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Epidemiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702459/erratum-relation-between-infant-microbiota-and-autism-results-from-a-national-cohort-sibling-design-study
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30648981/erratum-trends-in-black-and-white-opioid-mortality-in-the-united
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640732/all-over-the-place-differences-in-and-consistency-of-excess-mortality-estimates-in-puerto-rico-after-hurricane-maria
#3
John Sandberg, Carlos Santos-Burgoa, Amira Roess, Ann Goldman-Hawes, Cynthia M Pérez, Alejandra Garcia-Meza, Lynn R Goldman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640731/detecting-the-onset-of-infectious-disease-outbreaks-using-school-sign-out-logs
#4
Zoe Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640218/semen-quality-and-risk-factors-for-mortality
#5
G David Batty, Laust H Mortensen, Martin J Shipley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2019: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640217/the-authors-respond
#6
Tetsuya Ohira, Hideto Takahashi, Seiji Yasumura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2019: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640216/complete-title-estimating-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-prevention-effects-in-low-incidence-settings
#7
Jacqueline E Rudolph, Stephen R Cole, Joseph J Eron, Angela D Kashuba, Adaora A Adimora
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for determining efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have not been conducted among US women because their lower HIV incidence requires impractically large studies. Results from higher incidence settings, like Sub-Saharan Africa, may not apply to US women due to differences in age, sexual behavior, coinfections, and adherence. METHODS: We propose a novel strategy for evaluating PrEP efficacy in the US using data from both settings to obtain four parameters: (1) intention-to-treat (ITT) and (2) per-protocol effects in the higher incidence setting, (3) per-protocol effect generalized to the lower incidence setting, and (4) back-calculated ITT effect using adherence data from the lower incidence setting...
January 10, 2019: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30608244/sufficient-cause-interaction-for-time-to-event-outcomes
#8
Mats Julius Stensrud, Pål Christie Ryalen, Kjetil Røysland
Methods to assess sufficient cause interactions are well-developed for binary outcomes. We extend these methods to handle time-to-event outcomes, which occur frequently in medicine and epidemiology. Based on theory for marginal structural models in continuous time, we show how to assess sufficient cause interaction non-parametrically, allowing for censoring and competing risks. We apply the method to study interaction between intensive blood pressure therapy and statin treatment on all-cause mortality.
December 26, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601243/modeling-the-complex-exposure-history-of-smoking-in-predicting-bladder-cancer-a-pooled-analysis-of-15-case-control-studies
#9
Frits H M van Osch, Jelle Vlaanderen, Sylvia H J Jochems, Cristina Bosetti, Jerry Polesel, Stefano Porru, Angela Carta, Klaus Golka, Xuejuan Jiang, Mariana C Stern, Wei-De Zhong, Eliane Kellen, Hermann Pohlabeln, Li Tang, James Marshall, Gunnar Steineck, Margaret R Karagas, Kenneth C Johnson, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Jack A Taylor, Carlo La Vecchia, Richard T Bryan, Frederik J van Schooten, Anke Wesselius, Maurice P Zeegers
BACKGROUND: Few studies have modeled smoking histories by combining smoking intensity and duration to show what profile of smoking behavior is associated with highest risk of bladder cancer. This study aims to provide insight into the association between smoking exposure history and bladder cancer risk by modeling both smoking intensity and duration in a pooled analysis. METHODS: We used data from 15 case-control studies included in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) study, including a total of 6,874 cases and 17,727 controls...
December 26, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30516650/is-the-association-between-pregnancy-weight-gain-and-fetal-size-causal-a-re-examination-using-a-sibling-comparison-design
#10
Jennifer A Hutcheon, Olof Stephansson, Sven Cnattingius, Lisa M Bodnar, KariJ Johansson
BACKGROUND: Observational cohort studies have consistently shown that maternal weight gain in pregnancy is positively associated with fetal size, but it is unknown whether the association is causal. This study investigated the effect of pregnancy weight gain on fetal growth using a sibling comparison design to control for unmeasured confounding by genetic and shared environmental factors. METHODS: Our study population included 44,457 infants (21,680 women) with electronic medical records in the Stockholm-Gotland Obstetrical Database, 2008-2014...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30516649/obtaining-actionable-inferences-from-epidemiologic-actions
#11
Ashley I Naimi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30507650/plant-based-diet-and-adiposity-over-time-in-a-middle-aged-and-elderly-population-the-rotterdam-study
#12
Zhangling Chen, Josje D Schoufour, Fernando Rivadeneira, Sander Lamballais, M Arfan Ikram, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore whether adhering to a more plant-based diet, beyond strict vegan or vegetarian diets, may help prevent adiposity in a middle-aged and elderly population. METHODS: We included 9633 participants from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary data were collected using food-frequency questionnaires at baseline of three sub-cohorts of the Rotterdam Study (1989-93, 2000-01, 2006-08). We created a plant-based diet index by giving plant-based foods positive scores and animal-based foods reverse scores...
