Sang Ho Lee, Myeong Seop Song, Min-Hwan Oh, Woo-Young Ahn
A major challenge in assessing psychological constructs such as impulsivity is the weak correlation between self-report and behavioral task measures that are supposed to assess the same construct. To address this issue, we developed a real-time driving task called the "highway task," in which participants often exhibit impulsive behaviors mirroring real-life impulsive traits captured by self-report questionnaires. Here, we show that a self-report measure of impulsivity is highly correlated with performance in the highway task but not with traditional behavioral task measures of impulsivity (47 adults aged 18-33 years)...
February 26, 2024: Psychological Science
Alexander Martin, David Adger, Klaus Abels, Patrick Kanampiu, Jennifer Culbertson
There is a long-standing debate in cognitive science surrounding the source of commonalities among languages of the world. Indeed, there are many potential explanations for such commonalities-accidents of history, common processes of language change, memory limitations, constraints on linguistic representations, and so on. Recent research has used psycholinguistic experiments to provide empirical evidence linking common linguistic patterns to specific features of human cognition, but these experiments tend to use English speakers, who in many cases have direct experience with the common patterns of interest...
February 22, 2024: Psychological Science
Rachel Leigh Greenspan, Alex Lyman, Paul Heaton
After an eyewitness completes a lineup, officers are advised to ask witnesses how confident they are in their identification. Although researchers in the lab typically study eyewitness confidence numerically, confidence in the field is primarily gathered verbally. In the current study, we used a natural language-processing approach to develop an automated model to classify verbal eyewitness confidence statements. Across a variety of stimulus materials and witnessing conditions, our model correctly classified adult witnesses' ( N = 4,541) level of confidence (i...
February 20, 2024: Psychological Science
Joël Guérette, Caroline Blais, Daniel Fiset
Excessively criticizing a perceived unfair decision is considered to be common behavior among people seeking to restore fairness. However, the effectiveness of this strategy remains unclear. Using an ecological environment where excessive criticism is rampant-Major League Baseball-we assess the impact of verbal aggression on subsequent home-plate umpire decision making during the 2010 to 2019 seasons ( N = 153,255 pitches). Results suggest a two-sided benefit of resorting to verbal abuse. After being excessively criticized, home-plate umpires ( N = 110 adults, employed in the United States) were less likely to call strikes to batters from the complaining team and more prone to call strikes to batters on the opposing team...
February 20, 2024: Psychological Science
Kevin R Binning, Danny Doucette, Beverly G Conrique, Chandralekha Singh
Gender diversity signals inclusivity, but meta-analyses suggest that it does not boost individual or group performance. This research examined whether a social-psychological intervention can unlock the benefits of gender diversity on college physics students' social and academic outcomes. Analyses of 124 introductory physics classrooms at a large research institution in the eastern United States ( N = 3,605) indicated that in classrooms doing "business as usual," cross-gender collaboration was infrequent, there was a substantial gender gap in physics classroom belonging, and classroom gender diversity had no effect on performance...
February 12, 2024: Psychological Science
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February 8, 2024: Psychological Science
Ryan J Hutchings, Erin Freiburger, Mattea Sim, Kurt Hugenberg
What makes faces seem trustworthy? We investigated how racial prejudice predicts the extent to which perceivers employ racially prototypical cues to infer trustworthiness from faces. We constructed participant-level computational models of trustworthiness and White-to-Black prototypicality from U.S. college students' judgments of White (Study 1, N = 206) and Black-White morphed (Study 3, N = 386) synthetic faces. Although the average relationships between models differed across stimuli, both studies revealed that as participants' anti-Black prejudice increased and/or intergroup contact decreased, so too did participants' tendency to conflate White prototypical features with trustworthiness and Black prototypical features with untrustworthiness...
