Human & Experimental Toxicology

K Zajda, E L Gregoraszczuk
Tissue-dependent oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been suggested. In this study, the effect of two PAH mixtures, M1 composed of all 16 priority pollutants and M2 composed of five (noted in the highest levels) compounds, on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression, basal or FSH-induced oestradiol (E2) secretion and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) protein expression, by non-luteinised human granulosa cell line (HGrC1) was determined. In addition, the consequences of gene silencing of oestrogen receptor alfa (siESR1), oestrogen receptor beta (siESR2) and a G protein-coupled receptor (siGPER1) on the above parameters were described...
November 7, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Z Zhang, R Li, H Lu, X Zhang
Recent years have seen substantial shifts in cultural attitudes towards cannabis for medical and recreational use. However, legalizing recreational marijuana may have adverse effects on individual and public health. As the most widely used illicit agent, cannabis is commonly reported to disrupt learning and memory. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral impairment by cannabis abuse remain poorly understood. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a major component in cannabis, causes short-term effects on the visual system, but little is known about persisting visual disturbances...
November 3, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Ozkan, O Salt, P Durukan, A Sen, E Bulbul, A Duman, C Kavalci
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to determine whether there is a change in the plasma levels of copeptin and there is a relationship among the plasma levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), lactate, and copeptin levels in patients presenting to the emergency department with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients admitted to the emergency department with CO poisoning were included in the study. The blood samples of the patients were collected on arrival 0th, 6th, and 12th hours for copeptin, lactate, and COHb levels...
November 3, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
L Shi, L Jiang, X Zhang, G Yang, C Zhang, X Yao, X Wu, M Fu, X Sun, X Liu
Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the main metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in organisms and is commonly used as a plasticizer. Exposure to DEHP impairs the function of islet beta cells (INS-1 cells), which is related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. At present, some research data have also confirmed that MEHP has a certain damage effect on INS-1 cells. In our experiment, we found that MEHP would lead to the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the upregulation of autophagy...
October 29, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Palko-Łabuz, E Kostrzewa-Susłow, T Janeczko, K Środa-Pomianek, A Poła, A Uryga, K Michalak
Chalcones are naturally occurring compounds exhibiting biological activity through multiple mechanisms. Flavokawain B is one of chalcones found in kava plant. In our studies, we focused on the anticancer activity of flavokawain B in colorectal cancer cells LoVo and its resistant to doxorubicin subline-LoVo/Dx. Strong cytotoxic activity of flavokawain B and its ability to inhibit the proliferation in both cell lines was detected. These effects accompanied with induction cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and the presence of SubG1 fraction...
October 22, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Chen, L-L Zhu, J-L Su, G-L Li, J Wang, Y-N Zhang
Lung cancer is the main cause of cancer incidence and mortality around the world. Prucalopride is an agonist for the 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor, but it was unknown whether prucalopride could be used to treat lung cancer. To investigate the biological effects of prucalopride on proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration of lung cancer cells, and its underlying molecular mechanism in the progression of lung cancer, we performed this study. The Cell Counting Kit 8 assay was used to measure the proliferation of A549/A427 lung cancer cells treated with prucalopride...
October 22, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A A El-Sheikh, W Y Abdelzaher, A A Gad, S A Abdel-Gaber
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cancer is a fatal and serious disease. Cyclophosphamide (CYC) is a commonly used anticancer drug. Cardiotoxicity and myelotoxicity are life-threatening side effects of CYC treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, allopurinol (ALL) and febuxostat (FEB), on CYC-induced cardio- and hematopoietic toxicity in rats. METHODS: ALL (100 mg/kg/day) or FEB (10 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to rats in the presence and absence of CYC (200 mg/kg kg i...
October 22, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M A Al Kahtani
Because cadmium (Cd) is not naturally degradable by ecosystems, it interferes with many types of food chains. Cd accumulates in the kidney, liver and in the nervous tissues, especially the brain. The neurotoxicity of Cd is very high, as it alters the integrity, and increases the permeability, of the blood-brain barrier. Cd penetrates and accumulates in neurons in the brains of rats. This study reveals that Cd decreases antioxidant enzymes and increases oxidative stress in the brain. In addition, Cd increases lipid peroxidation of brain tissues...
October 16, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Kacar, F Kar, C Hacioglu, G Kanbak, V Sahinturk
Of all cancer types, prostate cancer is the second most common one with an age-standardized incidence rate of 29.3 per 100,000 men worldwide. Nitric oxide (NO) is both a radical and versatile messenger molecule involved in many physiological activities. NO was documented to be highly secreted and utilized by cancer cells. Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is utilized for inhibiting NO synthase. Its worst long-term side effect is reported to be hypertension, hence less cytotoxic than chemotherapeutic agents...
October 14, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y Qin, P Zhao, Y Chen, X Liu, H Dong, W Zheng, C Li, X Mao, J Li
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in the process of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Increasing evidences have shown that exaggerated EMT in recurrent pulmonary injury mediates the early pathogenesis of PF. This study aimed to evaluate EMT of human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) when cocultured with human macrophages Tohoku hospital pediatrics-1 (THP-1) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and investigate the role of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway...
