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Endocrine Pathology

Chia-Chi Tsai, Ming-Nan Chien, Yuan-Ching Chang, Jie-Jen Lee, Shuen-Han Dai, Shih-Ping Cheng
A variety of epigenetic dysregulations are observed in thyroid malignancies. EZH2, the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2, is upregulated in advanced thyroid cancers. EZH2 can catalyze trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and contribute to transcriptional silencing of target genes. Here, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of H3K27me3 in neoplastic and normal thyroid tissues. Normal thyroid epithelial cells typically exhibited nuclear staining of moderate intensity...
August 8, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Darin Ruanpeng, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Charat Thongprayoon, James V Hennessey, Rupendra T Shrestha
A re-named diagnosis of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) likely impacts the prevalence of thyroid cancer and risk of malignancy in populations based on the established Bethesda System of Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC). This study was done to investigate the prevalence and cytological distribution of NIFTP. PRISMA guided systematic review was done from a database search of Pubmed, EMBASE, and Medline using the search terms "non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features", "non-invasive follicular variant of papillary carcinoma", "niftp", and "Bethesda" until November 2018...
July 23, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Kleopatra Georgantzi, Apostolos V Tsolakis, Åke Jakobson, Rolf Christofferson, Eva Tiensuu Janson, Lars Grimelius
Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial cancer in childhood, exhibits neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Two well-established NE markers, chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin (syn), are used in the histopathological diagnostics. Our aims were to explore if the NE markers synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) and vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) and 2 (VMAT2) also are expressed in human NB and if so, evaluate their usefulness in NB histopathological diagnostics. Tumor specimens from 21 NB patients, before and/or after chemotherapy, were immunostained for CgA, syn, SV2, VMAT1, and VMAT2...
July 18, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Ranjit Singarayer, Ozgur Mete, Laure Perrier, Lehana Thabane, Sylvia L Asa, Stan Van Uum, Shereen Ezzat, David P Goldstein, Anna M Sawka
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in evaluating thyroid surgical specimens may facilitate diagnostic and prognostic evaluation, with potential therapeutic implications. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the analytic validity of IHC in detecting BRAFV600E mutations in thyroid cancer (primary or metastatic). We screened citations from three electronic databases (until December 20, 2018), supplemented by a hand search of authors' files and cross-references of reviews. Citations and full-text papers were independently reviewed in duplicate, and consensus was achieved on inclusion of papers...
July 12, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Nidan Qiao, Brooke Swearingen, E Tessa Hedley-Whyte, Nicholas A Tritos
Cushing's disease (CD) is most commonly caused by a microadenoma, which at surgical exploration may not provide adequate tissue for pathologic diagnosis using standard techniques. We wished to determine the accuracy of intraoperative pathologic examination and whether the addition of intraoperative cytology increased the diagnostic yield. We reviewed the pathology reports from 403 operations on 341 patients with CD microadenomas from a single institution. The concordance rates of intraoperative diagnoses (cytology and frozen) with the final (paraffin section) pathological diagnosis were calculated...
June 21, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Giulia Cossu, Jean-Philippe Brouland, Stefano La Rosa, Chiara Camponovo, Edoardo Viaroli, Roy Thomas Daniel, Mahmoud Messerer
The 2017 World Health Organization classification of central nervous system and endocrine tumors have introduced significant changes in the diagnostic criteria for pituitary lesions. The aim of our paper is to describe the epidemiological, clinico-pathological, and radiological features of a single consecutive institutional surgical series of rare pituitary lesions, using these new criteria. Of the 316 endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approaches performed for pituitary lesions between 2010 and 2018, 15 rare lesions were encountered...
June 17, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Adam Stenman, Martin Hysek, Kenbugul Jatta, Robert Bränström, Eva Darai-Ramqvist, Johan O Paulsson, Na Wang, Catharina Larsson, Jan Zedenius, Carl Christofer Juhlin
Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is not routinely diagnosed by a preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), and the final diagnosis relies on histopathological criteria visible upon microscopic examination of the excised tumor. Several markers have been proposed as helpful in the identification of follicular thyroid tumors with malignant potential and worse prognosis, of which the specific point mutations C250T and C228T in the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) promoter region seem to be particularly promising...
June 1, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Qiqi Yu, Heather Hardin, Ying-Hsia Chu, William Rehrauer, Ricardo V Lloyd
Parathyroid adenomas are slow growing benign neoplasms associated with hypercalcemia, while atypical parathyroid adenomas and parathyroid carcinomas are uncommon tumors and their histologic features may overlap with parathyroid adenomas. LncRNAs participate in transcription and in epigenetic or post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and probably contribute to carcinogenesis. We analyzed a group of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic parathyroid lesions to determine the best immunohistochemical markers to characterize these lesions and to determine the role of selected lncRNAs in tumor progression...
May 22, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Brittney A Imblum, Zubair W Baloch, Douglas Fraker, Virginia A LiVolsi
Immune checkpoint inhibitors act to restore T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. By this nature, these cancer immunotherapy drugs are associated with various immune-related adverse events such as thyroid dysfunction. We describe a case of thyrotoxicosis secondary to a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab. A 30-year-old female was started on pembrolizumab immunotherapy for stage III small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type. Thirteen days after her second cycle of therapy, she presented with symptoms consistent with thyrotoxicosis...
