journal

Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology | Page 2

journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32039977/genetic-counseling-for-fetal-gastrointestinal-anomalies
#21
Erica Schindewolf, Julie S Moldenhauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital gastrointestinal anomalies are common findings with relatively established methods of treatment. However, the genetic cause of how these defects occur and how that may impact a child's lifelong care is less established. Genetic testing has improved significantly in recent years, yet reviews documenting prenatal genetic counseling and testing guidelines have not been comprehensively updated. RECENT FINDINGS: Congenital anomalies of the foregut, such as tracheoesophageal fistula carry a high association with genetic disorders, both in isolation and syndromic forms...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31977337/predicting-fetoplacental-mosaicism-during-cfdna-based-nipt
#22
Maria Neofytou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cell-free DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (cfDNA-based NIPT) using maternal blood is highly sensitive for detecting fetal trisomies. However, false-positive and false-negative results can occur, which prevents NIPT from being a diagnostic test. Fetoplacental mosaicism is one of the main reasons for discordant test results. It is therefore important to understand this phenomenon to enable more comprehensive and appropriate genetic counselling. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge of fetoplacental mosaicism ascertained during cfDNA-based NIPT and refers to the development of recent analytical pipelines for its detection during pregnancy...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32068544/mitochondrial-function-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#23
Mauro Cozzolino, Emre Seli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of mitochondrial functional alterations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). RECENT FINDINGS: Although numerous studies have focused on PCOS, the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause this common disease remain unclear. Mitochondria play a central role in energy production, and mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie several abnormalities observed in women with PCOS. Recent studies associated mtDNA mutations and low mtDNA copy number with PCOS, and set out to characterize the potential protective role of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein responses (UPR and UPR)...
February 14, 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31876635/new-treatment-standards-for-vulvar-cancer-2020
#24
Linn Woelber, Anna Jaeger, Katharina Prieske
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the recent advances regarding molecular mechanisms and therapeutic strategies in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC), a rare but continuously rising disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical research focuses on deescalation especially with regard to surgery. Recurrence patterns have been analyzed to further understand the course of disease showing a persistent risk for local recurrence even several years after the initial diagnosis. The main focuses of recent translational research are the distinct molecular mechanisms behind human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative VSCC...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31851046/fertility-preserving-treatment-for-gynecologic-malignancies-a-review-of-recent-literature
#25
Katherine Coakley, Juliet Wolford, Krishnansu Tewari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A significant number of women diagnosed with a gynecologic malignancy meet criteria for fertility-sparing treatment. Women are continuing to delay childbearing; the importance of fertility-sparing therapy is, therefore, increasing. It is imperative that physicians understand the options for, and limitations of, these treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has demonstrated improved outcomes for endometrial cancer by adding targeted hysteroscopic resection to progestin therapy...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31851045/molecular-characterization-of-endometrial-cancer-and-therapeutic-implications
#26
Boris Winterhoff, Lauren Thomaier, Sally Mullany, Matthew A Powell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article reviews molecular subtyping and genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma, and the associated therapeutic and prognostic implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Endometrial cancer has historically been classified through histology into endometrioid and nonendometrioid subtypes with poor prognostic predictability. Molecular classification through genomic analysis now allows for a major advance in characterization. Four distinct subgroups have been identified: polymerase (POLE) ultramutated, microsatellite unstable, copy number-low--microsatellite stable, and copy number-high-'serous-like'...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31833943/endometrial-cancer-in-the-morbidly-obese-a-review
#27
Marisa C Liu, Austin B Gardner, Juliet E Wolford, Krishnansu S Tewari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With a worldwide increase in obesity, there has been an increase in obesity-related diseases. Endometrial cancer is a common cause of cancer for women worldwide. Incidence of endometrial cancer has risen worldwide. Accompanying these patients are risk factors and challenges that may prevent standard of care from being delivered. RECENT FINDINGS: The current article describes recent literature describing surgical approaches to the obese patient and special considerations in this population...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31833942/optimizing-immunotherapy-for-gynecologic-cancers
