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Endocrine Pathology

Qiqi Yu, Heather Hardin, Ying-Hsia Chu, William Rehrauer, Ricardo V Lloyd
Parathyroid adenomas are slow growing benign neoplasms associated with hypercalcemia, while atypical parathyroid adenomas and parathyroid carcinomas are uncommon tumors and their histologic features may overlap with parathyroid adenomas. LncRNAs participate in transcription and in epigenetic or post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and probably contribute to carcinogenesis. We analyzed a group of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic parathyroid lesions to determine the best immunohistochemical markers to characterize these lesions and to determine the role of selected lncRNAs in tumor progression...
May 22, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Brittney A Imblum, Zubair W Baloch, Douglas Fraker, Virginia A LiVolsi
Immune checkpoint inhibitors act to restore T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. By this nature, these cancer immunotherapy drugs are associated with various immune-related adverse events such as thyroid dysfunction. We describe a case of thyrotoxicosis secondary to a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab. A 30-year-old female was started on pembrolizumab immunotherapy for stage III small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type. Thirteen days after her second cycle of therapy, she presented with symptoms consistent with thyrotoxicosis...
May 20, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Sae Rom Chung, Jung Hwan Baek, Jeong Hyun Lee, Yu-Mi Lee, Tae-Yon Sung, Ki-Wook Chung, Suck Joon Hong, Min Ji Jeon, Tae Yong Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim, Won Gu Kim, Dong Eun Song
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of malignancy (ROM) associated with atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) and suspicious follicular neoplasm (SFN) core needle biopsy (CNB) categories after further sub-classification. Data from 2267 thyroid nodules evaluated by ultrasound-guided CNB, from January to December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. AUS nodules (n = 556) were sub-classified as follows: (1) architectural atypia (AUS-A; n = 369, 66.4%), (2) cytologic atypia (AUS-C; n = 35, 6...
May 1, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Nada A Farhat, James F Powers, Annette Shepard-Barry, Patricia Dahia, Karel Pacak, Arthur S Tischler
We describe a consistently present, previously unrecognized, population of monocytes in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Although sustentacular cells are generally recognized as a common component of these tumors, differential immunohistochemical staining for CD163 and S100 shows that monocytes can in fact be more numerous. These cells frequently resemble sustentacular cells topographically and cytologically, possibly explaining why they have not been previously noticed. They contribute to the tumor proteome and may have implications for tumor biology...
April 18, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Chiara Saglietti, Stefano La Rosa, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Igor Letovanec, Jean-Luc Bulliard, Simonetta Piana, Maxime Mermod, Tatiana Petrova, Silvia Uccella, Fausto Sessa, Massimo Bongiovanni
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has been shown to express Prospero homeobox protein 1 (Prox1), a transcription factor whose expression is altered in a variety of human cancers. We conducted a retrospective study on a series of 32 patients with MTC to test the correlation of Prox1 expression in MTC with clinicopathological features and to evaluate its prognostic significance. Correlation of Prox1 immunohistochemical expression with tumor size, proliferative index (Ki67), and calcitonin and CEA serum levels prior to surgery was tested for significant correlations...
April 17, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Esther Diana Rossi, William C Faquin, Zubair Baloch, Guido Fadda, Lester Thompson, Luigi Maria Larocca, Liron Pantanowitz
Advances in our understanding of thyroid lesions, especially those entities with an indolent behavior, has led clinicians to question the most appropriate surgical management of such thyroid nodules. Several studies have shown that the non-invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas (NI-EFVPC) exhibits poor histopathologic diagnostic reproducibility and have been over-treated as conventional thyroid cancer. In 2015, an international thyroid working group re-evaluated NI-EFVPC and its diagnostic criteria...
April 5, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Ryota Tamura, Kentaro Ohara, Yukina Morimoto, Kenzo Kosugi, Yumiko Oishi, Mizuto Sato, Kazunari Yoshida, Masahiro Toda
Although most pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) show benign behavior, a significant number of PitNETs exhibit an aggressive course including cavernous sinus (CS) invasion. To date, the cause of CS invasion has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between CS invasion in PitNETs and the expression of PITX2 and SNAIL1, which are the transcription factors associated with the morphogenesis of pituitary gland. Sixty cases with non-functional PitNETs were classified into four types: type 1a, none of CS invasion and suprasellar expansion; type 1b, suprasellar expansion without CS invasion; type 2a, CS invasion without suprasellar expansion; and type 2b, CS invasion with suprasellar expansion...
March 22, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Anjelica Hodgson, Sara Pakbaz, Farnoosh Tayyari, James Edward Massey Young, Ozgur Mete
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Rachel Jug, Shobha Parajuli, Sara Ahmadi, Xiaoyin Sara Jiang
Molecular tests and mutational panels such as Afirma Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) and ThyroSeq, respectively, have been used to help risk stratify cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules with the aim to reduce unnecessary surgeries. We studied the effect of molecular testing on the rate of surgical resection in these nodules. Thyroid nodules with indeterminate (Bethesda III/IV) cytology that underwent molecular testing (GEC or ThyroSeq) at our institution between June 2012 and August 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 1, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Kristine S Wong, Sara E Higgins, Ellen Marqusee, Matthew A Nehs, Trevor Angell, Justine A Barletta
The morphologic criteria for tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were modified in the 2017 WHO Classification of Tumors of Endocrine Organs, with a decrease in the requirements for both the height of cells and in the percentage of tumor demonstrating a tall cell morphology. The aim of this study was to determine if the change in criteria would result in a significant increase in the percentage of tumors that meet criteria for TCV. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between morphology, molecular alterations, and clinical behavior of TCV...
