropical cyclones are associated with a higher frequency of symptom exacerbation among children with asthma in the following 12 months in eastern United States counties, 2000-2018. METHODS: We defined exposure to tropical cyclones as a maximum sustained windspeed >21 meters/second at the county center and used coarsened exact matching to match each exposed county to one or more unexposed counties...
May 1, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38630510/interpretations-of-studies-on-sars-cov-2-vaccination-and-post-acute-covid-19-sequelae
#26
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Bronner P Gonçalves, Piero L Olliaro, Peter Horby, Laura Merson, Benjamin J Cowling
This article discusses causal interpretations of epidemiologic studies of the effects of vaccination on sequelae after acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. To date, researchers have tried to answer several different research questions on this topic. While some studies assessed the impact of postinfection vaccination on the presence of or recovery from post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 syndrome, others quantified the association between preinfection vaccination and postacute sequelae conditional on becoming infected...
May 1, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38630509/a-quantitative-bias-analysis-approach-to-informative-presence-bias-in-electronic-health-records
#27
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hanxi Zhang, Amy S Clark, Rebecca A Hubbard
Accurate outcome and exposure ascertainment in electronic health record (EHR) data, referred to as EHR phenotyping, relies on the completeness and accuracy of EHR data for each individual. However, some individuals, such as those with a greater comorbidity burden, visit the health care system more frequently and thus have more complete data, compared with others. Ignoring such dependence of exposure and outcome misclassification on visit frequency can bias estimates of associations in EHR analysis. We developed a framework for describing the structure of outcome and exposure misclassification due to informative visit processes in EHR data and assessed the utility of a quantitative bias analysis approach to adjusting for bias induced by informative visit patterns...
May 1, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38630508/prediction-under-interventions-evaluation-of-counterfactual-performance-using-longitudinal-observational-data
#28
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ruth H Keogh, Nan Van Geloven
Predictions under interventions are estimates of what a person's risk of an outcome would be if they were to follow a particular treatment strategy, given their individual characteristics. Such predictions can give important input to medical decision-making. However, evaluating the predictive performance of interventional predictions is challenging. Standard ways of evaluating predictive performance do not apply when using observational data, because prediction under interventions involves obtaining predictions of the outcome under conditions that are different from those that are observed for a subset of individuals in the validation dataset...
May 1, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38630507/causal-selection-of-covariates-in-regression-calibration-for-mismeasured-continuous-exposure
#29
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Wenze Tang, Donna Spiegelman, Xiaomei Liao, Molin Wang
Regression calibration as developed by Rosner, Spiegelman, and Willett is used to adjust the bias in effect estimates due to measurement error in continuous exposures. The method involves two models: a measurement error model relating the mismeasured exposure to the true (or gold-standard) exposure and an outcome model relating the mismeasured exposure to the outcome. However, no comprehensive guidance exists for determining which covariates should be included in each model. In this article, we investigate the selection of the minimal and most efficient covariate adjustment sets under a causal inference framework...
May 1, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38630506/story-led-causal-inference
#30
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jessica G Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38534181/outdoor-artificial-light-at-night-and-reproductive-endocrine-and-glucose-homeostasis-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-women-of-reproductive-age
#31
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lanlan Fang, Cong Ma, Guosheng Wang, Yongzhen Peng, Hui Zhao, Yuting Chen, Yubo Ma, Guoqi Cai, Yunxia Cao, Faming Pan
BACKGROUND: Artificial light at night, a well-recognized circadian clock disrupter, causes disturbances in endocrine homeostasis. However, the association of artificial light at night with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still unknown. This study examines the effects of outdoor artificial light at night on sex hormones, glucose homeostasis markers, and PCOS prevalence in Anhui Province, China. METHODS: We recruited 20633 women of reproductive age from Anhui Medical University Reproductive Medicine Center...
March 22, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38534176/defining-spatial-epidemiology-a-systematic-review-and-re-orientation
#32
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Christopher N Morrison, Christina F Mair, Lisa Bates, Dustin T Duncan, Charles C Branas, Brady R Bushover, Christina A Mehranbod, Ariana N Gobaud, Stephen Uong, Sarah Forrest, Leah Roberts, Andrew G Rundle
BACKGROUND: Spatial epidemiology has emerged as an important subfield of epidemiology over the past quarter century. We trace the origins of spatial epidemiology and note that its emergence coincided with technological developments in spatial statistics and geography. We hypothesize that spatial epidemiology makes important contributions to descriptive epidemiology and analytic risk factor studies, but is not yet aligned with epidemiology's current focus on causal inference and intervention...