February 1, 2024: Psychological Science
Toe Aung, Alexander K Hill, Jessica K Hlay, Catherine Hess, Michael Hess, Janie Johnson, Leslie Doll, Sara M Carlson, Caroline Magdinec, Isaac G-Santoyo, Robert S Walker, Drew Bailey, Steven Arnocky, Shanmukh Kamble, Tom Vardy, Thanos Kyritsis, Quentin Atkinson, Benedict Jones, Jessica Burns, Jeremy Koster, Gonzalo Palomo-Vélez, Joshua M Tybur, José Muñoz-Reyes, Bryan K C Choy, Norman P Li, Verena Klar, Carlota Batres, Patricia Bascheck, Christoph Schild, Lars Penke, Farid Pazhoohi, Karen Kemirembe, Jaroslava Varella Valentova, Marco Antonio Correa Varella, Caio Santos Alves da Silva, Martha Borras-Guevara, Carolyn Hodges-Simeon, Moritz Ernst, Collin Garr, Bin-Bin Chen, David Puts
Fundamental frequency (  f o ) is the most perceptually salient vocal acoustic parameter, yet little is known about how its perceptual influence varies across societies. We examined how f o affects key social perceptions and how socioecological variables modulate these effects in 2,647 adult listeners sampled from 44 locations across 22 nations. Low male f o increased men's perceptions of formidability and prestige, especially in societies with higher homicide rates and greater relational mobility in which male intrasexual competition may be more intense and rapid identification of high-status competitors may be exigent...
January 30, 2024: Psychological Science
Sean Fath, Devon Proudfoot
In the present research, we explored social-identity threat caused by subtle acts of omission, specifically situations in which social-identity information is requested but one's identity is not among the options provided. We predicted that being unable to identify with one's group-that is, in the demographics section of a survey-may signal social-identity devaluation, eliciting negative affect (e.g., anger) and increasing the importance of the omitted identity to group members' sense of self. Six preregistered experiments ( N = 2,964 adults) sampling members of two minority-identity groups (i...
January 29, 2024: Psychological Science
Luke McEllin, Natalie Sebanz
Benefiting from a cooperative interaction requires people to estimate how cooperatively other members of a group will act so that they can calibrate their own behavior accordingly. We investigated whether the synchrony of a group's actions influences observers' estimates of cooperation. Participants (recruited through Prolific) watched animations of actors deciding how much to donate in a public-goods game and using a mouse to drag donations to a public pot. Participants then estimated how much was in the pot in total (as an index of how cooperative they thought the group members were)...
January 29, 2024: Psychological Science
Wilson N Merrell, Soyeon Choi, Joshua M Ackerman
People sick with infectious illnesses face negative social outcomes, like exclusion, and may take steps to conceal their illnesses from others. In 10 studies of past, current, and projected illness, we examined the prevalence and predictors of infection concealment in adult samples of U.S. university students, health-care employees, and online crowdsourced workers (total N = 4,110). About 75% reported concealing illness in interpersonal interactions, possibly placing others in harm's way. Concealment motives were largely social (e...
January 24, 2024: Psychological Science
Harun Karimpur, Christian Wolf, Katja Fiehler
To estimate object properties such as mass or friction, our brain relies on visual information to efficiently compute approximations. The role of sensorimotor feedback, however, is not well understood. Here we tested healthy adults ( N = 79) in an inclined-plane problem, that is, how much a plane can be tilted before an object starts to slide, and contrasted the interaction group with observation groups who accessed involved forces by watching objects being manipulated. We created objects of different masses and levels of friction and asked participants to estimate the critical tilt angle after pushing an object, lifting it, or both...
January 22, 2024: Psychological Science
Darko Odic, Tyler Knowlton, Alexis Wellwood, Paul Pietroski, Jeffrey Lidz, Justin Halbeda
The mind represents abstract magnitude information, including time, space, and number, but in what format is this information stored? We show support for the bipartite format of perceptual magnitudes, in which the measured value on a dimension is scaled to the dynamic range of the input, leading to a privileged status for values at the lowest and highest end of the range. In six experiments with college undergraduates, we show that observers are faster and more accurate to find the endpoints (i.e., the minimum and maximum) than any of the inner values, even as the number of items increases beyond visual short-term memory limits...
January 18, 2024: Psychological Science
Hanna Hillman, Tabea Botthof, Alexander D Forrence, Samuel D McDougle
Working memory has been comprehensively studied in sensory domains, like vision, but little attention has been paid to how motor information (e.g., kinematics of recent movements) is maintained and manipulated in working memory. "Motor working memory" (MWM) is important for short-term behavioral control and skill learning. Here, we employed tasks that required participants to encode and recall reaching movements over short timescales. We conducted three experiments ( N = 65 undergraduates) to examine MWM under varying cognitive loads, delays, and degrees of interference...
