Michaela Luconi, Giulia Cantini, Rachel S van Leeuwaarde, Rogina Roebaar, Laura Fei, Arianna Pia Propato, Raffaella Santi, Tonino Ercolino, Massimo Mannelli, Letizia Canu, Ronald R de Krijger, Gabriella Nesi
Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon neoplasm with variable prognosis. Several histologic criteria have been identified as predictors of malignancy in adrenal cortical tumors. The Weiss score is the system most widely employed for diagnostic purposes, but also possesses prognostic value. We aim to determine the relative impact of each Weiss parameter on ACC patient survival. A multicenter retrospective analysis was conducted on a series of 79 conventional ACCs surgically treated at the Florence and Utrecht centers of the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT)...
March 23, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Arthur S Tischler, Virginia A LiVolsi, Sylvia L Asa
The pathology of neoplasia tends to focus on the tumor that requires characterization, grading, and staging. However, nontumorous tissue surrounding the lesion can also provide information, particularly about pathogenetic mechanisms. In endocrine tissues, this takes the form of precursor lesions that characterize several genetic predisposition syndromes. In addition, because of the unique functional aspects of endocrine neoplasia, the nontumorous tissue provides evidence of hormone excess, with hyperplasia and/or atrophy and other involutional changes allowing the pathologist to confirm both hormone function by the tumor and the effects of medical therapies...
March 21, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Sylvia L Asa, Lori A Erickson, Guido Rindi
Endocrine pathology comprises a spectrum of disorders originating in various sites throughout the body. Some disorders affect endocrine glands, and others arise from endocrine cells that are dispersed in non-endocrine tissues. Endocrine cells can broadly be classified as neuroendocrine, steroidogenic, or thyroid follicular cells; these three families have distinct embryologic origins, morphologic structure, and biochemical hormone synthetic pathways. Lesions affecting the endocrine system include developmental abnormalities, inflammatory processes that can be infectious or autoimmune, hypofunction with atrophy or hyperfunction caused by hyperplasia secondary to pathology in other sites, and neoplasia of many types...
March 18, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Chan Kwon Jung, Shipra Agarwal, Jen-Fan Hang, Dong-Jun Lim, Andrey Bychkov, Ozgur Mete
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a C-cell-derived epithelial neuroendocrine neoplasm. With the exception of rare examples, most are well-differentiated epithelial neuroendocrine neoplasms (also known as neuroendocrine tumors in the taxonomy of the International Agency for Research on Cancer [IARC] of the World Health Organization [WHO]). This review provides an overview and recent evidence-based data on the molecular genetics, disease risk stratification based on clinicopathologic variables including molecular profiling and histopathologic variables, and targeted molecular therapies in patients with advanced MTC...
March 8, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Florian Violon, Lucas Bouys, Annabel Berthon, Bruno Ragazzon, Maxime Barat, Karine Perlemoine, Laurence Guignat, Benoit Terris, Jérôme Bertherat, Mathilde Sibony
Bilateral macronodular adrenocortical disease (BMAD) is characterized by the development of adrenal macronodules resulting in a pituitary-ACTH independent Cushing's syndrome. Although there are important similarities observed between the rare microscopic descriptions of this disease, the small series published are not representative of the molecular and genetic heterogenicity recently described in BMAD. We analyzed the pathological features in a series of BMAD and determined if there is correlation between these criteria and the characteristics of the patients...
March 2, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Merryl Terry, Gerald Reis, Andrew Horvai, Melike Pekmezci, Arie Perry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Esther Diana Rossi, Zubair Baloch
This review outlines how the alterations in the 5th edition of the WHO Classification of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Tumors of the thyroid gland are likely to impact thyroid cytopathology. It is important to note that WHO subclassifies thyroid tumors into several new categories based on increased comprehension of the cell of origin, pathologic features (including cytopathology), molecular classification, and biological behavior. The 3rd edition of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) will debut in the near future and will include changes in diagnostic category designations...
February 17, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Stefano La Rosa
The introduction of Ki67 immunohistochemistry in the work-up of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has opened a new approach for their diagnosis and prognostic evaluation. Since the first demonstration of the prognostic role of Ki67 proliferative index in pancreatic NENs in 1996, several studies have been performed to explore its prognostic, diagnostic, and predictive role in other neuroendocrine and endocrine neoplasms. A large amount of information is now available and published results globally indicate that Ki67 proliferative index is useful to this scope, although some differences exist in relation to tumor site and type...
February 17, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Lori A Erickson, Michael Rivera, Ruifeng Guo, Jorge Torres-Mora, Sounak Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Virginia A LiVolsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Christopher M Sande, Isabella Tondi Resta, Virginia A Livolsi
The effects of many pharmacological agents on thyroid function are well known. Direct influences on measurements of thyroid function tests are also described. However, certain classes of drugs produce morphological changes in the gland. This review focuses on the significance of the following drug classes for the thyroid pathologist: iodine, antithyroid drugs, psychotropic drugs, antibiotics, cardiotropic drugs, antidiabetic drugs, and immunomodulatory agents. Radioactive iodine initially induces mild histologic changes; however, the long-term effects include marked follicular atrophy, fibrosis, and nuclear atypia-changes that vary depending on the pre-therapy condition of the gland...
