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Cytokine | Page 2

Naoki Yoshimura, Yoko Yokoyama, Minako Sako, Nobuo Aoyama, Fumihito Hirai, Koji Sawada, Nobuhito Kashiwagi, Yasuo Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: Determination of antibodies to infliximab (ATI) is desirable for the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who receive infliximab. Conventional ligand-binding ATI-assays detect only free-form of ATI, potentially increasing the proportion of patients with undetectable ATI, but with adequate trough infliximab (TRI) level who experience loss of response (LOR) to infliximab. We investigated this assertion using a novel ATI-Cim assay. METHODS: An ATI-Cim assay was developed by utilizing a C1q-immobilized plate, detecting free-form and ATI-infliximab complexes...
April 16, 2019: Cytokine
Yayuan Lu, Xin Xu, Rui Dong, Lingling Sun, Lei Chen, Zongze Zhang, Mian Peng
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after surgery and its occurrence is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the pathophysiology of this complication remains largely unknown. Efforts to identify causes of POCD have focused on the hippocampal neuroinflammation. Recently, accumulated evidence indicates that NeurimmiRs, a subset of microRNAs (miRNAs), which modulate both neuronal and immune processes, play an important role in neuroinflammation...
April 16, 2019: Cytokine
Manisha Shah, M S K Bharadwaj, Anjali Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, Sachin Kumar
Viperin is an interferon-inducible protein that helps in protecting mammals against various virus infections. Viperin is a highly conserved member of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) family in many species. Viperin has been shown to play a pivotal role in the innate immunity of chicken; however, its role has not been explored in its antiviral potential. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of an infectious disease in poultry. In the present study, we have shown the anti-NDV effect of chicken viperin (cViperin)...
April 16, 2019: Cytokine
Magdalena Mierzchala-Pasierb, Malgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Patrycja Lesnik, Barbara Adamik, Sylwia Placzkowska, Pawel Serek, Andrzej Gamian, Malgorzata Lipinska-Gediga
PURPOSE: Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection and a syndrome shaped by pathogen and host factors with characteristic that evolve over time. The study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic and discriminative value of IL-18 assessment in comparison to PCT, CRP, WBC in early stage of sepsis and septic shock. METHODS: An observational and prospective study was conducted in the group of 40 ICU patients with diagnosis of sepsis or septic shock, serum PCT, IL-18, CRP and WBC measurements were performed on admission, and on the 2nd, 3rd and 5th therapy day...
April 16, 2019: Cytokine
Klaudia Kwiatkowski, Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk, Anna Piotrowska, Ewelina Rojewska, Katarzyna Ciapała, Wioletta Makuch, Joanna Mika
The complex neuroimmunological interactions mediated by chemokines are suggested to be responsible for the development of neuropathic pain. The lack of knowledge regarding the detailed pathomechanism of neuropathy is one reason for the lack of optimally efficient therapies. Recently, several lines of evidence indicated that expression of CCR2 is increased in spinal cord neurons and microglial cells after peripheral nerve injury. It was previously shown that administration of CCR2 antagonists induces analgesic effects; however, the role of CCR2 ligands in neuropathic pain still needs to be explained...
April 16, 2019: Cytokine
Joanna Kamińska, Marek Stopiński, Krzysztof Mucha, Anna Jędrzejczak, Marek Gołębiowski, Monika A Niewczas, Leszek Pączek, Bartosz Foroncewicz
INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of death mainly due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Early risk identification may allow interventions and prevention of fatal events. OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to assess the usefulness of selected CVD biomarkers as predictors of 5-year mortality in patients with different CKD stages. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study included 57 CKD patients: 38 in stage 5 (ESRD), 19 in stage 3 and 4 (CKD3-4), and 19 healthy controls...
April 13, 2019: Cytokine
Monu Karki, Amit Kumar, Sargam Arya, M A Ramakrishnan, G Venkatesan
Orf is a contagious disease posing a serious threat to animal and human health. E3L is one of the evolutionarily acquired immunomodulatory proteins present in orf virus (ORFV) and is responsible for conferring resistance to interferons among poxviruses. Genetic analysis of ORFV isolates of different geographical regions including Indian subcontinent targeting viral interferon resistance (VIR) gene (a homolog of vaccinia virus E3L gene) revealed a high percentage of identity among themselves and other ORFV isolates at both nt and aa levels as compared to low identity among parapoxviruses (PPVs)...
