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Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

Barbara Terelak-Borys, Iwona Grabska-Liberek, Andreas Schoetzau, Katarzyna Konieczka
BACKGROUND: It is still debatable whether visual field defects in glaucoma have a reversible component and to what extent a temporary loss can be provoked. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the response of the visual function to a cold provocation in glaucoma patients, particularly to test whether subjects with Flammer syndrome (FS) behaved differently from subjects without FS. METHODS: Ten (10) primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with FS, 7 POAG patients without FS, and 11 healthy controls were tested with program G2 on the Octopus 101 perimeter before and after putting one hand in cold water (4°C) for 2 min...
February 5, 2019: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Teri Lawton, Ming-Xiong Huang
BACKGROUND: In the U.S. 3.8 million people have a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) each year. Rapid brain training exercises to improve cognitive function after a mild TBI are needed. OBJECTIVE: This study determines whether cognitive remediation by discriminating the direction a test pattern moves relative to a stationary background (movement figure-ground discrimination) improves the vision and cognitive deficits that result from a TBI, providing a paradigm shift in treatment methods...
February 5, 2019: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
LingYu Zhang, Bei Cao, Yutong Zou, Qian-Qian Wei, RuWei Ou, Bi Zhao, Jing Yang, Ying Wu, HuiFang Shang
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is an important and common symptom in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the potential relationships among frontal lobe function, behavioral changes and quality of life (QoL) in patients with MSA. METHODS: A total of 203 MSA patients were enrolled and evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-39 item version (PDQ-39)...
February 5, 2019: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Chiang-Soon Song, Oan-Na Lee, Hee-Soon Woo
BACKGROUND: Cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) is a task-specific training applied using a cognitive behavioral approach to improve performance in daily activities and to enable the patient to overcome limitations related to them. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the CO-OP approach in comparison with task-specific upper extremity training (TUET) on performance related to daily and functional activities in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke...
February 5, 2019: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Hailong Chen, Jiuqin Zheng, Junjie Ma
BACKGROUND: In the search for treating neurological dysfunctions after spinal cord injury (SCI), methods of neuroprotection are of interest to intervene with the caspase pathway. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of vanillin in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a sham-operated group, and two groups where SCI was produced by ischemia/reperfusion which received either saline or vanillin (286 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i...
February 4, 2019: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Aiping Qin, Qian Zhang, Jun Wang, Iqbal Sayeed, Donald G Stein
BACKGROUND: In this proof-of-concept paper, we investigated whether combination treatment with progesterone (P4) and chloroquine (CQ) would reduce ischemic injury more effectively than either agent alone in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model in male rats. METHODS: P4 (8 mg/kg) and CQ (25 mg/kg) were given alone or in combination beginning at different times during surgery and for 3 days post-occlusion. Locomotor activity and grip strength were evaluated as measures of impairment and recovery...
February 4, 2019: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Surabhi Gautam, Madhuri Tolahunase, Uma Kumar, Rima Dada
BACKGROUND: Recovery of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) depends on several physical and psychological factors, besides pharmacological treatment. Co-morbid depression adversely affects the outcome in RA. Usual medical therapies have a limited scope and fail to cure the psychological component of the disease. With advanced therapeutic options, achieving a state of remission has become the treatment goal, yoga based mind body intervention (MBI) may provide a holistic approach to its treatment dimension...
February 1, 2019: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
M Tramontano, A M Cinnera, L Manzari, F Tozzi, C Caltagirone, G Morone, A Pompa, M G Grasso
BACKGROUND: Balance disorders are present in patients with Multiple Sclerosis and part of these disorders could be of vestibular origin. Vestibular Rehabilitation was found to be effective in improving balance in patients with central vestibular dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effects of vestibular rehabilitation on balance skills and secondly on fatigue and activity of daily living in highly disabled multiple sclerosis people. METHODS: Thirty hospitalized participants with severe multiple sclerosis (EDSS 6-7) were randomly assigned to the experimental group (15 patients -9F-; mean age 50...
November 8, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Laurence Dumont, Sofia El Mouderrib, Hugo Théoret
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique commonly used to modulate cognitive functions; so-called "anodal" stimulation is considered to increase cortical excitability while "cathodal" is presumed to have the opposite result. Yet, a growing number of recent studies question the robustness of this polarity-dependent effect, namely because of the important inter-individual variability with regards to tDCS modulatory effects...
November 3, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Edward P Washabaugh, Emma Treadway, R Brent Gillespie, Christian D Remy, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Robotic rehabilitation is a highly promising approach to recover lost functions after stroke or other neurological disorders. Unfortunately, robotic rehabilitation currently suffers from "motor slacking", a phenomenon in which the human motor system reduces muscle activation levels and movement excursions, ostensibly to minimize metabolic- and movement-related costs. Consequently, the patient remains passive and is not fully engaged during therapy. To overcome this limitation, we envision a new class of body-powered robots and hypothesize that motor slacking could be reduced if individuals must provide the power to move their impaired limbs via their own body (i...
