Journals Current Opinion in Obstetrics ...

Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Hannah C Karpel, Brian Slomovitz, Robert L Coleman, Bhavana Pothuri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews treatment strategies in endometrial cancer by molecular subtype. RECENT FINDINGS: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) classifies four molecular subtypes of endometrial cancer - mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR)/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H), copy number high (CNH)/p53abn, copy number low (CNL)/no specific molecular profile (NSMP), and POLEmut - which are validated and highly prognostic. Treatment consideration by subtype is now recommended...
March 21, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
George Lainas, Tryfon Lainas, Efstratios Kolibianakis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically evaluate the use of follicular flushing during oocyte retrieval. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest meta-analysis evaluating follicular flushing does not favour its use over single aspiration. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included, however, are characterized by significant heterogeneity regarding the population analysed, the needle type and lumen used, the aspiration pressure applied and the number of flushing attempts performed...
March 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Barbara Lawrenz, Laura Melado, Human M Fatemi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Assisted reproductive technology treatment has seen a significant shift from fresh to frozen embryo transfers (FET). Endometrial receptivity in the FET cycle can be achieved through a hormonal replacement cycle or a natural cycle, and the preparation approach has important implications on the pregnancy itself. In the natural cycle approach, planning of the embryo transfer timing might be challenging due to the need to identify ovulation correctly. RECENT FINDINGS: Ovulation in a natural cycle is characterized by a luteinizing hormone surge, followed by the rise in progesterone (P4) levels, inducing secretory transformation...
March 15, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Denis A Seli, Hugh S Taylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rapid increase in world population accompanied by global industrialization has led to an increase in deployment of natural resources, resulting in growing levels of pollution. Here, we review recent literature on the impact of environmental pollution on human reproductive health and assisted reproduction outcomes, focusing on two of the most common: air pollution and endocrine disruptors. RECENT FINDINGS: Air pollution has been associated with diminished ovarian reserve, uterine leiomyoma, decreased sperm concentration and motility...
March 15, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Isabel Cuadrado-Torroglosa, Juan Antonio GarcĂ­a-Velasco, Diana Alecsandru
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nowadays, there are many efforts focused on improving embryo quality for assisted reproduction treatments. Nevertheless, there are important maternal aspects, such as decidualization, also essential for pregnancy, often forgotten. With this review, we intend to highlight the main events involved in this endometrial phenomenon, as well as the cells and molecules that have recently been related to it. RECENT FINDINGS: Decidualization entails a complete transformation of the endometrium, with recent research reaffirming progesterone as its main molecular trigger...
March 15, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Nousheen Mir, Lubna Pal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to familiarize a global readership on the subtilities of clinical presentation and the mayhem that a missed diagnosis of genital tuberculosis (GTB) is capable of inflicting on the health and wellbeing of infertile women with untreated GTB attempting to conceive with assisted reproductive technology (ART). RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging and recent literature relating to the epidemiology and clinical presentation of GTB and reporting of unique risks of ART for maternal and fetal morbidity in untreated cases of GTB are reviewed...
March 7, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Pasquale Petrone, Alberto Vaiarelli, Christophe Blockeel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The technical improvements in IVF allowed the implementation of nonconventional ovarian stimulation protocols for some specific patients. Where time is crucial, such as with oncologic patients, poor-prognosis patients, patients with low ovarian reserve, and those with advanced maternal age, access to IVF treatment is even more critical. Some of these protocols might start in the late follicular phase, luteal phase, or involve both stimulations within the same ovarian cycle...
March 7, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yigit Cakiroglu, Bulent Tiras, Jason Franasiak, Emre Seli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endometrial hypoproliferation refers to the failure of the endometrium to reach optimal thickness during fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycles in women undergoing infertility treatment with in-vitro fertilization (IVF). This review discusses the treatment options for endometrial hypoproliferation. RECENT FINDINGS: Apart from factors related to the embryo quality, ultrasonographic findings associated with the endometrium, such as endometrial thickness, endometrial pattern and subendometrial blood flow, are considered key factors associated with the outcome of assisted reproductive treatment...
February 22, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Katherine Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the most recent research regarding potential causes and treatments for perimenopausal depression. RECENT FINDINGS: Erratic estrogen fluctuations and alterations in the neurosteroid allopregnanolone are important contributors to perimenopausal mood symptoms. These hormone changes augment increased risk associated with recent stressful events, as well as early life childhood events. Perimenopausal depressions have different clinical presentations and may respond to differential treatment approaches...
