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Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression | Page 2

Gaurav Gupta, Mary Bebawy, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Anurag Mishra, Kamal Dua
Cancer is a complicated transformational progression that fiercely changes the appearance of cell physiology as well as cells' relations with adjacent tissues. Developing an oncogenic characteristic requires a wide range of modifications in a gene expression at a cellular level. This can be achieved by activation or suppression of the gene regulation pathway in a cell. Tristetraprolin (TTP or ZFP36) associated with the initiation and development of tumors are regulated at the level of mRNA decay, frequently through the activity of AU-rich mRNA-destabilizing elements (AREs) located in their 3'-untranslated regions...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Mahmut Cerkez Ergoren
Traditional methods for analyzing meiotic recombination in humans are limited. Recently developed in vitro and in silico assays together are useful for confirmation and detection of meiotic recombination hotspots from population polymorphism data. These techniques are significant both for understanding the nature of human meiotic recombination and for applications such as association studies.
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Mahmut Cerkez Ergoren
Meiotic recombination plays a key role in reshuffling haplotypes in human populations and thus affects evolution profoundly. However, our understanding of recombination dynamics is largely limited to descriptions of variation in populations and families. Higher-resolution analysis (≤ 0.0001 cM) of de novo recombination events in human sperm DNA has revealed clustering into very narrow hotspots (1-2 kb) that generally coincide with abrupt breakdown of linkage disequilibrium. Recent findings have highlighted an unexpected molecular control of the distribution of meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammals by a rapidly evolving gene in trans, PR-domain-containing 9 (PRDM9), and specific DNA sequence motifs in cis...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Muhammad Wasim, Fazli Rabbi Awan, Haq Nawaz Khan, Hina Ayesha
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-phenylalanine to L-tyrosine using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a cofactor. Among aminoacidopathies, PKU is one of the most prevalent disorders in different populations. It may be caused by deficiency of BH4 or mutations in PAH. About 98% of PKU patients have mutations in the PAH, while the remaining have BH4 deficiency. If PKU is diagnosed earlier in life using advance analytical techniques (e...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Zulfia Hussain, Junaid Ali Khan, Sehrish Murtaza
The pharmacological application of nanodevices and systems is a rapidly emerging nanotechnology that is raising new possibilities in the diagnosis and therapy of different diseases. Nanotechnology has been providing promising tools for chemotherapy especially in cancer treatment. Nanotechnology deals with physical and biochemical properties of nanoparticles in the clinical application of drugs. Targeted nanoparticle drug delivery is intended to reduce the side effects of anticancer drugs with both decreases in consumption and treatment expenses, which are the major hurdles in conventional cancer treatment...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Ebrahim Shirzadeh, Maryam Najafi, Milad Nazarzadeh, Golsa Fazli, Farahnaz Falanji, Leila Sadat Aldaghi, Abolfazl Rad
Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease characterized by the abnormal epithelial proliferation, matrix remodeling, vascularization and the migration of the lesion. Although the etiology of pterygium is elusive, recent studies have focused on the role of limbal stem cells (LSCs) damage and effects of UVB. This study aimed to determine the expression levels of pluripotent markers of SOX2 and OCT4 in primary pterygium and normal conjunctiva. Using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the SOX2 and OCT4 expressions were compared in primary pterygium and normal conjunctiva...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Ganesh N Sharma, Gaurav Gupta, Piyush Sharma
The role of free radicals in various human ailments is well established. Still, the researchers continue to emphasize the involvement of free radicals in these disorders. Antioxidants are being used as an effective tool as a defense against disorders caused by free radicals. This review presents brief detail regarding the nature, types, and sources of free radicals that are of pharmacological interest. A summary of the antioxidants, along with possible mechanisms, has also been incorporated. The role of free radicals and antioxidants in various human disease are also presented...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Rasime Kalkan, Pinar Tulay
Osteoporosis is a major health issue, especially in older women. The absence of estrogen is the main cause of menopausal osteoporosis. Estrogen and androgen hormones play major roles during the growth and development of the skeletal system, including preservation of bone structure. Estrogen plays an important role in the balance between the bone formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are associated with bone resorption. Several pathways have been shown to regulate bone formation and degradation. Estrogen and Ephrin-Eph pathways are among the most important molecular mechanisms that regulate bone reconstruction...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Pinar Tulay, Nanyak Galam, Terin Adali
Breast cancer has continued to be a cause of increasing morbidity and mortality in women, being the most common cause of cancer-related deaths among them. Its management using chemotherapy is continually plagued with problems of systemic toxicity, lack of compliance by patients, and inadequate targeting of cancer cells. The future of breast cancer chemotherapy will likely involve the use of biocompatible high cell-targeting capacity drug-delivery vehicles like silk fibroin to ameliorate these problems. The utilization of silk fibroin nanoparticles to deliver cytotoxic drugs provides specificity, optimal entrapment, improved therapeutic index, and maximal breast cancer cell toxicity with minimal or no collateral damage to surrounding normal cells...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Kamal Dua, Nicole G Hansbro, Paul S Foster, Philip M Hansbro
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that control gene expression posttranscriptionally by directly blocking translation of their target mRNAs or by repressing protein production via mRNA destabilization. Investigations into miRNAs began approximately 12 years ago with their discovery in mammalian cells. Still, the involvement of miRNAs in the development of asthma remains unclear, and this topic needs further research to discover various molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of asthma and new therapeutic interventions...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Yogendra Singh, Gaurav Gupta, Rahul Sharma, Yogesh Matta, Anurag Mishra, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Kamal Dua
The proliferative cell process that causes prostate enlargement, obstruction of the bladder outlet, and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The prevalence of BPH worldwide is approximately 10%, 20%, 50%, and 80% for men in their 30s, 40s, 60s, and 70s, respectively. Recent data have revealed that overactivation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system increases the level of bioactive peptide hormone angiotensin II, which downregulates the ACE2-angiotensin 1-7/Mas receptor axis path and upregulates angiotensin receptor type 1-mediated signaling, which finally leads to a proliferation of cellular elements in the prostate...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Azhar Hussain, Aravindakshan K Jiji, Prajna Barke, Suvra Biswas, Shams S M Tabrez
Energy drink consumption has caused worldwide concern in the scientific community and the general public regarding the health effects of these products. Current studies offer data about consumption patterns in America and Europe, but more extensive research is needed to ascertain the potential effects of energy drink consumption, especially among young and healthy individuals. To examine the consequences and health risks of energy drink consumption, related studies were reviewed. Health issues, including elevated blood pressure, palpitations, insomnia, jitters, and nervousness, are primarily associated with high caffeine content...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Susinjan Bhattacharya
Cell polarity is an essential process for development, cell physiology and tissue homeostasis. Loss of cell polarity is a characteristic feature of cancer. This review highlights the factors involved in maintenance of cell polarity and looks at the link between cell polarity, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer and finally tries to draw link between cell polarity and vascular mimicry in EMT occurring cells.
