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Psychological Science | Page 2

Junyi Dai, Thorsten Pachur, Timothy J Pleskac, Ralph Hertwig
Uncertainty about the waiting time before obtaining an outcome is integral to intertemporal choice. Here, we showed that people express different time preferences depending on how they learn about this temporal uncertainty. In two studies, people chose between pairs of options: one with a single, sure delay and the other involving multiple, probabilistic delays (a lottery). The probability of each delay occurring either was explicitly described ( timing risk ) or could be learned through experiential sampling ( timing uncertainty ; the delay itself was not experienced)...
July 18, 2019: Psychological Science
Zhi Li, Yi Wang, Chao Yan, Eric F C Cheung, Anna R Docherty, Pak C Sham, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Raymond C K Chan
Despite advances in the understanding of the reward system and the role of dopamine in recent decades, the heritability of the underlying neural mechanisms is not known. In the present study, we examined the hemodynamic activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a key hub of the reward system, in 86 healthy monozygotic twins and 88 healthy dizygotic twins during a monetary-incentive-delay task. The participants also completed self-report measures of pleasure. Using voxelwise heritability mapping, we found that activation of the bilateral NAcc during the anticipation of monetary gains had significant heritability ( h 2 = ...
July 18, 2019: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2019: Psychological Science
Sami R Yousif, Rosie Aboody, Frank C Keil
When evaluating information, we cannot always rely on what has been presented as truth: Different sources might disagree with each other, and sometimes there may be no underlying truth. Accordingly, we must use other cues to evaluate information-perhaps the most salient of which is consensus. But what counts as consensus? Do we attend only to surface-level indications of consensus, or do we also probe deeper and consider why sources agree? Four experiments demonstrated that individuals evaluate consensus only superficially: Participants were equally confident in conclusions drawn from a true consensus (derived from independent primary sources) and a false consensus (derived from only one primary source)...
July 10, 2019: Psychological Science
Lauren D Brumley, Michael A Russell, Sara R Jaffee
When adolescents are asked how likely they think it is that they will go to college, does their answer influence what they will actually do? Typically, it is difficult to determine whether college expectations promote academic achievement or just reflect a reasonable forecast of what is likely to happen to them. We used a sample of siblings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health ( N = 1,766) to test whether associations between college expectations and educational attainment remained after accounting for unobserved family factors that may shape both educational expectations and attainment...
July 9, 2019: Psychological Science
Poppy Watson, Daniel Pearson, Michelle Chow, Jan Theeuwes, Reinout W Wiers, Steven B Most, Mike E Le Pelley
Physically salient but task-irrelevant distractors can capture attention in visual search, but resource-dependent, executive-control processes can help reduce this distraction. However, it is not only physically salient stimuli that grab our attention: Recent research has shown that reward history also influences the likelihood that stimuli will capture attention. Here, we investigated whether resource-dependent control processes modulate the effect of reward on attentional capture, much as for the effect of physical salience...
July 3, 2019: Psychological Science
Andrew Luttrell, Aviva Philipp-Muller, Richard E Petty
When crafting a message, communicators may turn to moral rhetoric as a means of influencing an audience's opinion. In the present research, we tested whether the persuasiveness of explicitly moral counterattitudinal messages depends on how much people have already based their attitudes on moral considerations. A survey of the literature suggests several competing hypotheses that we tested across two studies. The results support a persuasive-matching pattern: A moral appeal was more persuasive than a nonmoral appeal to the extent that initial attitudes were based on moral concerns (i...
July 3, 2019: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2019: Psychological Science
Reinoud Kaldewaij, Saskia B J Koch, Wei Zhang, Mahur M Hashemi, Floris Klumpers, Karin Roelofs
Although police officers are carefully selected for their high emotion-regulation abilities, excessive aggression in police officers has been reported, particularly in socially challenging situations known to elicit high state testosterone levels. Adequate regulation of emotional actions depends on the prefrontal cortex's control over the amygdala. We investigated the effects of trait aggression and endogenous testosterone on this emotional-control neurocircuitry in 275 healthy, high-functioning police recruits using a functional MRI social-emotional task eliciting impulsive and controlled approach-and-avoidance actions...