February 1, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
John Turchini, Loretta Sioson, Adele Clarkson, Amy Sheen, Leigh Delbridge, Anthony Glover, Mark Sywak, Stan Sidhu, Anthony J Gill
Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) are driven by a variety of molecular abnormalities including BRAF, RAS, ALK, RET, and NTRK alterations. PTCs driven by the BRAFV600E mutation, or tumours which demonstrate a similar gene expression profile to PTCs driven by this mutation, have been reported to demonstrate specific morphological features sometimes termed "BRAFV600E-like" atypia. BRAFV600E-like atypia is characterised by a well-developed papillary architecture, infiltrative growth, marked nuclear clearing, prominent intranuclear pseudoinclusions, abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and scattered psammoma bodies...
January 28, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Renee Hofstedter, María Carolina Sanabria-Salas, Maria Di Jiang, Shereen Ezzat, Ozgur Mete, Raymond H Kim
Adrenal cortical carcinoma is an aggressive and rare malignancy of steroidogenic cells of the adrenal gland. Most adult adrenal cortical carcinomas are sporadic, but a small fraction may be associated with inherited tumor syndromes, such as Li-Fraumeni, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1, Lynch syndrome, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, as well as isolated case reports of non-syndromic manifestations occurring in the context of other pathogenic germline variants. Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused by germline pathogenic variants in the FLCN gene...
January 26, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Vincent Cracolici, Nicole A Cipriani
Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and high-grade differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HGDTC) are considered high-grade follicular-derived thyroid carcinomas, with prognoses intermediate between well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Both share the presence of invasion, thyroid follicular-cell origin, and tumor necrosis or increased mitoses (≥ 3 mitoses per 2 mm2 in PDTC and ≥ 5 mitoses per 2 mm2 in HGDTC), without anaplastic dedifferentiation. PDTC must possess solid, trabecular, or insular growth and lack classic papillary-like nuclei; HGDTC can be of any architectural or nuclear morphology (follicular-like, papillary-like, oncocytic)...
January 24, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Karolina Solhusløkk Höse, Adam Stenman, Fredrika Svahn, Catharina Larsson, C Christofer Juhlin
Pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors originating from chromaffin cells. Even though only 10-15% of the tumors metastasize, all PPGLs are considered potentially malignant. Topoisomerase 2A (TOP2A) is a protein involved in cell proliferation and has been found to be over-expressed in metastatic PPGL. To provide support whether TOP2A could serve as a prognostic marker, 88 PPGLs (of which 8 metastatic/relapsing) and 10 normal adrenal gland samples were assessed for TOP2A mRNA expression using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and TOP2A immunohistochemistry...
January 19, 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Marco Schiavo Lena, Stefano Partelli, Valentina Andreasi, Francesca Muffatti, Miriam Redegalli, Emanuela Brunetto, Beatrice Maghini, Monika Falke, Maria Giulia Cangi, Aurel Perren, Massimo Falconi, Claudio Doglioni
The incidence of well-differentiated non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PanNET) increased during the last decades. The risk of relapse after curative surgery, albeit low, is not negligible; moreover, adjuvant treatment is currently not an option and a reliable predictive model based on prognostic characteristics is urgently needed for tailoring a follow-up strategy. The histological classification of PanNET now relies only on the proliferative activity (mitosis and Ki67) and staging. In contrast to other endocrine neoplasms, the role of infiltrative growth pattern in NF-PanNET is not taken into consideration at present...
March 2023: Endocrine Pathology
Orhan Semerci, Hasan Gucer
Thorough gross examination and appropriate sampling of the thyroidectomy specimens are fundamental to the diagnosis and clinical risk management of patients. This study aims to investigate the frequency and clinical significance of initially unsampled microscopic thyroid carcinomas in total thyroidectomy specimens with presumed benign multinodular thyroid disease. Seventy-two total thyroidectomy specimens belonging to multinodular goiter patients were randomly selected and included in this prospectively designed study...
December 17, 2022: Endocrine Pathology
Sylvia L Asa, Amr Mohamed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2022: Endocrine Pathology
Ying-Hsia Chu, Peter M Sadow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2022: Endocrine Pathology
Ying-Hsia Chu, Peter M Sadow
The past decade has brought significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thyroid carcinogenesis. Among thyroid carcinomas, the most successful class of targeted therapeutics appears to be selective kinase inhibitors. Actionable kinase fusions arise in around 10-15% of cases of thyroid cancer, a significant subset. A cohort of molecular testing platforms, both commercial and laboratory-derived, has been introduced into clinical practice to identify patients with targetable tumors, requiring pathologists to develop an integrative approach that utilizes traditional diagnostic cytopathology and histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and cutting-edge molecular assays for optimal diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic efficiency...
December 2022: Endocrine Pathology
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