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Neuropsychology Review

Floris Klumpers, Marijn C W Kroes
The commentary by Luyck and colleagues on our paper provides many stimulating viewpoints and interpretations of our original study on dissociable responses in the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in threat processing. Here, we reply to some of the points raised and while agreeing with most of the comments also provide some alternative viewpoints. We end by putting forward a research agenda for how to further investigate the roles of these regions in threat processing, with an emphasis on studying their roles in defensive action...
March 19, 2019: Neuropsychology Review
David G Andrewes, Lisanne M Jenkins
The importance of the amygdala as a salience detector and in emotional learning is now well accepted. The mechanisms that regulate and inhibit the amygdala, however, are less well understood. This review provides evidence from imaging and lesion studies to support the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a moderator and inhibitor of the amygdala. The dual inhibition model centres on the broadly defined ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the distinct role of two of its subcomponents, the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex...
March 14, 2019: Neuropsychology Review
Samuel R Chamberlain, Jon E Grant
Decision-making impairments reflect tendencies towards risky or unwise choices as manifested by presence of psychiatric symptoms or cognitive impairment (e.g. representation of value, inhibitory control-response selection, learning). Such impairments are suggested by the hallmark symptoms of substance and behavioral addictions, which include escalation over time (of substance intake or a given behavior), lack of control, neglect of other domains of life, and cognitive distortions (such as 'chasing losses' in gambling disorder)...
March 9, 2019: Neuropsychology Review
Katy A Jones, Thomas Hewson, Christian P Sales, Najat Khalifa
Decision-making has many different definitions and is measured in varied ways using neuropsychological tasks. Offenders with mental disorder habitually make disadvantageous decisions, but no study has systematically appraised the literature. This review aimed to clarify the field by bringing together different neuropsychological measures of decision-making, and using meta-analysis and systematic review to explore the performance of offenders with mental disorders on neuropsychological tasks of decision-making...
February 23, 2019: Neuropsychology Review
Marilisa Boffo, Oulmann Zerhouni, Quentin F Gronau, Ruben J J van Beek, Kyriaki Nikolaou, Maarten Marsman, Reinout W Wiers
Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) refers to a family of interventions targeting substance-related cognitive biases, which have been found to play a role in the maintenance of addictive behaviors. In this study, we conducted a Bayesian meta-analysis of individual patient data from studies investigating the effects of CBM as a behavior change intervention for the treatment of alcohol and tobacco use disorders, in individuals aware of the behavior change goal of the studies. Main outcomes included reduction in the targeted cognitive biases after the intervention and in substance use or relapse rate at the short-to-long term follow-up...
January 14, 2019: Neuropsychology Review
Benjamin Rolland, Fabien D'Hondt, Solène Montègue, Mélanie Brion, Eric Peyron, Julia D'Aviau de Ternay, Philippe de Timary, Mikaïl Nourredine, Pierre Maurage
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are associated with impairments of cognitive functions, and cognitive training programs are thus rapidly developing in SUD treatment. However, neuropsychological impairments observed early after withdrawal (i.e., early impairments), that is, approximately in the first six months, may be widespread. Consequently, it might not be possible to train all the identified early impairments. In these situations, we propose that the priority of cognitive training should be given to the early impairments found to be associated with early dropout or relapse (i...
January 3, 2019: Neuropsychology Review
Pietro Caggiano, Mervi Jehkonen
A review of patients with brain injury showing personal neglect is presented. The aim is to shed light on this aspect of neglect often unresearched or only indirectly investigated, and to discuss recent findings concerning the methods used to assess personal neglect, its neural correlates and its association with the more often explored aspect of extrapersonal neglect. The review was performed using PubMed and PsychInfo databases to search for papers published in the last 123 years (until January 2018). We reviewed 81 papers describing either single or group studies for a total of 2247 patients...
December 13, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Judy Luigjes, Rebecca Segrave, Niels de Joode, Martijn Figee, Damiaan Denys
It is important to find new treatments for addiction due to high relapse rates despite current interventions and due to expansion of the field with non-substance related addictive behaviors. Neuromodulation may provide a new type of treatment for addiction since it can directly target abnormalities in neurocircuits. We review literature on five neuromodulation techniques investigated for efficacy in substance related and behavioral addictions: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), (repetitive) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), EEG, fMRI neurofeedback and deep brain stimulation (DBS) and additionally report on effects of these interventions on addiction-related cognitive processes...
December 7, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
J K Kuring, J L Mathias, L Ward
There appears to be a link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia, although the evidence is incomplete and the reason is unclear. Mental illness may cause dementia or may be prodromal or comorbid with dementia, or dementia may trigger a relapse of symptoms in individuals with a history of mental illness. This study examined the link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia by evaluating the prevalence of these disorders in people with dementia, relative to their healthy peers. Existing meta-analyses have examined the prevalence of clinically-significant depression and anxiety in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and depression in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but have not considered vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), PTSD, or anxiety in FTD...
December 7, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Fleur van Ierschot, Roelien Bastiaanse, Gabriele Miceli
A main goal of awake surgery is to preserve language in order to facilitate return to work and maintain quality of life. Although spelling has become crucial in daily life, it has received little attention in awake surgery practice. We review assessments of spelling carried out in awake surgery studies, to inspect how current neurofunctional theories of spelling may guide pre-, intra- and post-operative neurosurgical practice. A systematic database search in Embase, Medline, PubMed and Web of Science identified studies reporting on spelling assessment in glioma patients undergoing awake surgery...
