Ottavia Amato, Valentina Guarneri, Fabio Girardi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review we will critically appraise the latest evidence on breast cancer (BC) survival trends and discuss how these may reflect breakthroughs in early diagnosis and treatment approaches. We will address the wide global inequalities in BC survival and review the ongoing initiatives aimed at improving cancer control worldwide. RECENT FINDINGS: BC outcomes have improved in high-income countries during the last decades, following the implementation of strategies for early detection and optimal multimodality treatment...
September 8, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Mohammed H Ahmed, Michael Canney, Alexandre Carpentier, Maya Thanou, Ahmed Idbaih
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glioblastoma (GBM), the most prevalent primary brain malignancy in adults, poses significant challenges in terms of treatment. Current therapeutic strategies for GBM patients involve maximal safe resection, followed by radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. However, despite this multimodal approach for GBM, the prognosis of GBM patients remains dismal because of their inherent primary and secondary resistances to treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Several molecular and cellular mechanisms, including the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), contribute to these resistances...
September 8, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Grazia Castellano, Federica Giugliano, Giuseppe Curigliano, Antonio Marra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This comprehensive review aims to provide timely and relevant insights into the current therapeutic landscape for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and the molecular features underlying this subtype. It emphasizes the need for more reliable biomarkers to refine prognostication and optimize therapy, considering the aggressive nature of TNBC and its limited targeted treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: The review explores the multidisciplinary management of early TNBC, which typically involves systemic chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy...
August 22, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Tadeusz Kubicki, Benjamin A Derman, Dominik Dytfeld, Andrzej J Jakubowiak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic advancements in multiple myeloma have led to increasingly deeper and more durable responses, creating a need for highly sensitive and applicable techniques for measurable residual disease (MRD) assessment. Bone marrow assays can deeply assess for MRD, but it is not conducive to performing frequent and dynamic evaluations, which may be needed for MRD-adapted treatment approaches. Recently, numerous techniques for MRD assessment in peripheral blood have come under investigation, and their integration into routine clinical practice is eagerly anticipated...
August 15, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Francesca Ligorio, Leonardo Provenzano, Claudio Vernieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic reprogramming is a new and potentially targetable hallmark of cancer. In recent years, fasting and fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs) have been tested as anticancer strategies both in preclinical experiments and in clinical trials. In this review, we aim at summarizing the available evidence about the antitumour activity of these approaches in preclinical breast cancer models, as well as results from clinical trials investigating fasting/FMD in breast cancer patients...
July 31, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Kristin Wright, Abhenil Mittal, Bishal Gyawali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Health technology assessment (HTA) of cancer drugs is important to identify whether drugs should be publicly funded. With increasing use of surrogate end points in clinical trials including breast cancer, a review of literature was done to synthesize evidence for validation of these surrogate end points and their potential role in HTA decisions pertaining to breast cancer. FINDINGS: Disease free survival (DFS) in human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2) positive early breast cancer remains the only validated surrogate end point...
July 25, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Niels W C J van de Donk, Chloe O'Neill, Maaike E M de Ruijter, Christie P M Verkleij, Sonja Zweegman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed T-cell immunotherapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR T-cells) and bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) have markedly improved the survival of triple-class refractory multiple myeloma (MM). However, the majority of patients still develops disease progression, underlining the need for new agents for these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel T-cell redirecting BsAbs targeting alternative tumor-associated antigens have shown great promise in heavily pretreated MM, including patients previously exposed to BCMA-directed therapies...
July 25, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Megan E Tesch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, the evolving role of currently available genomic assays for hormone receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer in the selection of patients for extended adjuvant endocrine therapy will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have investigated the prognostic performance of the Oncotype DX, Breast Cancer Index (BCI), Prosigna, and EndoPredict genomic assays in the late recurrence setting (>5 years after diagnosis), beyond standardly used clinicopathologic parameters, with mixed results...
July 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Laurence Schenone, Marion Alcantara, Caroline Houillier, Carole Soussain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide an update on current first-line treatments as well as on-going studies in immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphomas. RECENT FINDINGS: High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based polychemotherapy is widely used in induction treatment (IT). Among HD-MTX-based regimens, the best association is not yet defined. IT should be followed by a consolidation or a maintenance according to patient's age and performance status...
July 19, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Alexandros Rodolakis, Vasilis Pergialiotis, Nikolaos Thomakos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increasing rates of endometrial cancer in premenopausal women that accompanies modern lifestyle options that enhance the prevalence of obesity as well as the trend of delayed childbearing are expected to increase the need for fertility sparing techniques. Currently, the cornerstone of fertility sparing treatment is hormonal handling with progestin treatment and is reserved for women with well differentiated endometrioid lesions that are limited in the myometrial layer...