February 8, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Nandi Shah, Danit Ariel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence on the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) for the maintenance of skeletal health, prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures in peri and postmenopausal women. RECENT FINDINGS: We will review the impact of estrogen on skeletal health as well as the physiology of bone loss during the perimenopause and postmenopause. We will then elucidate the data that include estrogen alone and combination of MHT to demonstrate that in the absence of contraindication, MHT should be considered as an option for the maintenance of skeletal health both when concomitant menopausal symptoms are present and when not...
February 2, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yair J Blumenfeld, Jill N Anderson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Twin gestations account for approximately 3% of all births. Although there appear to be physiologic differences in the third trimester growth of twins compared with singleton gestations, reasons for this remain unclear. As growth-restricted fetuses and neonates are at increased risk for adverse outcomes, there is a clinical need to optimize our ability to delineate normally from pathologically grown twins. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have addressed current limitations in the way growth restriction is diagnosed in twin gestations...
February 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Jessica Z K Caldwell, Nancy Isenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor cognitive aging and dementia pose a significant public health burden, and women face unique risks compared to men. Recent research highlights the role of genetics, menopause, chronic disease, and lifestyle in risk and resilience in women's cognitive aging. This work suggests avenues for clinical action at midlife that may change the course of brain health in aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies indicate women's risk for poor cognitive aging relates in part to hormone changes at menopause, a time when memory, brain structure and function, and Alzheimer's pathology may be observed in women and not men...
February 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Leasa Lowy, Anastasia Kasianchuk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the complexity of weight and metabolic changes during the menopausal transition and propose a multidisciplinary care approach to support long-term metabolic health. RECENT FINDINGS: Menopause, weight and metabolic health changes are influenced by many interplaying factors, and therefore, require a multipronged, multidisciplinary patient centered approach. This approach should start with a medical history and examination. Additional key components include: behavior change principles, mental health evaluation, gynecological care, nutrition, exercise recommendations and sleep care...
January 23, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Noor Joudi, Martha Rode
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to evaluate the recent literature examining the utility of low-dose daily aspirin (LDA) in the prevention of preeclampsia and other potential adverse perinatal sequelae. The evidence supporting various aspirin doses and timing of initiation of treatment for this purpose will be examined. The potential benefits of LDA therapy in pregnancy will be discussed weighing against any potential associated harm. RECENT FINDINGS: Findings from several recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials are consistent with prior studies in showing a reduction in risk for preeclampsia with LDA use in individuals at an increased risk for this complication...
January 19, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Amy J Voedisch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The menopause transition can be a time of great upheaval and suffering for some patients. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can relieve symptoms and improve quality of life but the perceived risks of HRT have decreased use over the past two decades. Understanding the real risks and benefits will ease physician and other healthcare professionals discomfort with counseling and prescribing this potentially life changing therapy in appropriate patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Menopausal symptoms may persist several years beyond the final menstrual period...
January 13, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Kerry D Holliman, Virginia Lowe, Gabriella Nonni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic hypertension affects up to 10% of pregnancies in the United States and the incidence of hypertensive diseases of pregnancy has more than doubled in the past decade, affecting minority women at disproportionate rates. Recent data show potential benefit by lowering the threshold of blood pressure treatment for pregnant women to >140/90 mmHg. RECENT FINDINGS: In April 2022, the results of the Chronic Hypertension and Pregnancy (CHAP) trial was published and demonstrated that lower thresholds (>140/90 vs...
January 4, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ashley E Fuller, Rebecca Dunsmoor-Su
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Menopause is a time of vulvar and vaginal changes that are physiologic and are often symptomatic. These changes can impact up to 50% of women in menopause. There are also several vulvar dermatoses that are more common after menopause and should be recognized early to allow for symptomatic treatment. Some of these conditions can lead to squamous cell carcinoma over time, and early recognition and appropriate treatment reduce this risk. Treatment for women with symptomatic vulvar and vaginal conditions is important for maintaining the quality of life...
April 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Emma Grabinski, Rebecca Dunsmoor-Su
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recommendations for cervical cancer screening in older women and to determine the evidence upon which the current and emerging recommendations are based on. To evaluate the possible consequences of stopping cervical cancer screening in older women. RECENT FINDINGS: Recommendations are to space cervical cancer screening intervals for women aged 21-65 and stop in women older than 65. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality burden are significant in women over the age of 65...
April 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Amy Voedisch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Sourav K Bose, Kara Kennedy, William H Peranteau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of modern gene editing tools alongside promising innovations in gene sequencing and prenatal diagnostics as well as a shifting regulatory climate around targeted therapeutics offer an opportunity to address monogenic diseases prior to the onset of pathology. In this review, we seek to highlight recent progress in preclinical studies evaluating the potential in-utero gene editing as a treatment for monogenic diseases that cause morbidity or mortality before or shortly after birth...
April 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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