March 22, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38534154/strengthening-a-solid-foundation-the-role-of-spatial-epidemiology-within-contemporary-epidemiology
#33
JOURNAL ARTICLE
David M Kline
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38635417/erratum-medicaid-expansion-and-racial-ethnic-and-sex-disparities-in-cardiovascular-diseases-over-6-years-a-generalized-synthetic-control-approach
#34
JOURNAL ARTICLE
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38629983/errors-in-the-calculation-of-the-population-attributable-fraction
#35
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Etsuji Suzuki, Eiji Yamamoto
One of the common errors in the calculation of the population attributable fraction (PAF) is the use of an adjusted risk ratio in the Levin formula. In this article, we discuss the errors visually using wireframes by varying the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and associational risk ratio (aRR) when the prevalence of exposure is fixed. When SMR > 1 and SMR > aRR, the absolute bias is positive, and its magnitude increases as the difference between SMR and aRR increases. By contrast, when aRR > SMR > 1, the absolute bias is negative and its magnitude is relatively small...
March 12, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38629975/comparing-pcsk9-monoclonal-antibody-treatment-strategies-following-myocardial-infarction-using-negative-control-outcomes-a-target-trial-emulation-study
#36
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rosa Sloot, Alexander Breskin, Lisandro D Colantonio, Andrew G Allmon, Ying Yu, Swati Sakhuja, Ligong Chen, Paul Muntner, M Alan Brookhart, Nafeesa Dhalwani
BACKGROUND: Initiation of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 monoclonal antibody (PCSK9 mAb) for lipid-lowering following myocardial infarction (MI) is likely affected by patients' prognostic factors, potentially leading to bias when comparing real-world treatment effects. METHODS: Using target-trial emulation, we assessed potential confounding when comparing two treatment strategies post-MI: initiation of PCSK9 mAb within 1 year and no initiation of PCSK9 mAb...
March 12, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38465949/using-negative-control-populations-to-assess-unmeasured-confounding-and-direct-effects
#37
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marco Piccininni, Mats Julius Stensrud
Sometimes treatment effects are absent in a subgroup of the population. For example, penicillin has no effect on severe symptoms in individuals infected by resistant staphylococcus aureus, and codeine has no effect on pain in individuals with certain polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 enzyme. Subgroups where a treatment is ineffective are often called negative control populations or placebo groups. They are leveraged to detect bias in different disciplines. Here we present formal criteria that justify the use of negative control populations to rule out unmeasured confounding and mechanistic (direct) causal effects...
March 7, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38465940/adjusting-incidence-estimates-with-laboratory-test-performances-a-pragmatic-maximum-likelihood-estimation-based-approach
#38
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yingjie Weng, Lu Tian, Derek Boothroyd, Justin Lee, Kenny Zhang, Di Lu, Christina P Lindan, Jenna Bollyky, Beatrice Huang, George W Rutherford, Yvonne Maldonado, Manisha Desai
Understanding the incidence of disease is often crucial for public policy decision-making, as observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Estimating incidence is challenging, however, when the definition of incidence relies on tests that imperfectly measure disease, as in the case when assays with variable performance are used to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus. To our knowledge there are no pragmatic methods to address the bias introduced by performance of labs in testing for the virus. In the setting of a longitudinal study, we developed a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-based approach to estimate laboratory performance-adjusted incidence using the expectation-maximization algorithm...
March 7, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38442423/towards-a-clearer-causal-question-underlying-the-association-between-cancer-and-dementia
#39
JOURNAL ARTICLE
L Paloma Rojas-Saunero, Kimberly D van der Willik, Sanne B Schagen, M Arfan Ikram, Sonja A Swanson
BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have described an inverse association between cancer diagnosis and subsequent dementia risk. Multiple biologic mechanisms and potential biases have been proposed in attempts to explain this association. One proposed explanation is the opposite expression of Pin1 in cancer and dementia, and we use this explanation and potential drug target to illustrate the required assumptions and potential sources of bias for inferring an effect of Pin1 on dementia risk from analyses measuring cancer diagnosis as a proxy for Pin1 expression...
March 4, 2024: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38442421/a-capture-recapture-based-ascertainment-probability-weighting-method-for-effect-estimation-with-under-ascertained-outcomes
#40
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Carl Bonander, Anton Nilsson, Huiqi Li, Shambhavi Sharma, Chioma Nwaru, Magnus Gisslén, Magnus Lindh, Niklas Hammar, Jonas Björk, Fredrik Nyberg
Outcome under-ascertainment, characterized by the incomplete identification or reporting of cases, poses a substantial challenge in epidemiologic research. While capture-recapture methods can estimate unknown case numbers, their role in estimating exposure effects in observational studies is not well established. This paper presents an ascertainment probability weighting framework that integrates capture-recapture and propensity score weighting. We propose a non-parametric estimator of effects on binary outcomes that combines exposure propensity scores with data from two conditionally independent outcome measurements to simultaneously adjust for confounding and under-ascertainment...
March 4, 2024: Epidemiology
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