October 14, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
C A Otuechere, A Adewuyi, O L Adebayo, I A Ebigwei
Chemical modification of cellulose is currently attracting attention as researchers attempt to take advantage of the abundance of hydroxyl groups on its surface to introduce extra biological functionality. However, the possible deleterious effect of exposure to functionalized nanocellulose (CSN) remains a concern. Therefore, this study aims to explore the potential mechanisms of hepatotoxicity of CSN modified with oxalate ester (NCD) in rats. A 7-day repeated oral toxicity study of NCD at the doses of 50 and 100 mg kg-1 body weight was conducted, and plasma and liver tissue samples were assayed using biochemical analysis, liver histopathology, and protein expression...
October 13, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
K Sikorska, I Grądzka, B Sochanowicz, A Presz, S Męczyńska-Wielgosz, K Brzóska, M K Kruszewski
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive dementia in elderly people. The disease is characterized, among others, by formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) polypeptide plaques in the brain. Although etiology of the disease is not fully understood, recent research suggest that nanomaterials may affect AD development. Here, we described the consequences of exposure of mouse BV-2 microglia to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 50 µg/mL), cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs, 100 µg/mL), and cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTeQDs, 3 or 10 µg/mL) in the context of its ability to clear Aβ plaques...
October 10, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
G C de Souza, M D Viana, Ldm Goés, B L Sanchez-Ortiz, G A da Silva, W B de Souza Pinheiro, C B Rodrigues Dos Santos, J C Tavares Carvalho
Hydroethanolic preparations of Acmella oleracea is used in the north of Brazil as a female aphrodisiac. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the action of the hydroethanolic extract of Acmella oleracea (EHFAo) flowers (21.873 and 44.457 mg/kg) and spilanthol (3 mg/kg) administered orally on reproductive performance and effects on the embryonic development of zebrafish F1 generation. It was observed that in the groups in which males and females received EHFAo and spilanthol, the spawning was interrupted, whereas in the groups in which only the females were treated, spawning occurred during the 21 days...
October 9, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
C D Lindsay, C M Timperley
The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel is a sensor for irritant chemicals, has ancient lineage, and is distributed across animal species including humans, where it features in many organs. Its activation by a diverse panel of electrophilic molecules (TRPA1 agonists) through electrostatic binding and/or covalent attachment to the protein causes the sensation of pain. This article reviews the species differences between TRPA1 channels and their responses, to assess the suitability of different animals to model the effects of TRPA1-activating electrophiles in humans, referring to common TRPA1 activators (exogenous and endogenous) and possible mechanisms of action relating to their toxicology...
October 2, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Tahereh Farkhondeh, Omid Mehrpour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
W Banner, S Yin, M M Burns, R Lucas, K M Reynolds, J L Green
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to describe the characteristics of liquid laundry detergent packet (LDP) exposures and to develop referral and treatment recommendations. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study investigated LDP exposures reported to the National Poison Data System from January 1, 2013 through June 30, 2014. Three medical toxicologists reviewed the most significant exposures ( n = 450). RESULTS: Of 17,857 reported LDP exposures, 13,307 involved only an LDP (no other substance) and were followed to a known medical outcome...
October 2, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S J Park, J Park, M J Lee, J S Seo, J Y Ahn, J W Cho
Delta neutrophil index (DNI), which reflects the fraction of immature granulocytes, is used to detect infection and sepsis from noninfectious conditions, but few studies have evaluated in the early stage of acute poisoning. This retrospective observational study was performed on acute poisoning patients who visited to the emergency department (ED) and were consecutively admitted in intensive care units over 18-month period. The serial DNI, conventional inflammatory biomarkers, and culture results were obtained in the ED and after admission...
September 26, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A A Fouad, H M Hafez, Aah Hamouda
Methotrexate (MTX) is a commonly used anticancer and immunosuppressive agent. However, MTX can induce hepatotoxicity due to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), the endogenous gaseous molecule, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. The present work explored the probable protective effect of H2 S against MTX hepatotoxicity in rats and also the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. MTX was given at a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of 20 mg/kg...
September 22, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Dabeer, M A Afjal, S Ahmad, M Fatima, H Habib, S Parvez, S Raisuddin
There is a global concern about adverse health effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic and obesogenic compound, used in the plastic and medical industry has a dominant position among EDCs as far as human health and regulatory scenario are concerned. Due to its omnipresence across the biosphere, population of all age groups and health status is unavoidably exposed to BPA. Transgenerational exposure to BPA and its effects have also been recognized. However, there is no report on the transgenerational effect of BPA on metabolically disordered parents, such as obese ones...
September 11, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Shafeeq, T Mahboob
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is an extensively used herbicide in the field of agriculture, its ever-escalating use induces toxicity, health effects, and environmental impact. Oxidative stress plays a key role in pathogenesis of 2,4-D-induced liver and kidney damage. Magnesium (Mg) is a highly effective antioxidant agent in restoring oxidative damage by directly influencing the metabolic and physiological processes. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate Mg role in ameliorating the oxidative damages provoked by 2,4-D in rat model...
September 8, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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