December 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Robin Paul Wilson, Marco Colizzi, Matthijs Geert Bossong, Paul Allen, Matthew Kempton, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
The members of MTAC were removed from the author group and full list are shown in the Acknowledgements section. Also, members "Roee, A" and "Van Amselvoort, T" should be "Admon, R" and "Van Amelsvoort, T", respectively. The original article has been corrected.
December 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Robin Paul Wilson, Marco Colizzi, Matthijs Geert Bossong, Paul Allen, Matthew Kempton, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
The monetary incentive delay task breaks down reward processing into discrete stages for fMRI analysis. Here we look at anticipation of monetary gain and loss contrasted with neutral anticipation. We meta-analysed data from 15 original whole-brain group maps (n = 346) and report extensive areas of relative activation and deactivation throughout the whole brain. For both anticipation of gain and loss we report robust activation of the striatum, activation of key nodes of the putative salience network, including anterior cingulate and anterior insula, and more complex patterns of activation and deactivation in the central executive and default networks...
December 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Trista E Friedrich, Paulette V Hunter, Lorin J Elias
Neurologically healthy adults tend to display a reliable leftward perceptual bias during visuospatial tasks, a phenomenon known as pseudoneglect. However, the phenomenon in older adults is not well understood, and a synthesis of research that examines pseudoneglect using the line bisection task, as well as other tasks, in the context of aging is lacking. The aim of the current systematic review is to integrate the available research on pseudoneglect in late adulthood, and to discuss the association between age and a bias to the left hemispace...
November 21, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Tom Burke, Stephanie Hughes, Alan Carr, Mohsen Javadpour, Niall Pender
Clinical outcomes, including performance on cognitive assessment, in patients with angiographically negative subarachnoid haemorrhage (anSAH) are often interpreted as benign with a good prognostic trajectory. However, diffuse cognitive deficits have been reported within this patient cohort resulting from anSAH, albeit to a lesser extent when compared to other neurovascular events. We consider cognitive outcomes in relation to anSAH to systematically review reported deficits, with a view to quantify and categorise cognitive impairment in this cohort...
October 23, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Julia M Sheffield, Nicole R Karcher, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with disorders that include psychotic symptoms (i.e. psychotic disorders) experience broad cognitive impairments in the chronic state, indicating a dimension of abnormality associated with the experience of psychosis. These impairments negatively impact functional outcome, contributing to the disabling nature of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. The robust and reliable nature of cognitive deficits has led researchers to explore the timing and profile of impairments, as this may elucidate different neurodevelopmental patterns in individuals who experience psychosis...
October 20, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Lucien Rochat, Pierre Maurage, Alexandre Heeren, Joël Billieux
Decision-making impairments play a pivotal role in the emergence and maintenance of addictive disorders. However, a sound conceptualization of decision making as an umbrella construct, encompassing its cognitive, affective, motivational, and physiological subcomponents, is still lacking. This prevents an efficient evaluation of the heterogeneity of decision-making impairments and the development of tailored treatment. This paper thus unfolds the various processes involved in decision making by adopting a critical approach of prominent dual- or triadic-process models, which postulate that decision making is influenced by the interplay of impulsive-automatic, reflective-controlled, and interoceptive processes...
October 6, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Antonio Verdejo-García, Miguel A Alcázar-Córcoles, Natalia Albein-Urios
Decision-making deficits are strong predictors of poor clinical outcomes in addiction treatment. However, research on interventions that address decision-making deficits among people with addiction is scarce and has not been analyzed. We aimed to systematically review evidence on neuropsychological interventions for decision-making deficits in addiction to identify promising therapies. Eligibility criteria were (1) participants with a diagnosis of substance use or behavioral addictive disorders, (2) interventions consisting of (neuro) psychological treatments that address decision-making, (3) comparators comprising control (sham) interventions, treatment as usual or no-treatment, (4) outcomes including a decision-making task, and (5) studies including RCTs and non-randomized trials...
September 26, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Kelly Luyck, Travis D Goode, Haemy Lee Masson, Laura Luyten
The amygdala and, more recently, also the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, have been widely implicated in fear and anxiety. Much of our current knowledge is derived from animal studies and suggests an intricate convergence and divergence in functions related to defensive responding. In a recent paper, Klumpers and colleagues set out to examine these functions in a human fear learning procedure using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Their main findings were a role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in threat anticipation, and for the amygdala in threat confrontation...
September 18, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
David C Osmon, Dmitriy Kazakov, Octavio Santos, Michelle T Kassel
This didactic aims of this review are to demonstrate the advantages of examining the entire reaction time (RT) distribution to better realize the efficacy of mental speed assessment in clinical neuropsychology. RT distributions are typically non-normal, requiring consideration of a host of statistical issues. Specifically, the appropriate model of the mental speed task's distribution (e.g., ex-Gaussian, Weibull, Normal-Gaussian, etc.) must be determined to know what parameters can be used to characterize test performance...
September 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Wilmar Pineda-Alhucema, Edith Aristizabal, Johana Escudero-Cabarcas, Johan E Acosta-López, Jorge I Vélez
In developmental research, the relationship between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed, and EF has been considered a condition for ToM. However, few researchers have studied the relationship between EF and ToM in clinical populations, especially that of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and motor hyperactivity/impulsivity, in which EF is largely impaired. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) model, 201 English and Spanish articles evaluating EF and ToM in ADHD were chosen...
September 2018: Neuropsychology Review
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