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Psychological Science

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August 15, 2019: Psychological Science
Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer
We sometimes evaluate our environment (e.g., persons, objects, situations) in an automatic fashion. These automatic or implicit evaluations are often considered to be based on qualitatively distinct mental processes compared with more controlled or explicit evaluations. Important evidence for this claim comes from studies showing that implicit evaluations do not change as the result of counterattitudinal information, in contrast to their explicit counterparts. We examined the impact of counterattitudinal information on implicit evaluations in two experiments ( N = 60, N = 72) that included an innovative manipulation: hypnotic suggestions to participants that they would strongly process upcoming counterattitudinal information...
August 14, 2019: Psychological Science
Shazia Akhtar, Lucy V Justice, Catriona M Morrison, Martin A Conway, Mark L Howe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2019: Psychological Science
Patricia J Bauer, Lynne Baker-Ward, Peter Krøjgaard, Carole Peterson, Qi Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2019: Psychological Science
Benjamin D Jee, Florencia K Anggoro
Models are central to the practice and teaching of science. Yet people often fail to grasp how scientific models explain their observations of the world. Realizing the explanatory power of a model may require aligning its relational structure to that of the observable phenomena. In the present study, we tested whether relational scaffolding -guided comparisons between observable and modeled events-enhances children's understanding of scientific models. We tested relational scaffolding during instruction of third graders about the day/night cycle, a topic that involves relating Earth-based observations to a space-based model of Earth's rotation...
August 8, 2019: Psychological Science
Nadia Chernyak, Kristin L Leimgruber, Yarrow C Dunham, Jingshi Hu, Peter R Blake
The principle of direct reciprocity, or paying back specific individuals, is assumed to be a critical component of everyday social exchange and a key mechanism for the evolution of cooperation. Young children know the norm of reciprocity, but it is unclear whether they follow the norm for both positive and negative direct reciprocity or whether reciprocity is initially generalized. Across five experiments ( N = 330), we showed that children between 4 and 8 years of age engaged in negative direct reciprocity but generalized positive reciprocity, despite recalling benefactors...
August 5, 2019: Psychological Science
Anthony M Evans, Mark J Brandt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2019: Psychological Science
Dillon Plunkett, Joshua D Greene
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2019: Psychological Science
Michał Białek, Martin Harry Turpin, Jonathan A Fugelsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2019: Psychological Science
Andrew M Colman, Natalie Gold, Briony D Pulford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2019: Psychological Science
Vencislav Popov, Ivan Marevic, Jan Rummel, Lynne M Reder
In the present study, we used an item-method directed-forgetting paradigm to test whether instructions to forget or remember one item affect memory for subsequently studied items. In two experiments ( N s = 138 and 33, respectively), recall was higher when a word pair was preceded during study by a to-be-forgotten word pair. This effect was cumulative: Performance increased when more preceding study items were to be forgotten. The effect decreased when memory was conditioned on instructions for items appearing farther back in the study list...
July 30, 2019: Psychological Science
Anne-Laure Sellier, Irene Scopelliti, Carey K Morewedge
The primary objection to debiasing-training interventions is a lack of evidence that they improve decision making in field settings, where reminders of bias are absent. We gave graduate students in three professional programs ( N = 290) a one-shot training intervention that reduces confirmation bias in laboratory experiments. Natural variance in the training schedule assigned participants to receive training before or after solving an unannounced business case modeled on the decision to launch the Space Shuttle Challenger...
July 26, 2019: Psychological Science
Mike E Le Pelley, Ben R Newell, Robert M Nosofsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2019: Psychological Science
Tenaha O'Reilly, Zuowei Wang, John Sabatini
Have you ever found it difficult to read something because you lack knowledge on the topic? We investigated this phenomenon with a sample of 3,534 high school students who took a background-knowledge test before working on a reading-comprehension test on the topic of ecology. Broken-line regression revealed a knowledge threshold: Below the threshold, the relationship between comprehension and knowledge was weak (β = 0.18), but above the threshold, a strong and positive relation emerged (β = 0.81). Further analyses indicated that certain topically relevant words (e...
July 25, 2019: Psychological Science
Mireia Hernández, María-Ángeles Palomar-García, Benito Nohales-Nieto, Gustau Olcina-Sempere, Esteban Villar-Rodríguez, Raúl Pastor, César Ávila, Maria-Antònia Parcet
Individual differences in the level of pleasure induced by music have been associated with the response of the striatum and differences in functional connectivity between the striatum and the auditory cortex. In this study, we tested whether individual differences in music reward are related to the structure of the striatum and the ability to discriminate pitch. We acquired a 3-D magnetization-prepared rapid-acquisition gradient-echo image for 32 musicians and 26 nonmusicians who completed a music-reward questionnaire and a test of pitch discrimination...
July 24, 2019: Psychological Science
Nina Thigpen, Nathan M Petro, Jessica Oschwald, Klaus Oberauer, Andreas Keil
How does the content of visual working memory influence the way we process the visual environment? We addressed this question using the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), which provides a discernible measure of visuocortical activation to multiple stimuli simultaneously. Fifty-six adults were asked to remember a set of two oriented gratings. During the retention interval, two frequency-tagged oriented gratings were presented to probe the visuocortical processing of matching versus mismatching orientations relative to the memory set...
July 19, 2019: Psychological Science
Siobhán Harty, Roi Cohen Kadosh
Interindividual variability in outcomes across individuals poses great challenges for the application of noninvasive brain stimulation in psychological research. Here, we examined how the effects of high-frequency transcranial random-noise stimulation (tRNS) on sustained attention varied as a function of a well-studied electrocortical marker: spontaneous theta:beta ratio. Seventy-two participants received sham, 1-mA, and 2-mA tRNS in a double-blind, crossover manner while they performed a sustained-attention task...
July 19, 2019: Psychological Science
Steven M Kogan, Dayoung Bae, Junhan Cho, Alicia K Smith, Shota Nishitani
Men's emerging adult romantic relationships forecast downstream relationship behavior, including commitment and quality. Accumulating evidence implicates methylation of the oxytocin-receptor-gene ( OXTR ) system in regulating relationship behavior. We tested hypotheses regarding the links between (a) childhood adversity and (b) socioeconomic instability in emerging adulthood on supportive romantic relationships via their associations with OXTR methylation. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis with data from 309 participants in the African American Men's Project...
July 18, 2019: Psychological Science
Junyi Dai, Thorsten Pachur, Timothy J Pleskac, Ralph Hertwig
Uncertainty about the waiting time before obtaining an outcome is integral to intertemporal choice. Here, we showed that people express different time preferences depending on how they learn about this temporal uncertainty. In two studies, people chose between pairs of options: one with a single, sure delay and the other involving multiple, probabilistic delays (a lottery). The probability of each delay occurring either was explicitly described ( timing risk ) or could be learned through experiential sampling ( timing uncertainty ; the delay itself was not experienced)...
July 18, 2019: Psychological Science
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