July 18, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Alexandre Bertucci, Vincent Harlay, Olivier Chinot, Emeline Tabouret
INTRODUCTION: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare, chemo and radio-sensitive tumor limited to the central nervous system. The incidence of PCSNL increases notably in the elderly population which represented approximately half of the patients. The limit of 'elderly' population remained debated and nonuniform, including 60 years as a cutoff for brain radiotherapy, 65 years for autologous stem-cell transplantation, and 70 years for the last clinical trials...
July 18, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Kutluk H Oktay, Volkan Turan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the most recent developments including the safety and effectiveness data and success rates in individualized ovarian stimulation protocols for adult and postpubertal females with cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: In women with breast cancer, aromatase inhibitor- and tamoxifen-supplemented stimulation protocols increase the margin of safety by limiting estrogen exposure. The outcomes of ovarian stimulation appear similar between cancer and noncancer populations, even with the recently developed random-start protocols, which allow initiation of ovarian stimulation anytime during the menstrual cycle...
July 14, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Albert Grinshpun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains a major clinical challenge, necessitating the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Estrogen receptor (ER) degradation using proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTAC) has emerged as a promising approach for overcoming acquired resistance to endocrine therapy. This review will summarize recent findings, highlighting the role of ER degradation by PROTAC in patients with MBC. RECENT FINDINGS: The application of PROTAC technology for ER degradation has demonstrated initial success in preclinical and early clinical studies...
July 10, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Paola Zagami, Luca Boscolo Bielo, Eleonora Nicolò, Giuseppe Curigliano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The introduction in clinical practice of anti-HER2 agents changed the prognosis of patients with HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer in both metastatic and early setting. Although the incomparable results obtained in the last years with the approval of new drugs targeting HER2, not all patients derive benefit from these treatments, experiencing primary or secondary resistance. The aim of this article is to review the data about cotargeting HER2 with different pathways (or epitopes of receptors) involved in its oncogenic signaling, as a mechanism to overcome resistance to anti-HER2 agents...
July 7, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Alberto Hernández-Sánchez, Lars Bullinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease, in which treatment response and patient survival are highly conditioned by the leukemia biology. The aim of this review is to summarize recent advances in AML classification, risk stratification models, measurable residual disease (MRD) and the increasing number of treatment options that are paving the way towards precision medicine in AML. RECENT FINDINGS: AML classification and risk stratification were recently updated by incorporating novel molecular markers that are important for diagnosis and outcome prediction...
June 29, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Carmine Valenza, Dario Trapani, Giuseppe Curigliano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most fatal type presentation of clinical breast cancer. The immune tumor microenvironment (TME) of IBC is characterized by signals of immune evasion but suggests actionable vulnerability to immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). In this review, we aimed to summarize the most important preclinical evidences of IBC immune-vulnerability and the first data from clinical trials evaluating ICIs in IBC. RECENT FINDINGS: IBC is characterized by a preexisting active immune TME suppressed by mechanisms of immune-escape, including inhibitory immune-checkpoints, whose expression is higher than in non-IBC...
June 27, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Mark Sayegh, Shoubao Ma, Jianhua Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells characterized by their ability to attack aberrant and cancerous cells. In contrast to the activation of T-cells, NK cell activation is controlled by the interaction of NK cell receptors and their target cells in a manner independent of antigen organization. Due to NK cells' broad array of activation cues, they have gained great attention as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer immunotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Ex vivo activation, expansion, and genetic modifications, such as the addition of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), will allow the next generation of NK cells to enhance cytotoxicity, promote survival, and create "off-the-shelf" products...
September 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Geoffrey Shouse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to present updates in the field of bispecific antibodies focusing on those agents that have been recently approved for multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Teclistamab, the β-cell maturation antigen -targeted bispecific antibody has shown efficacy and tolerability in the fourth line setting for multiple myeloma. Mosunetuzumab, the CD20-targeted bispecific antibody has shown excellent response rates and durability in third line and beyond follicular lymphoma...
September 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Nadège Kindt, Nuria Kotecki, Ahmad Awada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Incidence of brain metastases increases overtime therefore it is important to rapidly progress in the discovery of new strategies of treatment for these patients. In consequence, more and more preclinical models of brain metastases (BM) are established to study new treatments for melanoma, lung, and breast cancer BM. Here, we reviewed the most recent findings of new drugs assessed in BM mouse preclinical models. RECENT FINDINGS: BM are a common metastatic site of several types of solid cancers and can be difficult to treat due to the unique environment of the brain and the blood-brain barrier...
September 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Elisa Agostinetto, Guilherme Nader-Marta, Michail Ignatiadis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to explore the role of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a biomarker for patient selection in breast cancer. We describe the current evidence and the main ongoing trials both in the early and metastatic setting. RECENT FINDINGS: In the metastatic setting, the analysis of ctDNA can identify specific genetic alterations amenable of molecularly targeted treatments. Several assays are now approved for the detection of genetic alterations in plasma cell-free DNA to guide treatment decision (e...
September 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
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