March 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Lindsey Oudijk, José Gaal, Ronald R de Krijger
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is an enzyme complex, composed of four protein subunits, that plays a role in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. The genes for SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD are located in the nuclear DNA, and mutations in these genes have initially been described in paragangliomas (PGL) and pheochromocytomas (PCC), which are relatively rare tumors derived from the autonomic nervous system and the adrenal medulla, respectively. Patients with SDH mutations, that are almost exclusively in the germline, are frequently affected by multiple PGL and/or PCC...
March 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Marta Szybowska, Ozgur Mete, Evan Weber, Josh Silver, Raymond H Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Preetjote Gill, Edward Kim, Terence C Chua, Roderick J Clifton-Bligh, Christopher B Nahm, Anubhav Mittal, Anthony J Gill, Jaswinder S Samra
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) are relatively uncommon, accounting for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Tumour grade (based on the Ki67 proliferative index and mitotic rate) is associated with metastatic risk across large cohorts; however, predicting the behaviour of individual tumours can be difficult. Therefore, any tool which could further stratify metastatic risk may be clinically beneficial. We sought to investigate microRNA (miRNA) expression as a marker of metastatic disease in PNETs. Tumours from 37 patients, comprising 23 with locoregional disease (L) and 14 with distant metastases (DM), underwent miRNA profiling...
February 14, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Martyna Borowczyk, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Michał Olejarz, Barbara Więckowska, Frederik A Verburg, Szymon Dębicki, Bartłomiej Budny, Małgorzata Janicka-Jedyńska, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, Marek Ruchała
The original version of the article unfortunately contained an error.
February 8, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Omalkhaire M Alshaikh, Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete, Shereen Ezzat
Pituitary carcinoma is a rare disease, defined by the presence of cerebrospinal or distant metastasis of a pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (PitNET). To review our institutional experience of pituitary carcinoma, we searched the database of the UHN Endocrine Oncology Site group and the University Health Network pathology laboratory information system from 2001 to 2016. Among 1055 PitNETs from 1169 transsphenoidal resections, we identified 4 cases of pituitary carcinoma, indicating that pituitary carcinoma represents around 0...
January 31, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Talia L Fuchs, Stephen E Bell, A Chou, Anthony J Gill
C cell hyperplasia is considered a precursor lesion for hereditary forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma. It has therefore been suggested as a morphological marker to distinguish hereditary from sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma and to triage genetic testing in resource poor settings. However, numerous definitions for C cell hyperplasia have been suggested, and there is surprisingly little data regarding the number of C cells present in thyroid glands removed for conditions other than medullary carcinoma...
January 29, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Hye-Seon Oh, Sun Jae Kim, Eyun Song, Yu-Mi Lee, Tae-Yon Sung, Won Gu Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Dong Eun Song
The diagnosis of encapsulated follicular-patterned thyroid carcinoma (EFPTC) is challenging, and the detection of capsular invasion and/or vascular invasion is essential in distinguishing benign lesions from malignant lesions. In this study, we present a modified transverse-vertical gross examination method with additional vertical cuts at the upper and lower ends of thyroid nodules. In addition, we compared the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with EFPTC between conventional and modified methods...
January 19, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Karen M Tordjman, Yona Greenman, Zvi Ram, Dov Hershkovitz, Orna Aizenstein, Ofra Ariel, Sylvia L Asa
Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary tumors are the rarest functioning pituitary tumors. Nonetheless, they are not infrequently plurihormonal, as they may express/secrete hormones made by other pituitary cells derived from the Pit-1 lineage such as growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and α-subunit (αSU). However, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) or gonadotropin secretion by such a tumor is exceptional. Although double pituitary tumors are rare, they often combine ACTH and GH secretion. A 41-year-old presented almost 2 years after delivering her 10th child; she had thyrotoxicosis (goiter and palpitations) masquerading as autoimmune postpartum thyroiditis...
January 4, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Rovshan Hasanov, Berna İmge Aydoğan, Saba Kiremitçi, Esra Erden, Sevim Güllü
The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of pituitary tumors recommended evaluation of tumor proliferation and invasion to identify aggressiveness. We aimed to assess the prognostic roles of the Ki-67 proliferation index, mitotic index, P53 expression, and cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas (PAs). Among the 601 patients who underwent transnasal/transsphenoidal adenomectomy from 2001 to 2016, 101 patients (16.8%) who had tumors with a high (≥ 3%) Ki-67 index (group A) and a control group consisting of 43 patients with a low (< 3%) Ki 67 index who were matched for age, gender, and tumor type were included...
January 4, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Ying-Hsia Chu, Heather Hardin, Jens Eickhoff, Ricardo V Lloyd
Recent studies suggest onco-regulatory roles for two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), MALAT1 and HOTAIR, in various malignancies; however, these lncRNAs have not been previously examined in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of gastroenteropancreatic origins (GEP-NENs). In this study, we evaluated the expressions and prognostic significance of MALAT1 and HOTAIR in 83 cases of GEP-NENs (60 grade 1, 17 grade 2, and 6 grade 3 tumors) diagnosed during the years 2005-2017. Expression levels of MALAT1 and HOTAIR were digitally quantitated in assembled tissue microarray slides labeled by chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH) using InForm 1...
January 2, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
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