#28
Maria M Rubinstein, Vicky Makker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will provide an update on the most recent clinical developments in immuno-oncology in advanced gynecologic cancers and will also highlight ongoing studies in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: Although immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy is rapidly altering the treatment landscape in a myriad of solid tumors, the efficacy of ICB therapy with antibodies directed against CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 in advanced gynecologic cancers has been limited...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31833941/latest-clinical-evidence-of-maintenance-therapy-in-ovarian-cancer
#29
Christine S Walsh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the data supporting the use of maintenance therapy in ovarian cancer treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Since December 2016, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved four drugs for six different ovarian cancer maintenance indications based on the results of clinical trials demonstrating efficacy and tolerability. These include antiangiogenesis and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) inhibitors (PARP inhibitors). Four drugs are approved for use in maintenance therapy for recurrent ovarian cancer, including bevacizumab (GOG-0213 and OCEANS), niraparib (NOVA), olaparib (Study 19 and SOLO2) and rucaparib (ARIEL3)...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31815768/changing-treatment-landscape-for-early-cervical-cancer-outcomes-reported-with-minimally-invasive-surgery-compared-with-an-open-approach
#30
Alexander Melamed, Pedro T Ramirez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the article is to review recent studies that compare the oncologic efficacy of minimally invasive radical hysterectomy with that of open radical hysterectomy. RECENT FINDINGS: The Laparoscopic Approach to Cervical Cancer (LACC) trial, a randomized study design to test the hypothesis that minimally invasive radical hysterectomy is not inferior to open radical hysterectomy, was stopped early by the data and safety monitoring committee after enrolling 631 of a planned 740 patients...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31804231/multimodality-screening-and-prevention-of-cervical-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-collaborative-model
#31
Justine Chinn, Krishnansu S Tewari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although cervical cancer continues to decrease in incidence throughout the developed world because of rigorous screening and vaccination campaigns, the disease remains a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in resource-limited regions including sub-Saharan Africa. This review summarizes current efforts to implement cost-effective and widespread cervical cancer education, screening, and community-based interventions in Africa and the challenges faced by local healthcare workers...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32004174/a-review-of-the-intriguing-interaction-between-testosterone-and-neurocognitive-development-in-males-with-47-xxy
#32
Carole A Samango-Sprouse, Christine Yu, Grace F Porter, Elizabeth S Tipton, Patricia C Lasutschinkow, Andrea L Gropman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) was first discovered more than 50 years ago, there have been limited comprehensive studies on this disorder. The present review explains the study of neurodevelopmental dysfunction and the impact of testosterone replacement at specific junctions in the life of males with 47,XXY. The intricate relationship between testosterone, neurodevelopment, health, and well being warrants an in-depth investigation in order to achieve optimal outcomes...
January 30, 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32004173/fetal-surgery-and-stem-cell-therapy-for-meningomyelocele
#33
Ling-Yien Hii, Chen-Ai Sung, Steven W Shaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the advance of maternal--fetal surgery, the research of stem cell transplantation and tissue engineering in prenatal management of fetal meningomyelocele (fMMC). RECENT FINDINGS: Advance in the imaging study provides more accurate assessment of fMMC in utero. Prenatal maternal--fetal surgery in fMMC demonstrates favourable postnatal outcome. Minimally invasive fetal surgery minimizes uterine wall disruption. Endoscopic fetal surgery is performed via laparotomy-assisted or entirely percutaneous approach...
January 30, 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32004172/induction-of-labor-with-an-unfavorable-cervix
#34
Michelle Solone, Kate A Shaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent evidence supports elective induction of labor after 39 weeks; however, labor induction in patients with an unfavorable cervix, a Bishop score less than 6, may take several days. In this review, we focus on the efficacy and safety of methods of labor induction for the unfavorable cervix. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence on the use of mechanical cervical preparation with transcervical balloons suggests balloons are the most effective option for decreasing time to delivery in the nulliparous patient...