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Muhammad Zubair Yousaf, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Khalid Mahmood Anjum, Shaista Fatima
Pakistan is being hit by communicable and noncommunicable diseases over time. Among these, tickborne viral disease, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the most fatal infections. Rapid climate change aroused by industrial, occupational, and agricultural activities to support ever-growing human population has been considered the single most causative basis for emergence or re-emergence of CCHF in Pakistan, where it has biannual peaks between the months of March-May and August-October. Many factors, including poor sanitation at farms, villages, and cities, unhygienic transportation and slaughter of animals at numerous sites within a city, inefficient tick-control programs, post-slaughter piles of animal remains other than meat, nomadic lifestyle, and lack of trained animal and human healthcare staff, are contributing to the spread of CCHF...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Elsa S Tabrez, Azhar Hussain, Seetharama Rao, Ashraya Jagadeesh, Jagannadha Rao Peela, Shams S M Tabrez
Considered as a chronic illness, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has manifested itself as a widespread condition throughout the adult population. As a growing epidemic, GERD has reached a staggering prevalence of 10% to 20% in the Western world, by affecting up to 30 million people in the United States alone. Sixty percent of individuals in an adult population will experience symptoms and the impact of GERD over a period of 12 months, whereas a remarkable 20% to 30% of individuals will have weekly symptoms...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Nida Noreen, Faqir Muhammad, Bushra Akhtar, Farooq Azam, Muhammad Irfan Anwar
The pharmacological importance of cannabidiol (CBD) has been in study for several years. CBD is the major nonpsychoactive constituent of plant Cannabis sativa and its administration is associated with reduced side effects. Currently, CBD is undergoing a lot of research which suggests that it has no addictive effects, good safety profile and has exhibited powerful therapeutic potential in several vital areas. It has wide spectrum of action because it acts through endocannabinoid receptors; CB1 and CB2 and it also acts on other receptors, such as GPR18, GPR55, GPR 119, 5HT1A, and TRPV2...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Azhar Hussain, Elsa S Tabrez, Volodymyr Mavrych, Olena Bolgova, Jagannadha Rao Peela
Over the past few decades, caffeine has been well recognized as a stimulant whose effects can be detected particularly in the central nervous system. A stimulating effect of caffeine has been found useful in treating patients with many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is reported to be a rapidly increasing public health problem with lack of a remedial treatment. However, the assumed protective effects of caffeine against AD are of huge interest. This study substantiates caffeine's role as a potential prevention agent against AD through several epidemiological studies...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Muhammad Ibrahim, Kanwal Rehman, Aneeza Razzaq, Iqbal Hussain, Tahir Farooq, Amjad Hussain, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The genus Urtica belongs to the family Urticaceae. The plants of this genus are known as nettles or, quite often, as stinging nettles. These plants can be easily identified by the presence of stinging hairs. Urtica species have previously been used for various medicinal purposes. The history for the use of these plants for medicinal purposes starts from the Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC). Medicinally, the genus Urtica has been used to treat several disorders, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, diarrhea, sprains, kidney stones, urinary tract infection, high blood pressure, hemorrhoids, flu, cough, fever, and ulcers...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Muhammad Usman Akbar, Kanwal Rehman, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Muhammad Ibrahim
Traditionally, many natural medicinal plants have been used to treat a variety of diseases since ancient times and are considered a potential source of phytochemicals for the development of new drugs. One of these is curcumin, which is an easily accessible, inexpensive, and nontoxic bioactive compound. Curcumin is a very important, naturally occurring, and highly lipophilic and phenolic substance derived from the rhizomes of plant Curcuma longa, a member of the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family, which is mostly used as a curry spice, flavoring agent, insect repellent, coloring agent in food, traditional drug, and ingredient in cosmetics...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Muhammad Imran Qadir
The idea that viruses may cause some cancers was first proposed almost a century ago. At the end of the last century, it was estimated that 15% of all human cancers were due to viruses. But it is postulated that "Viruses are the causative agents of cancer: 100% of cancer patients contain virus/es in their body which are responsible for the cancer." Cancer may be caused by viruses through one or more of three mechanisms. Some studies have opposed the idea, but in these studies, laboratory methods were not used to detect viruses...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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