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Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Hina Khalid
The rapid development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy dramatically altered the treatment landscape of this disease. The DAA regimen is associated with various advantages including high sustained virological response (SVR) with minimum side effects and low pill load and specific inhibition of viral replication, which lowers dependence on the host cell. This regimen has substantially replaced conventional (interferon) therapy with high cure rates (> 90%) in most HCV populations...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Neelam Sultan, Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Irfan Ali, Muhammad Asif, Zunaira Umar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Zika virus belongs to family of viruses 'Flaviviridae' and spreads mostly by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes. The resulting infection is known as Zika fever. It is usually asymptomatic or often causes mild symptoms, which are very similar to dengue fever. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is also responsible for dengue and chikungunya viruses. Zika virus can spread by crossing the placental barrier from a pregnant mother to a fetus, which can result in microcephaly, severe brain malformations including Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), and other birth defects...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Shams Tabrez, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Salwa Hindawi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-known endocrine disorder affecting a significant number of individuals across the globe. Risk factors such as inflammation, obesity, high blood glucose level, cardiovascular disease, and genetic alteration are believed to be the reason for T2DM onset. The current study was intended to envisage the possible association between polymorphisms in the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promoter and IL-1β serum levels in Saudi T2DM patients. Biochemical parameters such as fasting blood glucose (FBS), percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAic), and lipid profile were measured spectrophotometrically...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Rasime Kalkan, Chidi Wilson Nwekwo, Terin Adali
Scaffolds are important tools in tissue engineering and play a unique role in tissue regeneration and repair of damaged tissues. A variety of natural, synthetic, and composite scaffold types can be used in cartilage tissue engineering. The limited capability of cartilage to repair itself has always been a problem during recovery from damage. The success of cartilage regeneration is dependent on a couple of factors, but the basic properties of scaffolds are biocompatibility, degradability under physiological conditions, and structural support for cell attachment...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Yelena V Budko, Leonid M Yampolsky, Yevgeny O Fedorov, Anatoly A Khabarov
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a most important regulator of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. Equally important for the development of the fetus is the trace element zinc, which is essential for sustainable fetal development. The involvement of hCG and zinc in the first trimester of pregnancy (embryogenesis) led us to question the possibility of their structural cooperation and inclusion in the native molecule chorionic gonadotropin and zinc atoms. At the same time, we found increasing stability of the hormonal structure in the background of hCG interaction with zinc...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Xiaotong Wu, Li Ying Han, Xiao Xiao Zhang, Ling Wang
Ovarian cancer is one of the most malignant gynecological tumors in the world, with a high fatality rate and resistance to chemotherapy. Much basic research has revealed that oxidative stress is involved in tumor occurrence and development processes and is associated with tumor progression as well as metastasis. In recent years, oxidative stress has been proven to have a close connection with malignant biological behavior in ovarian cancer, and this topic has garnered increasing attention. This article reviews the research aimed toward elucidating the relationship between oxidative stress and ovarian cancer...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Azhar Hussain, Elsa S Tabrez, Adil Muhammad, Jagannadha Rao Peela
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major dementia disease worldwide with an increasing incidence rate among the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disease with symptoms starting slowly and then progressing over time. There has been extensive research on AD prevention and treatment; however, there is no cure as of yet. Several drugs are being researched for the treatment and prevention of AD, with a rising interest in specific dietary compounds as potential interventions with lower side effects. One such dietary compound being tested is phytoestrogen...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Wenjuan Zheng, Jiao Wang, Xiaoshui Si, Mengyan Chen
Emerging evidence has indicated that the interleukin-1B (IL-1B) +3954 C > T polymorphism may affect individual susceptibility to sepsis. However, the results of published studies are inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis was to elucidate the association of this polymorphism with sepsis risk. Eligible studies were identified by a search of electronic databases. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the associations between the IL-1B +3954 C > T polymorphism and sepsis risk...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Xu Li, Mingjie Wang, Xiaoguang Jing, Weimin Guo, Chunxiang Hao, Yu Zhang, Shuang Gao, Mingxue Chen, Zengzeng Zhang, Xueliang Zhang, Shi Shen, Bin Zhang, Hai Xian, Zehao Wang, Yu Wang, Xiang Sui, Aiyuan Wang, Jiang Peng, Shibi Lu, Shuyun Liu, Quanyi Guo
Articular cartilage defects have very limited self-repair potential, and traditional bone marrow-stimulating therapy is not effective. Cartilage tissue engineering using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) is considered an attractive treatment for cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. However, studies proved that both BMSCs and ADSCs have their own advantages and shortcomings, including their sources, isolation methods, characterizations and differentiation potential...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Muhammad Ibrahim, Shanza Siddique, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Husnain, Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Farooq Azam
The genus Datura comprises wild shrub plants that belong to the Solanaceae family. Naturally, they possess both medicinal and poisonous properties due to the presence of many biologically active phytochemical constituents. Traditionally, Datura had been used for mystic and religious purposes, as a natural drug to treat asthma, pain, gout, boils, abscesses, and wounds, and as psychoactive infusions and fumitories. Different Datura species exhibit diverse ethnopharmacological activities against different diseases, and many ancient and traditional cultures have used various forms of Datura to treat ailments and to prevent many diseases...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Gaurav Gupta, Mary Bebawy, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Anurag Mishra, Kamal Dua
Cancer is a complicated transformational progression that fiercely changes the appearance of cell physiology as well as cells' relations with adjacent tissues. Developing an oncogenic characteristic requires a wide range of modifications in a gene expression at a cellular level. This can be achieved by activation or suppression of the gene regulation pathway in a cell. Tristetraprolin (TTP or ZFP36) associated with the initiation and development of tumors are regulated at the level of mRNA decay, frequently through the activity of AU-rich mRNA-destabilizing elements (AREs) located in their 3'-untranslated regions...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Mahmut Cerkez Ergoren
Traditional methods for analyzing meiotic recombination in humans are limited. Recently developed in vitro and in silico assays together are useful for confirmation and detection of meiotic recombination hotspots from population polymorphism data. These techniques are significant both for understanding the nature of human meiotic recombination and for applications such as association studies.