June 28, 2019: Psychological Science
Kathrin Simon-Kutscher, Nadine Wanke, Carlo Hiller, Lars Schwabe
During a threatening encounter, people can learn to associate the aversive event with a discrete preceding cue or with the context in which the event took place, corresponding to cue-dependent and context-dependent fear conditioning, respectively. Which of these forms of fear learning prevails has critical implications for fear-related psychopathology. We tested here whether acute stress may modulate the balance of cue-dependent and contextual fear learning. Participants ( N = 72) underwent a stress or control manipulation 30 min before they completed a fear-learning task in a virtual environment that allowed both cued and contextual fear learning...
June 26, 2019: Psychological Science
Joshua Rottman, Liane Young
Levels of moral condemnation often vary with outcome severity (e.g., extreme destruction is morally worse than moderate damage), but this is not always true. We investigated whether judgments of purity transgressions are more or less sensitive to variation in dosage than judgments of harm transgressions. In three studies, adults ( N = 426) made moral evaluations of harm and purity transgressions that systematically varied in dosage (frequency or magnitude). Pairs of low-dosage and high-dosage transgressions were presented such that the same sets of modifiers (e...
June 26, 2019: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2019: Psychological Science
Dawei Wang, Krishnan Nair, Maryam Kouchaki, Edward J Zajac, Xiuxi Zhao
This study contributes to the growing literature linking physical characteristics and behavioral tendencies by advancing the current debate on whether a person's facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) predicts a variety of antisocial tendencies. Specifically, our large-scale study avoided the social-desirability bias found in self-reports of behavioral tendencies by capturing survey data not only from more than 1,000 business executives but also from evaluators who reported knowing the focal individuals well. With this improved research design, and after conducting a variety of analyses, we found very little evidence of fWHR predicting antisocial tendencies...
June 10, 2019: Psychological Science
Emil Persson, Erkin Asutay, Markus Heilig, Andreas Löfberg, Nancy Pedersen, Daniel Västfjäll, Gustav Tinghög
Given previous findings from animal studies and small-scale studies in humans, variation in the μ-opioid receptor gene ( OPRM1) has been proposed as a strong biological candidate for moderating sensitivity to social rejection. Using a substantially larger sample ( N = 490) than previous studies, a prospective genotyping strategy, and preregistered analysis plans, we tested the hypotheses that OPRM1 variation measured by the functional A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) moderates (a) dispositional sensitivity to rejection and feelings of distress following social exclusion and (b) decision making involving social cognition...
June 10, 2019: Psychological Science
Jackleen E Leed, Lisa K Chinn, Jeffrey J Lockman
This study focused on the development of infants' sensorimotor knowledge about the layout of their bodies. Little is known about the development of the body as a reaching space, despite the importance of this skill for many self-directed adaptive behaviors, such as removing foreign stimuli from the skin or scratching an itch. A new method was developed in which vibrating targets were placed on the heads and arms of 7- to 21-month-old infants ( N = 78) to test reaching localization of targets. Manual localization improved with age, and visual localization was associated with successful reaching...
June 7, 2019: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2019: Psychological Science
Bradley R King, Nina Dolfen, Mareike A Gann, Zenzi Renard, Stephan P Swinnen, Genevieve Albouy
Recent research has demonstrated that memory-consolidation processes can be accelerated if newly learned information is consistent with preexisting knowledge. Until now, investigations of this fast integration of new information into memory have focused on the declarative and perceptual systems. We employed a unique manipulation of a motor-sequence-learning paradigm to examine the effect of experimentally acquired memory on the learning of new motor information. Results demonstrate that new information is rapidly integrated into memory when practice occurs in a framework that is compatible with the previously acquired memory...
June 7, 2019: Psychological Science
Joe J Gladstone, Sandra C Matz, Alain Lemaire
The automatic assessment of psychological traits from digital footprints allows researchers to study psychological traits at unprecedented scale and in settings of high ecological validity. In this research, we investigated whether spending records-a ubiquitous and universal form of digital footprint-can be used to infer psychological traits. We applied an ensemble machine-learning technique ( random-forest modeling) to a data set combining two million spending records from bank accounts with survey responses from the account holders ( N = 2,193)...
June 5, 2019: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2019: Psychological Science
Michael Daly, Angelina R Sutin, Eric Robinson
Obesity is thought to cause ill health because of the biological strain that excess fat has on physiological function. We tested an alternative explanation in a population-based sample of 3,609 older English adults-that the pervasive discrimination experienced by individuals with excess weight may in part explain why obesity is associated with subsequent multisystem physiological dysregulation, measured via clinical indicators of cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune function. We found that both obesity and perceived weight discrimination predicted an increase in physiological dysregulation from baseline to follow-up 4 years later...
June 3, 2019: Psychological Science
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