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Current Opinion in Oncology

Liza Lindenberg, Esther Mena, Peter L Choyke, Kirsten Bouchelouche
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide, over 400 000 new cases of kidney cancer were diagnosed and over 175 000 deaths anticipated in 2018. It is ranked as the 14th most common cancer in women and 9th most common in men. Imaging is important for initial detection, staging, and monitoring to assist treatment planning, but conventional anatomic imaging is limited. Although functional PET/CT has proven helpful in the diagnosis and management of many cancers, its value in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still in evolution...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Filipa Macedo, Nuno Bonito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review englobes the latest studies published regarding the problem of antimicrobial usage with palliative intent. RECENT FINDINGS: In the advanced stages of illness like cancer, dementia, or neurodegenerative diseases, important decisions have to be made concerning the global treatment plan. Infections are very common among this kind of patients as they typically have multiple comorbidities and are incapacitated. These infections, in a majority of the cases, will be treated with antimicrobial therapy because this is a standard medical procedure...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Veronique Del Marmol, Alexander J Stratigos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Véronique Del Marmol, Celeste Lebbé
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rapidly progressing skin cancer, has poor prognosis. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of MCC, with a focus on recent therapeutic advancements. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors for MCC, such as old age, immunosuppression, polyomavirus infection and exposure to UV radiation have already been identified, but the underlying mechanisms leading to carcinogenesis still need clarification...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Mariano Suppa, Sara Gandini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In spite of the established scientific evidence on the association of sunbed use with melanoma risk, some have recently expressed scepticism about the carcinogenicity of indoor tanning. This may have raised confusion among both physicians and patients. The purpose of this review is to make the point about the real impact of sunbed use on melanoma risk in light of the most recently published evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Seven themes were covered: recent studies on age at first sunbed exposure and melanoma risk; sunbed use and melanoma at different body sites; sunbed use and development of additional primary melanomas; new studies on proportion of melanomas attributable to sunbed use; sunbed use and melanoma risk factors; economic burden of sunbed use; and recent debate over whether indoor tanning contributes to melanoma...
January 22, 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Lixian Oh, Hind Hafsi, Pierre Hainaut, Hany Ariffin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood blastomas, unlike adult cancers, originate from developing organs in which molecular and cellular features exhibit differentiation arrest and embryonic characteristics. Conventional cancer therapies, which rely on the generalized cytotoxic effect on rapidly dividing cells, may damage delicate organs in young children, leading to multiple late effects. Deep understanding of the biology of embryonal cancers is crucial in reshaping the cancer treatment paradigm for children...
December 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Mitchell J Machiela
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic mosaicism is the presence of a somatic mutation in a subset of cells that differs from the inherited germline genome. Detectable genetic mosaicism is attractive as a potential early biomarker for cancer risk because of its established relationship with aging, introduction of potentially deleterious mutations, and clonal selection and expansion of mutated cells. The aim of this review is to survey shared risk factors associated with genetic mosaicism, aging and cancer risk...
December 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Emilie Montellier, Jonathan Gaucher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic perturbation is a hallmark of cancer favoring tumor progression. It is now demonstrated that cell metabolism has an impact on gene expression through epigenetic modifications. In this review, we expose recent evidences of metabolic-driven epigenetic perturbations in cancer and subsequent therapeutic opportunities. RECENT FINDINGS: The intimate link between metabolism and epigenetics and its rewiring in carcinogenesis is a hot topic. Chromatin-modifying enzymes involved in the dynamics of methylation or acetylation require small metabolites as cofactors or substrates, thus orchestrating the integration between epigenetic and transcriptional states...
December 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Nabila Berabez, Sébastien Durand, Mathieu Gabut
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although extensively studied for over a decade, gene expression programs established at the epigenetic and/or transcriptional levels do not fully characterize cancer stem cells (CSC). This review will highlight the latest advances regarding the functional relevance of different key post-transcriptional regulations and how they are coordinated to control CSC homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past 2 years, several groups have identified master post-transcriptional regulators of CSC genetic programs, including RNA modifications, RNA-binding proteins, microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs...
