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Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Wei Li, Song Mao, Liangxia Wu, Wenjing Shi, Jianhua Zhang, Zhong Wang
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) correlates with the risk and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to assess the relationship between the PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and SLE/lupus nephritis risk. We identified the eligible studies regarding the association between the PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and the risk of SLE/lupus nephritis. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model or, in the presence of heterogeneity, a random-effects model...
2019: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Yasir Waheed, Shiza Malik, Maham Khan, Muzammil Hasan Najmi
The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa was the largest of its kind with 11,000 deaths and approximately 28,637 affected cases. The aim of the study was to analyze the global situation after the Ebola outbreak including Ebola complications, vaccine development, lessons learned, financial losses, and disease preparedness. We searched in PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar by using keywords Ebola virus, Ebola vaccine development and Ebola virus transmission, the world after Ebola, financial losses by Ebola outbreak, and disease preparedness...
2019: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Hui Zhang, Zhenyu Chang, Khalid Mehmood, Keli Yang, Zewen Liu, Zhengying Duan, Fangyan Yuan, Zuowu Jiao, Wei Liu, Ting Gao, Xiaoying Pei, Muhammad Ijaz, Muhammad Taslim Ghori, Yongxiang Tian, Rui Guo
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), also known as broilers ascites syndrome, is characterized by hypoxia, pulmonary artery pressure, and right heart failure. However, less information is available about the molecular mechanisms of PAH. We evaluated the mediation of calcium-sensing receptor by inducing hypoxia for the possible proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via the G protein pathway. For this purpose, we used an in vitro trial of chicken cell culture and confirmed our results by using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, and Western blotting analysis...
2019: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Liping Wang, Jianghui Dong, Cory J Xian
Bone cells, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, have the ability to develop and maintain bone architecture. Although improved experimental testing approaches are increasing our understanding of the complex structures and functions of bone cells and bone, computational models, particularly finite element analyses, are being used to extend this knowledge and to develop a more theoretical understanding of bone cell behaviors. There are many challenges to developing an accurate and validated computational model due to the complex structure and biomechanical behaviors of the bone cells and bone tissue...
2019: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Saima Sharif, Maha Maqsood, Shagufta Naz, Farkhanda Manzoor, Malik Shah Jahan, Tasnim Farasat
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common metabolic and multifactorial disease in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. In diabetes, the defects in the cellular metabolism result in higher levels of free radicals. These radicals react with other vital cellular molecules, which are responsible in diabetes side effects and known as diabetic retinopathy (DR), a disease of the retina that results in impairment or loss of vision. In the present study, we investigated the expression of glutathione S-transferases class theta 1 (GSTT1) in type 2 DR subjects...
2019: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Ying Song, Li Meng Shou, Li-Yao Ai, Yun Bei, Man-Ting Chen
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of highly conserved pattern recognition receptors that can recognize both pathogen-associated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns. These receptors are important in the activation of the innate immune system and play a role in shaping the adaptive immune system. For years, the expression of TLRs in the brain has been proposed to contribute to the immunological protection of the central nervous system. However, emerging studies have provided increasing evidence of non-immune functions of TLRs and suggest that these receptors may participate in more complex processes that extend beyond the regulation of the innate immune response...
2019: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Seyed Mohammad Gheibi Hayat, Najmeh Farahani, Esmat Safdarian, Amir Roointan, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Gene therapy has attracted considerable attention for the treatment of genetic and acquired diseases. Successful gene therapy occurs when the therapeutic genes penetrate targeted cells and become available to the intracellular active site. Currently, a promising approach in gene delivery is the use of nonviral gene delivery vectors that lack immunogenicity but have low toxicity and potential tissue specificity. The widely used, existing nonviral gene vectors are cationic lipids and polymers that can pass across extracellular and intracellular barriers...
2019: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Yasir Waheed, Muzammil Hasan Najmi, Hafsa Aziz, Sumbul Khalid, Hasnain Waheed, Muhammad Imran, Bashir Ahmad
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading health problem across the globe. Only 20% of HCV positive individuals know their positive disease status. Effective HCV screening tests are required to screen both general and high-risk populations and identify the silent cases of HCV. In this study, we analyzed the performance of three rapid HCV screening kits. A total of 300 subjects from three populations groups, were enrolled from Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities of Pakistan. The three groups were blood donors (n = 50), pregnant women (n = 50), and hepatitis C positive individuals (200)...
2019: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Khizar Abbas, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Sidra Anwar
Low melanin level in white skin results in many genetic alterations that activate oncogenes to form metastatic melanomas because of interaction with ultraviolet rays. These melanomas are uncommon, but they are dangerous and spread rapidly in the individual's body. Individuals with fair, freckled skin; a weak immune system; or have a personal or family history of melanoma are at high risk to have melanoma. There are different stages of melanomas. All have some treatments, but to achieve more efficient treatment, clinical trials are being done...
2019: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Farha Anwer
Epigenetics is the variation in organisms that occur by changes in gene expression, and it also occurs in the genetic code. The immune system diseases arise from primarily epigenetic changes of obscure etiology. The current studies demonstrate that a portion of the rearrangements are created by the association of epigenetic alterations. For example, acetylation of histones and methylation of DNA are accounted for. These adjustments in DNA likewise showed the impact in mouse models and immune system illnesses in human...