November 30, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30507649/prenatal-metal-concentrations-and-childhood-cardio-metabolic-risk-using-bayesian-kernel-machine-regression-to-assess-mixture-and-interaction-effects
#13
Allison Kupsco, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Allan C Just, Chitra Amarasiriwardena, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez, Alejandra Cantoral, Alison P Sanders, Joseph M Braun, Katherine Svensson, Kasey Jm Brennan, Emily Oken, Robert O Wright, Andrea A Baccarelli, Maria M Téllez-Rojo
BACKGROUND: Trace metal concentrations may affect cardio-metabolic risk, but the role of prenatal exposure is unclear. We examined: 1) the relationship between blood metal concentrations during pregnancy and child cardio-metabolic risk factors; 2) overall effects of metals mixture (essential vs. nonessential); and 3) interactions between metals. METHODS: We measured 11 metals in maternal 2 trimester whole blood in a prospective birth cohort in Mexico City. In children 4-6 years old, we measured body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, and blood pressure (N=609); and plasma hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) , non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, and adiponectin (N=411)...
November 30, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30499783/high-birth-weight-early-uv-exposure-and-melanoma-risk-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults
#14
Katherine Y Wojcik, Loraine A Escobedo, Ashley Wysong, Julia E Heck, Beate Ritz, Ann S Hamilton, Joel Milam, Myles G Cockburn
BACKGROUND: Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is the second most common cancer diagnosed before age 30. Little is known about potentially modifiable or intervenable risk factors specific to developing melanoma at a young age. The objective was to determine if high birth weight or higher early life ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure would be associated with increased risk of melanoma in young patients. METHODS: Population-based, case-control study of 1,396 cases of melanoma diagnosed before age 30 in 1988-2013 and 27,920 controls, obtained by linking cancer registry data to birth records in California...
November 29, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30489349/proportions-of-cancer-cases-in-primary-care-hospital-and-cancer-registry-data-among-patients-treated-for-overactive-bladder
#15
Andrea V Margulis, Joan Fortuny, James A Kaye, Brian Calingaert, Maria Reynolds, Estel Plana, Lisa J McQuay, Willem Jan Atsma, Billy Franks, Stefan de Vogel, Susana Perez-Gutthann, Alejandro Arana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30489348/diesel-exhaust-respirable-dust-and-ischemic-heart-disease-an-application-of-the-parametric-g-formula
#16
Andreas M Neophytou, Sadie Costello, Sally Picciotto, Daniel M Brown, Michael D Attfield, Aaron Blair, Jay H Lubin, Patricia A Stewart, Roel Vermeulen, Debra T Silverman, Ellen A Eisen
BACKGROUND: Although general population studies of air pollution suggest that particulate matter - diesel exhaust emissions in particular - is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease, direct evidence from occupational cohorts using quantitative metrics of exposure is limited. In this study, we assess counterfactual risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality under hypothetical scenarios limiting exposure levels of diesel exhaust and of respirable mine/ore dust in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) cohort...
November 27, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30461528/comparison-of-methods-for-algorithmic-classification-of-dementia-status-in-the-health-and-retirement-study
#17
Kan Z Gianattasio, Qiong Wu, M Maria Glymour, Melinda C Power
BACKGROUND: Dementia ascertainment is time-consuming and costly. Several algorithms use existing data from the U.S.-representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to algorithmically identify dementia. However, relative performance of these algorithms remains unknown. METHODS: We compared performance across five algorithms (Herzog-Wallace, Langa-Kabeto-Weir, Crimmins, Hurd, Wu) overall and within sociodemographic subgroups in participants in HRS and Wave A of the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS, 2000-2002), an HRS sub-study including in-person dementia ascertainment...
November 19, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30461527/increased-risk-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-families-with-tonsillectomy-a-danish-national-cohort-study
#18
Peter Bager, Sanne Gørtz, Bjarke Feenstra, Nynne Nyboe Andersen, Tine Jess, Morten Frisch, Mads Melbye
BACKGROUND: The possible etiologic link between tonsillectomy and inflammatory bowel diseases remains unclear. To investigate the hereditary component, we assessed the risk of inflammatory bowel disease after own tonsillectomy as well as after tonsillectomy among family members. METHODS: A nationwide Danish cohort of 7,045,288 individuals was established and linked to comprehensive national registers with data on kinship, tonsillectomy surgery, and diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease from all health sectors...
November 19, 2018: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721170/rice-consumption-and-incidence-of-bladder-cancer-in-the-united-states-population
#19
Antonio J Signes-Pastor, M Scot Zens, John Seigne, Alan Schned, Margaret R Karagas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721169/extended-mortality-follow-up-of-a-cohort-of-dry-cleaners
#20
Catherine L Callahan, Patricia A Stewart, Aaron Blair, Mark P Purdue
BACKGROUND: Dry cleaning workers are commonly exposed to tetrachloroethylene, a suspected bladder carcinogen, and other organic solvents. The health risks associated with solvent exposures in this industry are unclear. METHODS: We extended mortality follow-up of 5,369 dry cleaning union members in St. Louis to further investigate solvent-related risks. We added 22 years of follow-up, from 1993 through 2014, via linkage to the National Death Index. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we computed hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating cause-specific mortality with levels of a solvent exposure index previously developed by an industrial hygienist based on workers' job titles from union records...
March 2019: Epidemiology
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