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Psychological Science

Bilge Sayim, Henry Taylor
Peripheral vision is strongly limited by crowding, the deleterious influence of flanking items on target perception. Distinguishing what is seen from what is merely inferred in crowding is difficult because task demands and prior knowledge may influence observers' reports. Here, we used a standard identification task in which participants were susceptible to these influences, and to minimize them, we used a free-report-and-drawing paradigm. Three letters were presented in the periphery. In Experiment 1, 10 participants were asked to identify the central target letter...
May 23, 2019: Psychological Science
Kellen Mrkva, Jacob Westfall, Leaf Van Boven
Attention and emotion are fundamental psychological systems. It is well established that emotion intensifies attention. Three experiments reported here ( N = 235) demonstrated the reversed causal direction: Voluntary visual attention intensifies perceived emotion. In Experiment 1, participants repeatedly directed attention toward a target object during sequential search. Participants subsequently perceived their emotional reactions to target objects as more intense than their reactions to control objects. Experiments 2 and 3 used a spatial-cuing procedure to manipulate voluntary visual attention...
May 20, 2019: Psychological Science
Rogier A Kievit, Abe D Hofman, Kate Nation
Recent work suggests that the positive manifold of individual differences may arise, or be amplified, by a mechanism called mutualism. Kievit et al. (2017) showed that a latent change score implementation of the mutualism model outperformed alternative models, demonstrating positive reciprocal interactions between vocabulary and reasoning during development. Here, we replicated these findings in a cohort of children ( N = 227, 6-8 years old) and expanded the findings in three directions. First, a third wave of data was included, and the findings were robust to alternative model specifications...
May 17, 2019: Psychological Science
Gene H Brody, Tianyi Yu, Robin Nusslock, Allen W Barton, Gregory E Miller, Edith Chen, Christopher Holmes, Michael McCormick, Lawrence H Sweet
Children growing up in poverty are vulnerable to negative changes in the developing brain; however, these outcomes vary widely. We tested the hypothesis that receipt of supportive parenting would offset the association between living in poverty during adolescence and the connectivity of neural networks that support cognition and emotion regulation during young adulthood. In a sample of African American youths ( N = 119) living in the rural South, poverty status and receipt of supportive parenting were assessed when youths were 11 to 13 and 16 to 18 years old...
May 14, 2019: Psychological Science
Georgina Török, Barbara Pomiechowska, Gergely Csibra, Natalie Sebanz
When people perform simple actions, they often behave efficiently, minimizing the costs of movement for the expected benefit. The present study addressed the question of whether this efficiency scales up to dyads working together to achieve a shared goal: Do people act efficiently as a group (i.e., coefficiently), or do they minimize their own or their partner's individual costs even if this increases the overall cost for the group? We devised a novel, touch-screen-based, sequential object-transfer task to measure how people choose between different paths to coordinate with a partner...
May 14, 2019: Psychological Science
Heidi A Vuletich, B Keith Payne
Can implicit bias be changed? In a recent longitudinal study, Lai and colleagues (2016, Study 2) compared nine interventions intended to reduce racial bias across 18 university campuses. Although all interventions changed participants' bias on an immediate test, none were effective after a delay. This study has been interpreted as strong evidence that implicit biases are difficult to change. We revisited Lai et al.'s study to test whether the stability observed reflected persistent individual attitudes or stable environments...
May 3, 2019: Psychological Science
Fiona Kate Barlow, Matthew J Hornsey, Lydia E Hayward, Carla A Houkamau, Jemima Kang, Petar Milojev, Chris G Sibley
A four-wave survey on a national probabilistic sample ( N = 17,399) tested novel predictions about how positive and negative contact with racial out-groups predicts warmth and anger toward those groups. Three competing hypotheses were tested: (a) that negative contact will outweigh positive contact when predicting both emotions ("bad is stronger than good"); (b) that negative and positive contact will similarly predict each emotion; and (c) that negative contact will have a disproportionately large association with anger (a negative emotion), whereas positive contact will have a disproportionately large association with warmth (a positive emotion)-a phenomenon known as affect matching...
April 30, 2019: Psychological Science
Julian J Zlatev
What characteristics of an individual signal trustworthiness to other people? I propose that individuals who care about contentious social issues signal to observers that they have integrity and thus can be trusted. Critically, this signal conveys trustworthiness whether or not the target and the observer hold the same view on the issue. Five studies ( N = 3,817) demonstrated the predicted effect of caring on integrity-based trust (Studies 1, 2, 3a, 3b, and 4)-even in cases of strong disagreement-across a variety of issues (Study 1) and when behavioral outcomes with real stakes were used (Studies 3a and 3b)...