January 18, 2024: Psychological Science
Nava Caluori, Erin Cooley, Jazmin L Brown-Iannuzzi, Emma Klein, Ryan F Lei, William Cipolli, Lauren E Philbrook
Despite the persistence of anti-Black racism, White Americans report feeling worse off than Black Americans. We suggest that some White Americans may report low well-being despite high group-level status because of perceptions that they are falling behind their in-group. Using census-based quota sampling, we measured status comparisons and health among Black ( N = 452, Wave 1) and White ( N = 439, Wave 1) American adults over a period of 6 to 7 weeks. We found that Black and White Americans tended to make status comparisons within their own racial groups and that most Black participants felt better off than their racial group, whereas most White participants felt worse off than their racial group...
January 18, 2024: Psychological Science
Agnieszka Golec de Zavala, Oliver Keenan, Matthias Ziegler, Magdalena Mazurkiewicz, Maria Nalberczak-Skóra, Pawel Ciesielski, Julia E Wahl, Constantine Sedikides
This research tested the hypothesis that mindful-gratitude practice attenuates the robust association between collective narcissism and prejudice. In Study 1 (a between-subjects study using a nationally representative sample of 569 Polish adults; 313 female), 10 min of mindful-gratitude practice-compared to mindful-attention practice and control-did not decrease prejudice (anti-Semitism), but weakened the positive link between collective narcissism and prejudice. In Study 2 (a preregistered, randomized, controlled-trial study using a convenience sample of 219 Polish adults; 168 female), a 6-week mobile app supported training in daily mindful-gratitude practice decreased prejudice (anti-Semitism, sexism, homophobia, anti-immigrant sentiment) and its link with collective narcissism compared to a wait-list control...
January 17, 2024: Psychological Science
Joel M Le Forestier, Elizabeth Page-Gould, Alison Chasteen
People who conceal their stigmatized identities often experience worse physical health. One possibility for why is that concealment may render certain health-seeking behaviors more difficult. We tested this possibility during the 2022 global mpox outbreak, a public-health emergency that disproportionately affected sexual-minority men. We recruited adult sexual-minority men from Prolific at two time points near the outbreak's peak and attenuation ( n = 864 and n = 685, respectively). We found that men who concealed their minority sexual orientations were less likely to (a) receive a vaccine to protect against mpox, (b) receive an mpox test, and (c) report having received an mpox vaccine...
January 12, 2024: Psychological Science
Elena Brandt, Jon K Maner
Abortion policy is conventionally viewed as a political matter with religious overtones. This article offers a different view. From the perspective of evolutionary biology, abortion at a young age can represent prioritization of long-term development over immediate reproduction, a pattern established in other animal species as resulting from stable ecologies with low mortality risk. We examine whether laws and moral beliefs about abortions are linked to local mortality rates. Data from 50 U.S. states, 202 world societies, 2,596 adult individuals in 363 U...
January 10, 2024: Psychological Science
David M Sobel, David G Kamper, Joo-Hyun Song
We examined how 5- to 8-year-olds ( N = 51; M age = 83 months; 27 female, 24 male; 69% White, 12% Black/African American, 8% Asian/Asian American, 6% Hispanic, 6% not reported) and adults ( N = 18; M age = 20.13 years; 11 female, 7 male) accepted or rejected different distributions of resources between themselves and others. We used a reach-tracking method to track finger movement in 3D space over time. This allowed us to dissociate two inhibitory processes. One involved pausing motor responses to detect conflict between observed information and how participants thought resources should be divided; the other involved resolving the conflict between the response and the alternative...
January 8, 2024: Psychological Science
Charlotte A Cornell, Kenneth A Norman, Thomas L Griffiths, Qiong Zhang
We often use cues from our environment when we get stuck searching our memories, but prior research has failed to show benefits of cuing with other, randomly selected list items during memory search. What accounts for this discrepancy? We proposed that cues' content critically determines their effectiveness and sought to select the right cues by building a computational model of how cues affect memory search. Participants ( N = 195 young adults from the United States) recalled significantly more items when receiving our model's best (vs...
January 4, 2024: Psychological Science
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