April 13, 2019: Cytokine
Wubing He, Lihong Chen, Yongming Huang, Zhixian Xu, Wei Xu, Nuoting Ding, Jiantin Chen
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are considered good candidates for seed cells in bone engineering. The study aim to investigate the synergistic effects of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) and transforming growth factor beta3 (hTGF-beta3) modified BMSCs on inducing osteogenic differentiation in vitro. METHODS: Lentivirus (LV) carrying hBMP2 and/or hTGF-beta3 genes were constructed and used to transduce rat BMSCs. The expression of osteogenic molecules was detected by qRT-PCR and western blotting...
April 13, 2019: Cytokine
Live Marie T Stokkeland, Guro F Giskeødegård, Solhild Stridsklev, Liv Ryan, Bjørg Steinkjer, Line H Tangerås, Eszter Vanky, Ann-Charlotte Iversen
INTRODUCTION: Human pregnancy is a state of elevated maternal systemic inflammation, and pregnancy complications are often associated with a dysfunctional immune response. The network of cytokines reflects this complex immune activity, and broad serum cytokine profiling provides a new tool to understand the changes in immune status during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine how maternal serum cytokine patterns change during the first half of pregnancy...
April 3, 2019: Cytokine
Mao Mizuta, Masaki Shimizu, Natsumi Inoue, Yasuo Nakagishi, Akihiro Yachie
To clarify cytokines involved in the development of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA) associated macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and to identify the serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of s-JIA associated MAS, we employed an antibody array that simultaneously detects 174 cytokines. Fifteen s-JIA patients including 5 patients receiving tocilizumab (TCZ) were analyzed. The levels of five cytokines were significantly elevated in MAS phase compared to those in the active phase of s-JIA. CXCL9 showed the most significant increase following the development of s-JIA associated MAS...
April 2, 2019: Cytokine
Ying Yu, Songfu Feng, Shiyu Wei, Yanyan Zhong, Guoguo Yi, Haiyan Chen, Lifang Liang, Hui Chen, Xiaohe Lu
The maturation state of dendritic cell (DC) plays an important role in immune activities. Previously we had found that NF-κB (p65) pathway could promote DC maturation and subsequent immune effects. But the upstream mechanism of this pathway was still unclear. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activating its receptor P2X7R has recently been considered as the fourth signal to activate T lymphocytes. Here we aimed to find out the connection between P2X7R and NF-κB (p65) pathway in DC maturation. Results showed that the expression of P2X7R and the intracellular ATP levels were increased along with the maturation of DC...
April 2, 2019: Cytokine
Bi Li, Jing Fang, Tingting He, Sirui Yin, Mingxian Yang, Hengmin Cui, Xiaoping Ma, Junliang Deng, Zhihua Ren, Yanchun Hu, Gang Ye, Ming Zhang, Yi Geng, Liping Gou, Zhicai Zuo
Resistin is a cysteine-rich cytokine, which has been indicated as a mediator of insulin resistance and inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was an important enzyme that could mediate lipid accumulation in macrophages. Additionally, the intracellular molecules phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine-threonine protein kinase (AKT)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) were supposed to be involved in the lipid accumulation process in cells. However, it remains unclear whether resistin was correlated with the dysregulation of lipid metabolism in macrophages...
March 26, 2019: Cytokine
Nirali Rathwa, Roma Patel, Sayantani Pramanik Palit, Shahnawaz D Jadeja, Mahendra Narwaria, A V Ramachandran, Rasheedunnisa Begum
OBJECTIVE: Omentin-1, an anti-inflammatory protein, is secreted by the visceral adipose tissue. Altered levels of Omentin-1 are associated with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Although Omentin-1 is implicated in the insulin signaling pathway, the relationship between the genetic variants of Omentin-1 and T2D is not yet explored. The current study evaluates the association of Omentin-1 polymorphisms (rs2274907 A/T and rs1333062 G/T), its transcript and protein levels, and genotype-phenotype correlation with metabolic parameters and T2D susceptibility...
March 23, 2019: Cytokine
Yaju Duan, Yonghua Dong, Hua Hu, Qiumei Wang, Sheng Guo, Dandan Fu, Xiangfeng Song, Dhan V Kalvakolanu, Zhongwei Tian
Immune cells infiltrating the psoriatic skin secrete high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, TNF-α, IL-21 and IL-36 resulting in chronic inflammation. However, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been fully understood. We report here elevation of IL-33 expression in psoriatic lesions. Studies in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mice with psoriatic inflammation confirmed a critical role for IL-33 in driving the disease. IL-33 reduces the CD4+ and CD8+ cells, inhibits autophagy in IMQ-treated mouse skin, and promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of STAT3...