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Mahmut Cerkez Ergoren
Meiotic recombination plays a key role in reshuffling haplotypes in human populations and thus affects evolution profoundly. However, our understanding of recombination dynamics is largely limited to descriptions of variation in populations and families. Higher-resolution analysis (≤ 0.0001 cM) of de novo recombination events in human sperm DNA has revealed clustering into very narrow hotspots (1-2 kb) that generally coincide with abrupt breakdown of linkage disequilibrium. Recent findings have highlighted an unexpected molecular control of the distribution of meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammals by a rapidly evolving gene in trans, PR-domain-containing 9 (PRDM9), and specific DNA sequence motifs in cis...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Muhammad Wasim, Fazli Rabbi Awan, Haq Nawaz Khan, Hina Ayesha
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-phenylalanine to L-tyrosine using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a cofactor. Among aminoacidopathies, PKU is one of the most prevalent disorders in different populations. It may be caused by deficiency of BH4 or mutations in PAH. About 98% of PKU patients have mutations in the PAH, while the remaining have BH4 deficiency. If PKU is diagnosed earlier in life using advance analytical techniques (e...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Zulfia Hussain, Junaid Ali Khan, Sehrish Murtaza
The pharmacological application of nanodevices and systems is a rapidly emerging nanotechnology that is raising new possibilities in the diagnosis and therapy of different diseases. Nanotechnology has been providing promising tools for chemotherapy especially in cancer treatment. Nanotechnology deals with physical and biochemical properties of nanoparticles in the clinical application of drugs. Targeted nanoparticle drug delivery is intended to reduce the side effects of anticancer drugs with both decreases in consumption and treatment expenses, which are the major hurdles in conventional cancer treatment...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Ebrahim Shirzadeh, Maryam Najafi, Milad Nazarzadeh, Golsa Fazli, Farahnaz Falanji, Leila Sadat Aldaghi, Abolfazl Rad
Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease characterized by the abnormal epithelial proliferation, matrix remodeling, vascularization and the migration of the lesion. Although the etiology of pterygium is elusive, recent studies have focused on the role of limbal stem cells (LSCs) damage and effects of UVB. This study aimed to determine the expression levels of pluripotent markers of SOX2 and OCT4 in primary pterygium and normal conjunctiva. Using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the SOX2 and OCT4 expressions were compared in primary pterygium and normal conjunctiva...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Ganesh N Sharma, Gaurav Gupta, Piyush Sharma
The role of free radicals in various human ailments is well established. Still, the researchers continue to emphasize the involvement of free radicals in these disorders. Antioxidants are being used as an effective tool as a defense against disorders caused by free radicals. This review presents brief detail regarding the nature, types, and sources of free radicals that are of pharmacological interest. A summary of the antioxidants, along with possible mechanisms, has also been incorporated. The role of free radicals and antioxidants in various human disease are also presented...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Rasime Kalkan, Pinar Tulay
Osteoporosis is a major health issue, especially in older women. The absence of estrogen is the main cause of menopausal osteoporosis. Estrogen and androgen hormones play major roles during the growth and development of the skeletal system, including preservation of bone structure. Estrogen plays an important role in the balance between the bone formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are associated with bone resorption. Several pathways have been shown to regulate bone formation and degradation. Estrogen and Ephrin-Eph pathways are among the most important molecular mechanisms that regulate bone reconstruction...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Pinar Tulay, Nanyak Galam, Terin Adali
Breast cancer has continued to be a cause of increasing morbidity and mortality in women, being the most common cause of cancer-related deaths among them. Its management using chemotherapy is continually plagued with problems of systemic toxicity, lack of compliance by patients, and inadequate targeting of cancer cells. The future of breast cancer chemotherapy will likely involve the use of biocompatible high cell-targeting capacity drug-delivery vehicles like silk fibroin to ameliorate these problems. The utilization of silk fibroin nanoparticles to deliver cytotoxic drugs provides specificity, optimal entrapment, improved therapeutic index, and maximal breast cancer cell toxicity with minimal or no collateral damage to surrounding normal cells...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Kamal Dua, Nicole G Hansbro, Paul S Foster, Philip M Hansbro
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that control gene expression posttranscriptionally by directly blocking translation of their target mRNAs or by repressing protein production via mRNA destabilization. Investigations into miRNAs began approximately 12 years ago with their discovery in mammalian cells. Still, the involvement of miRNAs in the development of asthma remains unclear, and this topic needs further research to discover various molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of asthma and new therapeutic interventions...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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