2019: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Hina Khalid
The rapid development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy dramatically altered the treatment landscape of this disease. The DAA regimen is associated with various advantages including high sustained virological response (SVR) with minimum side effects and low pill load and specific inhibition of viral replication, which lowers dependence on the host cell. This regimen has substantially replaced conventional (interferon) therapy with high cure rates (> 90%) in most HCV populations...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Neelam Sultan, Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Irfan Ali, Muhammad Asif, Zunaira Umar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Zika virus belongs to family of viruses 'Flaviviridae' and spreads mostly by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes. The resulting infection is known as Zika fever. It is usually asymptomatic or often causes mild symptoms, which are very similar to dengue fever. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is also responsible for dengue and chikungunya viruses. Zika virus can spread by crossing the placental barrier from a pregnant mother to a fetus, which can result in microcephaly, severe brain malformations including Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), and other birth defects...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Shams Tabrez, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Salwa Hindawi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-known endocrine disorder affecting a significant number of individuals across the globe. Risk factors such as inflammation, obesity, high blood glucose level, cardiovascular disease, and genetic alteration are believed to be the reason for T2DM onset. The current study was intended to envisage the possible association between polymorphisms in the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promoter and IL-1β serum levels in Saudi T2DM patients. Biochemical parameters such as fasting blood glucose (FBS), percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAic), and lipid profile were measured spectrophotometrically...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Rasime Kalkan, Chidi Wilson Nwekwo, Terin Adali
Scaffolds are important tools in tissue engineering and play a unique role in tissue regeneration and repair of damaged tissues. A variety of natural, synthetic, and composite scaffold types can be used in cartilage tissue engineering. The limited capability of cartilage to repair itself has always been a problem during recovery from damage. The success of cartilage regeneration is dependent on a couple of factors, but the basic properties of scaffolds are biocompatibility, degradability under physiological conditions, and structural support for cell attachment...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Yelena V Budko, Leonid M Yampolsky, Yevgeny O Fedorov, Anatoly A Khabarov
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a most important regulator of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. Equally important for the development of the fetus is the trace element zinc, which is essential for sustainable fetal development. The involvement of hCG and zinc in the first trimester of pregnancy (embryogenesis) led us to question the possibility of their structural cooperation and inclusion in the native molecule chorionic gonadotropin and zinc atoms. At the same time, we found increasing stability of the hormonal structure in the background of hCG interaction with zinc...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Xiaotong Wu, Li Ying Han, Xiao Xiao Zhang, Ling Wang
Ovarian cancer is one of the most malignant gynecological tumors in the world, with a high fatality rate and resistance to chemotherapy. Much basic research has revealed that oxidative stress is involved in tumor occurrence and development processes and is associated with tumor progression as well as metastasis. In recent years, oxidative stress has been proven to have a close connection with malignant biological behavior in ovarian cancer, and this topic has garnered increasing attention. This article reviews the research aimed toward elucidating the relationship between oxidative stress and ovarian cancer...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Azhar Hussain, Elsa S Tabrez, Adil Muhammad, Jagannadha Rao Peela
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major dementia disease worldwide with an increasing incidence rate among the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disease with symptoms starting slowly and then progressing over time. There has been extensive research on AD prevention and treatment; however, there is no cure as of yet. Several drugs are being researched for the treatment and prevention of AD, with a rising interest in specific dietary compounds as potential interventions with lower side effects. One such dietary compound being tested is phytoestrogen...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Wenjuan Zheng, Jiao Wang, Xiaoshui Si, Mengyan Chen
Emerging evidence has indicated that the interleukin-1B (IL-1B) +3954 C > T polymorphism may affect individual susceptibility to sepsis. However, the results of published studies are inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis was to elucidate the association of this polymorphism with sepsis risk. Eligible studies were identified by a search of electronic databases. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the associations between the IL-1B +3954 C > T polymorphism and sepsis risk...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Xu Li, Mingjie Wang, Xiaoguang Jing, Weimin Guo, Chunxiang Hao, Yu Zhang, Shuang Gao, Mingxue Chen, Zengzeng Zhang, Xueliang Zhang, Shi Shen, Bin Zhang, Hai Xian, Zehao Wang, Yu Wang, Xiang Sui, Aiyuan Wang, Jiang Peng, Shibi Lu, Shuyun Liu, Quanyi Guo
Articular cartilage defects have very limited self-repair potential, and traditional bone marrow-stimulating therapy is not effective. Cartilage tissue engineering using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) is considered an attractive treatment for cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. However, studies proved that both BMSCs and ADSCs have their own advantages and shortcomings, including their sources, isolation methods, characterizations and differentiation potential...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Muhammad Ibrahim, Shanza Siddique, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Husnain, Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Farooq Azam
The genus Datura comprises wild shrub plants that belong to the Solanaceae family. Naturally, they possess both medicinal and poisonous properties due to the presence of many biologically active phytochemical constituents. Traditionally, Datura had been used for mystic and religious purposes, as a natural drug to treat asthma, pain, gout, boils, abscesses, and wounds, and as psychoactive infusions and fumitories. Different Datura species exhibit diverse ethnopharmacological activities against different diseases, and many ancient and traditional cultures have used various forms of Datura to treat ailments and to prevent many diseases...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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