March 22, 2019: Cytokine
Letizia Santinelli, Maura Statzu, Alessandra Pierangeli, Federica Frasca, Alessia Bressan, Claudia Pinacchio, Chiara Nonne, Ombretta Turriziani, Guido Antonelli, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Carolina Scagnolari
Following recent attention focused on IL-32 as an important component involved in the inflammatory cytokine network, we speculated that IL-32's action on IFN-γ and IFN-γ secreting T cell subsets may help sustain the immune activation and dysregulation found in patients with HIV-1 achieving viral suppression. To explore this hypothesis, transcript levels of IL-32 and IFN-γ were evaluated in PBMC from 139 virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients and from 63 healthy individuals by Real Time RT-PCR assays...
March 22, 2019: Cytokine
Kiva Brennan, Bobby D O'Leary, Danielle Mc Laughlin, David Kinlen, Eleanor J Molloy, Declan Cody, Sri Paran, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Andrew E Hogan, Sarah L Doyle
Almost a third of Irish children are now overweight and the country ranks 58th out of 200 countries for its proportion of overweight youths. With the rising obesity epidemic, and the impaired immune responses of this population, it is vital to understand the effects that obesity has on the immune system and to design future therapeutics, adjuvants and vaccines with overweight and obese populations in mind. Many current vaccines use adjuvants that have been found to be less effective at stimulating the immune response in children compared with adults and there is now substantial effort to design paediatric-focused adjuvants...
March 22, 2019: Cytokine
Vijayamahantesh, Vijayalaxmi
Nucleotides are one of the most primitive extracellular signalling molecules across all phyla and regulate a multitude of responses. The biological effects of extracellular nucleotides/sides are mediated via the specific purinergic receptors present on the cell surface. In mammalian system, adenine nucleotides are the predominant nucleotides found in the extracellular milieu and mediate a constellation of physiological functions. In the context of host-pathogen interaction, extracellular ATP is recognized as a danger signal and potentiates the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from activated immune cells, on the other hand, its breakdown product adenosine exerts potential anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions...
March 22, 2019: Cytokine
Héloïse Débare, Jörg Schmidt, Nathalie Moiré, Céline Ducournau, Yoshuá D Acosta Paguay, Ralph T Schwarz, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson, Françoise Debierre-Grockiego
Neosporosis due to Neospora caninum causes abortions in farm animals such as cattle. No treatment and vaccine exist to fight this disease, responsible for considerable economic losses. It is thus important to better understand the immune responses occurring during the pathogenesis to control them in a global strategy against the parasite. In this context, we studied the roles of N. caninum glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), glycolipids defined as toxins in the related parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We demonstrated for the first time that GPIs could be excreted in the supernatant of N...
March 22, 2019: Cytokine
Divaker Choubey, Ravichandran Panchanathan
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease that exhibits a strong female bias (female-to-male ratio 9:1) in patients. Further, 40-60% SLE patients develop lupus nephritis (LN), which significantly increases the mortality rates. The failure of current therapies to adequately treat LN in patients reflects an incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis. Notably, a chronic increase in serum interferon-α (IFN-α) activity is a heritable risk factor to develop SLE. Accordingly, blood cells from most SLE patients with an active disease exhibit an increase in the expression of the type I IFN (IFN-α/β)-stimulated genes (ISGs, also referred to as "IFN-signature"), a type I IFN response...
March 20, 2019: Cytokine
Silvia Méndez-Flores, Gabriela Hernández-Molina, Daniel Azamar-Llamas, Joaquín Zúñiga, Juanita Romero-Díaz, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda
We compared the chemokine/receptor expression in skin biopsies of discoid (SLE/DLE) and subacute lupus (SLE/SCLE) and correlated it with tissue and circulating effector CD4 T cells/regulatory cells. Skin biopsies and peripheral blood from 9 active SLE/DLE patients, 9 SLE/SCLE patients, 5 control SLE patients without cutaneous lesions and 10 control healthy donors were included. Clinical skin activity was measured by Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index scoring, and systemic activity was measured by a modified SLEDAI-2K excluding the cutaneous items...
March 20, 2019: Cytokine
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