January 30, 2020: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31895105/hysteroscopic-endometrial-resection-vs-hysterectomy-for-abnormal-uterine-bleeding-impact-on-quality-of-life-and-sexuality-evidence-from-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#35
Salvatore G Vitale, Simone Ferrero, Michal Ciebiera, Fabio Barra, Péter Török, Jan Tesarik, George A Vilos, Antonio Cianci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of hysterectomy and hysteroscopic endometrial resection in improving quality of life (QoL), sexual function and psychological wellbeing of women abnormal uterine bleeding. RECENT FINDINGS: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase for original studies written in English (registered in PROSPERO 2019 CRD42019133632), using the terms 'endometrial ablation', 'endometrial destruction', 'endometrial resection', 'hysterectomy', 'menorrhagia', 'dysfunctional uterine bleeding', 'quality of life', 'sexuality' published up to April 2019...
December 30, 2019: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31851044/symptom-relief-and-palliative-care-in-gynecologic-oncology
#36
Mohana Roy, Kavitha Ramchandran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with gynecologic malignancies experience varied and often difficult-to-manage symptoms through their disease course, along with decisions surrounding preferences for advance care planning. This review focuses on evidence-based symptom management for these patients and offers a framework for conversations regarding goals of therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: There is increasing literature on palliative care specifically in gynecologic oncology, including barriers and possible solutions for early palliative care use, along with updated guidelines on postoperative pain management and tools for communication...
December 13, 2019: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31833974/targeting-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-her2-in-gynecologic-malignancies
#37
Britt K Erickson, Burak Zeybek, Alessandro D Santin, Amanda N Fader
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the role of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) as a biomarker and potential target in gynecologic malignancies and to describe contemporary updates in the use of anti-HER2 treatments for these cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 25-30% of all patients with uterine serous carcinoma overexpress tumoral HER2. The anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab represents an effective, targeted therapy with significant efficacy in the treatment of HER2-positive breast and gastric cancer...
December 12, 2019: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31833973/breast-and-axillary-surgery-in-malignant-breast-disease-a-review-focused-on-literature-of-2018-and-2019
#38
Nina Ditsch, Isabel T Rubio, Maria L Gasparri, Jana de Boniface, Thorsten Kuehn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There have been fundamental changes in the surgical approach to breast cancer management over the last decades. The primary objective of achieving locoregional control, however, remains unchanged. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to strategies optimizing systemic treatment and radiotherapy, current discussions focus on improving the surgical approach to breast cancer. Especially in view of the increasingly pivotal role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy NAT/NAC (NACT), gauging the extent of tissue removal in the breast and the width of resection margins in breast-conserving surgery is highly important, as is the extent of axillary surgery...
December 12, 2019: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31833940/prognostic-and-predictive-markers-for-adjuvant-therapy
#39
Marcus Schmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To avoid both overtreatment and undertreatment accurate risk assessment is mandatory. The present review gives an overview of recently published articles covering prognostic and predictive factors for adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene expression signatures enhance prognostic accuracy with a high level of evidence. These signatures can be further improved by incorporating traditional pathological factors like tumor size...
December 10, 2019: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31815769/mechanisms-of-parp-inhibitor-resistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#40
Kari Kubalanza, Gottfried E Konecny
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recently discovered PARP inhibitor resistance mechanisms and highlight the clinical relevance of these findings to date. RECENT FINDINGS: A predominant mechanism of acquired PARP inhibitor resistance in homologous recombination-deficient cancers is the acquisition of homologous recombination proficiency as a consequence of secondary genetic or epigenetic events, such as secondary mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, or reversal of BRCA1 promoter methylation that restores homologous recombination and leads to PARP inhibitor resistance...
December 6, 2019: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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