April 29, 2019: Psychological Science
Keisuke Suzuki, Peter Lush, Anil K Seth, Warrick Roseboom
The experience of authorship over one's actions and their consequences-sense of agency-is a fundamental aspect of conscious experience. In recent years, it has become common to use intentional binding as an implicit measure of the sense of agency. However, it remains contentious whether reported intentional-binding effects indicate the role of intention-related information in perception or merely represent a strong case of multisensory causal binding. Here, we used a novel virtual-reality setup to demonstrate identical magnitude-binding effects in both the presence and complete absence of intentional action, when perceptual stimuli were matched for temporal and spatial information...
April 25, 2019: Psychological Science
Laura M Getz, Joseph C Toscano
An unresolved issue in speech perception concerns whether top-down linguistic information influences perceptual responses. We addressed this issue using the event-related-potential technique in two experiments that measured cross-modal sequential-semantic priming effects on the auditory N1, an index of acoustic-cue encoding. Participants heard auditory targets (e.g., "potatoes") following associated visual primes (e.g., "MASHED"), neutral visual primes (e.g., "FACE"), or a visual mask (e...
April 24, 2019: Psychological Science
Evelina Thunell, Simon J Thorpe
Human observers readily detect targets in stimuli presented briefly and in rapid succession. Here, we show that even without predefined targets, humans can spot repetitions in streams of thousands of images. We presented sequences of natural images reoccurring a number of times interleaved with either one or two distractors, and we asked participants to detect the repetitions and to identify the repeated images after a delay that could last for minutes. Performance improved with the number of repeated-image presentations up to a ceiling around seven repetitions and was above chance even after only two to three presentations...
April 24, 2019: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2019: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 22, 2019: Psychological Science
Eugene L Kwok, Gaelle Leys, Roger Koenig-Robert, Joel Pearson
The ability to control one's thoughts is crucial for attention, focus, ideation, and mental well-being. Although there is a long history of research into thought control, the inherent subjectivity of thoughts has made objective examination, and thus mechanistic understanding, difficult. Here, we report a novel method to objectively investigate thought-control success and failure by measuring the sensory strength of visual thoughts using binocular rivalry, a perceptual illusion. Across five experiments ( N = 67), we found that thought-control failure may occur because of the involuntary and antithetical formation of nonreportable sensory representations during attempts at thought suppression but not during thought substitution...
April 22, 2019: Psychological Science
Zachary Witkower, Jessica L Tracy
Research on face perception tends to focus on facial morphology and the activation of facial muscles while ignoring any impact of head position. We raise questions about this approach by demonstrating that head movements can dramatically shift the appearance of the face to shape social judgments without engaging facial musculature. In five studies (total N = 1,517), we found that when eye gaze was directed forward, tilting one's head downward (compared with a neutral angle) increased perceptions of dominance, and this effect was due to the illusory appearance of lowered and V-shaped eyebrows caused by a downward head tilt...
April 22, 2019: Psychological Science
Elise K Kalokerinos, Yasemin Erbas, Eva Ceulemans, Peter Kuppens
Emotion differentiation, which involves experiencing and labeling emotions in a granular way, has been linked with well-being. It has been theorized that differentiating between emotions facilitates effective emotion regulation, but this link has yet to be comprehensively tested. In two experience-sampling studies, we examined how negative emotion differentiation was related to (a) the selection of emotion-regulation strategies and (b) the effectiveness of these strategies in downregulating negative emotion ( Ns = 200 and 101 participants and 34,660 and 6,282 measurements, respectively)...
April 16, 2019: Psychological Science
Anqing Zheng, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Daniel A Briley
We replicated the study by Tucker-Drob, Cheung, and Briley (2014), who found that the association between science interest and science knowledge depended on economic resources at the family, school, and national levels, using data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). In more economically prosperous families, schools, and nations, student interest was more strongly correlated with actual knowledge. Here, we investigated whether these results still held despite substantial changes to educational and economic systems over roughly a decade...
April 16, 2019: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2019: Psychological Science
Shany Grossman, Chen Gueta, Slav Pesin, Rafael Malach, Ayelet N Landau
Retinal input is frequently lost because of eye blinks, yet humans rarely notice these gaps in visual input. Although previous studies focused on the perceptual and neural correlates of diminished awareness to blinks, the impact of these correlates on the perceived time of concurrent events is unknown. Here, we investigated whether the subjective sense of time is altered by spontaneous blinks. We found that participants ( N = 22) significantly underestimated the duration of a visual stimulus when a spontaneous blink occurred during stimulus presentation and that this underestimation was correlated with the blink duration of individual participants...
April 16, 2019: Psychological Science
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