October 31, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Ge Dang, Xinran Chen, Yuhui Zhao, Yicong Chen, Fubing Ouyang, Jiahui Liang, Yi Guo, Jinsheng Zeng
BACKGROUNDS: Cerebral infarction does not only cause focal injury in the ischemic site, but also secondary non-ischemic damage at the remote areas of nervous system associated with the primary focus. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the changes in the spinal cord and ventral root after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). METHODS: Adult male cynonolgus monkeys (4-5 years, 5.5-7.5 kg) were subjected to MCAO (n = 6) or sham surgery (n = 4)...
October 30, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Meghal Gagrani, Muneeb A Faiq, Talvir Sidhu, Rima Dada, Raj K Yadav, Ramanjit Sihota, Kanwal P Kochhar, Rohit Verma, Tanuj Dada
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma (POAG) is a kind of neurodegenerative disease known to be closely associated with stress and adverse quality of life (QOL). Stress has also been shown to be involved in etiopathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Complementary treatment in form of Meditation has been reported to improve QOL, brain oxygenation and decrease markers of stress. With this premise, a randomized controlled trial was carried out to assess the effect of Meditation on intraocular pressure, subjective QOL and objective markers of stress and brain oxygenation in patients with POAG...
October 29, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Rizwana Qadri, Manju Namdeo, Madhuri Behari, Vinay Goyal, Subhadra Sharma, Asok Kumar Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Progressive apoptosis in the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra lead to Parkinson's disease. Since neurons require substantially higher supply of energy, their mitochondria have a pivotal status in neuronal survival. These organelles have a key role to play in apoptosis and any impairment thereof may lead to apoptosis mediated cell death. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) in Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls...
September 28, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
M Kusch, C C Schmidt, L Göden, C Tscherpel, J Stahl, J Saliger, H Karbe, G R Fink, P H Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Apraxia is a deficit of motor cognition leading to difficulties in actual tool use, imitation of gestures, and pantomiming object use. To date, little data exist regarding the recovery from apraxic deficits after stroke, and no statistical lesion mapping study investigated the neural correlate of recovery from apraxia. Accordingly, we here examined recovery from apraxic deficits, differential associations of apraxia task (imitation vs. pantomime) and effector (bucco-facial vs...
September 27, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Bernhard A Sabel, Josef Flammer, Lotfi B Merabet
Vision loss due to ocular diseases such as glaucoma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy, are generally considered an exclusive affair of the retina and/or optic nerve. However, the brain, through multiple indirect influences, has also a major impact on functional visual impairment. Such indirect influences include intracerebral pressure, eye movements, top-down modulation (attention, cognition), and emotionally triggered stress hormone release affecting blood vessel dysregulation...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Reinhard Werth
BACKGROUND: Reading disability is termed "dyslexia" if it is much lower than other cognitive abilities according to the intelligence quotient (IQ). This means that dyslexia is caused by an impairment of abilities other than those which the IQ requires. Therefore, reading performance should improve immediately if these impairments are either eliminated or compensated. OBJECTIVE: The experiments explore conditions under which these impairments are compensated and dyslexic children's poor reading ability immediately improve...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Hiroki Oda, Souichi Ohta, Ryosuke Ikeguchi, Takashi Noguchi, Yukitoshi Kaizawa, Hirofumi Yurie, Hisataka Takeuchi, Sadaki Mitsuzawa, Shuichi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Replantation of the avulsed nerve root has been proposed for the treatment of severe brachial plexus injury for several decades. However, due to the complexity of the technique and limited functional improvement, practical applications are yet to be implemented. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated the effect of pretreatment with resveratrol on nerve autografts used for replantation surgery in a rat model of nerve root avulsion. METHODS: Resveratrol pretreatment was performed using an explant culture technique...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Eun Kyoung Kang, Dabi Shin, Jeong-Yeon Yun, Wanjoo Park, Hee-Won Park
BACKGROUND: Specific investigation of dual task-interference (DTI) may help researchers to develop the optimal training exercise for enhancing the performance of daily activities. OBJECTIVES: To reveal the DTI by comparing the performances between personalized single tasks (cognitive or motor task) and dual task with serial decomposition in normal healthy adults. METHODS: After a preliminary period, healthy participants randomly (n = 46) performed three computerized experiments of cognitive (CT), motor (MT) and dual tasks (DT)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Yan Chen, Yiwei Hou, Ruli Ge, Jianmei Han, Jing Xu, Jinbo Chen, Hongcai Wang
BACKGROUND: Protective effect of roscovitine and deregulation of the p-RB/E2F1 have not been well studied in PD models generated by repeated oral administration of rotenone. OBJECTIVE: These experiments evaluated the effects of repeated oral gavage of rotenone on the activation of p-RB/E2F1 and the effects of roscovitine on the regulation of dopaminergic neuronal injury and the behavior of PD in mice. METHODS: Using 2.5% carboxymethylcellulose and 1...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Lili Ma, Ying Mu, Zhaobo Zhang, Qiansan Sun
BACKGROUND: Eugenol, a natural phenolic compound found in essential oils, shows a variety of remedial properties, while its effect on spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Eugenol on SCI-related impairments in rats. METHODS: Rats received SCI or sham surgery were administered by oral gavage with Eugenol or physiological saline 6 hours following SCI and once a day for seven consecutive weeks. Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) score and inclined plane test were used to assess locomotion function, while mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were used to evaluate the withdrawal response to painful stimuli...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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