December 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Pauline De Bruyn, Dirk Van Gestel, Piet Ost, Vibeke Kruse, Lieve Brochez, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Arnaud Devresse, Véronique Del Marmol, Alain Le Moine, Sandrine Aspeslagh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) provide impressive response rates among immunocompetent patients with various solid tumors. So far, organ transplant recipients have been excluded from clinical studies due to the putative risk of allograft rejection however 48 cases of liver and renal transplant patients treated with CPI were already described in literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Here we discuss 19 cases of liver and 29 cases of renal transplant patients who received CPI for advanced cancer...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Anna Maria Frezza, Laura Botta, Annalisa Trama, Angelo P Dei Tos, Silvia Stacchiotti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chordoma is an exceedingly rare subtype of bone sarcoma. This review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into chordoma epidemiology, and an update on the recent advances in disease, biology and medical therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of chordoma is approximately 0.08/100 000 and the 5-year overall age-adjusted relative survival is 72% in the United States and 61% in Europe. Over the last years, significant steps forwards have been done in the comprehension of chordoma complexity, with insights gained into the biology and morphology of this disease...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Anna Wrona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite aggressive treatment based on definitive chemoradiotherapy, 5-year overall survival in unresectable stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer remains poor (15-20%). The novel immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) presents as the therapeutic 'Holly Grail' in lung cancer treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical models provide evidence of immunotherapy-radiotherapy (IM-RT) synergy. The exposure to ionizing radiation turns tumor in an in-situ vaccine, primes the innate immune system, increases immunotherapy efficacy by overcoming the immunosuppressive microenvironment of immune-resistant tumors and promotes a systemic, out-of-field antitumor T-cell-mediated response called abscopal effect...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Julia Roeper, Frank Griesinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mt+ nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were the first molecularly described NSCLC with an established 'targeted' therapy inhibiting mutated EGFR [EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)]. EGFR TKI of first and second generation have led to an unprecedented improvement in objective response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy with a significantly reduced toxicity and improved quality of life...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Robert Pirker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been established as a new class of anticancer drugs for patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. Predictive biomarkers might help to select those patients who will derive the greatest benefit from these expensive drugs. This review summarizes the current status of predictive biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. RECENT FINDING: Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) staining on tumor cells and immune cells has been studied as a predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitors...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Christoph Oliver Ryser, Joachim Diebold, Oliver Gautschi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe recent developments in the rapidly evolving field of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-targeting agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Five targeted drugs are currently available in the clinic via regular approval or named patient programs, including crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, brigatinib and lorlatinib. Further drugs are tested in clinical trials. This review summarizes published data, together with drug-specific information on dosing and toxicity...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Katrien Ghysen, Johan Vansteenkiste
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 'Early-stage' nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) refers to stage I and stage II disease, and selected cases of stage IIIA disease where complete tumor resection is feasible. Surgery is the standard treatment for early NSCLC, but the overall 5-year survival remains below 50%. The addition of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy to surgery improved 5-year survival rates by 5-10%, but no significant therapeutic innovation has been established thereafter. We review recent and ongoing studies looking how immunotherapy may improve the outcome of these patients...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Maria Vittoria Dieci, Grazia Vernaci, Valentina Guarneri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current standard for HER2+ early breast cancer patients includes chemotherapy and trastuzumab for 1 year. The purpose of this article is to review available evidence on escalated treatment strategies for high-risk patients and de-escalated treatments for patients at low risk of relapse or high risk of cardiac toxicity. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results have led to the approval of two adjuvant escalated treatment strategies: pertuzumab and trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy for up to 1 year for high-risk patients; extension of adjuvant anti-HER2 treatment with 1 year of neratinib...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Matteo Lambertini, Giulia Viglietti, Evandro de Azambuja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript aims at providing an updated overview on the role of adding ovarian function suppression to tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor as adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Until recently, tamoxifen alone was the only recommended adjuvant treatment option for premenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive disease. However, recent important evidence has contributed to significantly modify the endocrine treatment landscape in this setting...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Marta González-Vicent, Miguel A Díaz Perez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nowadays, T-cell-depleted haploidentical transplantation is considered a valid approach for children lacking a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical donor for allogeneic transplantation. This kind of allogeneic transplant is now widely used especially for pediatric patients with high-risk hematological malignancies. However, relapsing disease and life-threatening viral infections are still relevant clinical problems as a consequence of delayed immune reconstitution...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
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