June 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Esther Diana Rossi, William C Faquin, Zubair Baloch, Guido Fadda, Lester Thompson, Luigi Maria Larocca, Liron Pantanowitz
Advances in our understanding of thyroid lesions, especially those entities with an indolent behavior, has led clinicians to question the most appropriate surgical management of such thyroid nodules. Several studies have shown that the non-invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas (NI-EFVPC) exhibits poor histopathologic diagnostic reproducibility and have been over-treated as conventional thyroid cancer. In 2015, an international thyroid working group re-evaluated NI-EFVPC and its diagnostic criteria...
June 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Anjelica Hodgson, Sara Pakbaz, Farnoosh Tayyari, James Edward Massey Young, Ozgur Mete
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Sae Rom Chung, Jung Hwan Baek, Jeong Hyun Lee, Yu-Mi Lee, Tae-Yon Sung, Ki-Wook Chung, Suck Joon Hong, Min Ji Jeon, Tae Yong Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim, Won Gu Kim, Dong Eun Song
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of malignancy (ROM) associated with atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) and suspicious follicular neoplasm (SFN) core needle biopsy (CNB) categories after further sub-classification. Data from 2267 thyroid nodules evaluated by ultrasound-guided CNB, from January to December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. AUS nodules (n = 556) were sub-classified as follows: (1) architectural atypia (AUS-A; n = 369, 66.4%), (2) cytologic atypia (AUS-C; n = 35, 6...
May 1, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Nada A Farhat, James F Powers, Annette Shepard-Barry, Patricia Dahia, Karel Pacak, Arthur S Tischler
We describe a consistently present, previously unrecognized, population of monocytes in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Although sustentacular cells are generally recognized as a common component of these tumors, differential immunohistochemical staining for CD163 and S100 shows that monocytes can in fact be more numerous. These cells frequently resemble sustentacular cells topographically and cytologically, possibly explaining why they have not been previously noticed. They contribute to the tumor proteome and may have implications for tumor biology...
April 18, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Chiara Saglietti, Stefano La Rosa, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Igor Letovanec, Jean-Luc Bulliard, Simonetta Piana, Maxime Mermod, Tatiana Petrova, Silvia Uccella, Fausto Sessa, Massimo Bongiovanni
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has been shown to express Prospero homeobox protein 1 (Prox1), a transcription factor whose expression is altered in a variety of human cancers. We conducted a retrospective study on a series of 32 patients with MTC to test the correlation of Prox1 expression in MTC with clinicopathological features and to evaluate its prognostic significance. Correlation of Prox1 immunohistochemical expression with tumor size, proliferative index (Ki67), and calcitonin and CEA serum levels prior to surgery was tested for significant correlations...
April 17, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Ryota Tamura, Kentaro Ohara, Yukina Morimoto, Kenzo Kosugi, Yumiko Oishi, Mizuto Sato, Kazunari Yoshida, Masahiro Toda
Although most pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) show benign behavior, a significant number of PitNETs exhibit an aggressive course including cavernous sinus (CS) invasion. To date, the cause of CS invasion has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between CS invasion in PitNETs and the expression of PITX2 and SNAIL1, which are the transcription factors associated with the morphogenesis of pituitary gland. Sixty cases with non-functional PitNETs were classified into four types: type 1a, none of CS invasion and suprasellar expansion; type 1b, suprasellar expansion without CS invasion; type 2a, CS invasion without suprasellar expansion; and type 2b, CS invasion with suprasellar expansion...
March 22, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Rachel Jug, Shobha Parajuli, Sara Ahmadi, Xiaoyin Sara Jiang
Molecular tests and mutational panels such as Afirma Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) and ThyroSeq, respectively, have been used to help risk stratify cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules with the aim to reduce unnecessary surgeries. We studied the effect of molecular testing on the rate of surgical resection in these nodules. Thyroid nodules with indeterminate (Bethesda III/IV) cytology that underwent molecular testing (GEC or ThyroSeq) at our institution between June 2012 and August 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 1, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Kristine S Wong, Sara E Higgins, Ellen Marqusee, Matthew A Nehs, Trevor Angell, Justine A Barletta
The morphologic criteria for tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were modified in the 2017 WHO Classification of Tumors of Endocrine Organs, with a decrease in the requirements for both the height of cells and in the percentage of tumor demonstrating a tall cell morphology. The aim of this study was to determine if the change in criteria would result in a significant increase in the percentage of tumors that meet criteria for TCV. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between morphology, molecular alterations, and clinical behavior of TCV...
March 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Andreas Selberherr, Oskar Koperek, Philipp Riss, Christian Scheuba, Reto Kaderli, Aurel Perren, Bruno Niederle
The diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) is often made at an advanced stage of disease, including hepatic metastasis. At this point, the primary may still be unknown and sometimes cannot even be detected by functional imaging, especially in very small tumors of the pancreas (pan) and small intestinal (si) entities. The site of the primary may be based on biopsy specimens of the liver applying a specific set of markers. Specimens of liver metastases from 87 patients with NENs were studied. In retrospect, 50 patients had si and 37 pan NENs...
March 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Lindsey Oudijk, José Gaal, Ronald R de Krijger
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is an enzyme complex, composed of four protein subunits, that plays a role in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. The genes for SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD are located in the nuclear DNA, and mutations in these genes have initially been described in paragangliomas (PGL) and pheochromocytomas (PCC), which are relatively rare tumors derived from the autonomic nervous system and the adrenal medulla, respectively. Patients with SDH mutations, that are almost exclusively in the germline, are frequently affected by multiple PGL and/or PCC...
March 2019: Endocrine Pathology
Marta Szybowska, Ozgur Mete, Evan Weber, Josh Silver, Raymond H Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2019: Endocrine Pathology
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