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Human & Experimental Toxicology

T Igit, N Colcimen
The objective of the present study was to perform histological and stereological examination of alcohol-induced changes in the optic nerve, considered an extension of white matter of the brain, in rats. This study included 20 male Wistar albino rats aged 60 days and weighing 190-220 g. The rats were divided into three groups: ethanol ( n = 7), maltodextrin ( n = 7), and control ( n = 6) groups. The ethanol group was administered ethanol at a dose of 6.4% (v/v) instead of water for 18 days; the maltodextrin group received maltodextrin for the same time period, and the control group was the sham group...
February 11, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Z Lan, K Chai, Y Jiang, X Liu
The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of zoledronate-induced nephrotoxicity and to further characterize the mechanisms underlying this process by analyzing urinary metabolites. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups containing four (two control groups) or eight rats (two zoledronate groups) per group. The rats were injected intravenously with saline or zoledronate (3 mg/kg) singly (single, 3 weeks) or repeatedly eight times (3 weeks/time, 24 weeks). Serum blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and kidney injury observed by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining were changed only in the repeated zoledronate group (3 mg/kg, 3 weeks/time, 24 weeks)...
February 11, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M N Ansari, R I Aloliet, M A Ganaie, T H Khan, Najeeb-Ur-Rehman, F Imam, A M Hamad
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the protective effect of Roflumilast (ROF, a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE-4) inhibitor) was investigated against cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. METHODS: A total of 24 rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups ( n = 6). Group 1 served as the control; groups 2-4 administered with CdCl2 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days; groups 3 and 4 were co-administered with ROF in doses of 0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg, orally for 7 consecutive days...
February 11, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Iwaniuk, K Grubczak, W Ratajczak-Wrona, M Garley, K Nowak, E Jabłońska
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis dependent on the Fas/FasL (Fas ligand) complex in the presence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in human leukocytes. METHODS: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated form whole blood by density centrifugation. The concentration of NDMA was assessed by cellular toxicity assay. Apoptotic cells were assessed with flow cytometry and the expression of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins was investigated by Western blotting in PMNs and PBMCs treated with NDMA and/or FasL...
February 6, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
N Singh, M Siddarth, R Ghosh, A K Tripathi, B D Banerjee
This study investigated the effect of heptachlor-induced oxidative stress (OS) on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. Following treatment of HK-2 cells with an increasing concentration of heptachlor (0.01-10 µM) for 24 h, the intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde level increased, whereas the glutathione-s-hydroxylase (GSH) level declined significantly in a dose-dependent manner...
February 5, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
U Gedikli, E Emektar, S K Corbacioglu, S Dagar, H Uzunosmanoglu, S Ozdogan, Y Cevik
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess netrin-1 levels in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to determine its relationship with poisoning severity and neurotoxicity. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional prospective study. The patients older than 18 years with CO poisoning were included. The patients were categorized into two groups on the basis of neurological involvement. Both the patient and the control groups were sampled for netrin-1 at 0th hour, and the patient group only was sampled for netrin-1 at 4th hour...
February 5, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
F Ilçe, G Gök, D Pandir
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an endotoxin forms part of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and is responsible for initiating an acute inflammation after entering the living tissue. In this study, male rats were divided into eight groups: control group, vitamin E (VE) treatment group (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)), sodium selenite (SS) treatment (0.35 mg/kg b.w.) group, VE + SS treatment group (200 + 0.35 mg/kg b.w.), LPS treatment group (10 mg/kg b.w.), LPS + VE (10+200 mg/kg b.w.), LPS + SS treatment (10 + 0...
January 10, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A A Oyagbemi, T O Omobowale, O V Awoyomi, T O Ajibade, O O Falayi, B S Ogunpolu, U J Okotie, E R Asenuga, O A Adejumobi, F O Hassan, O E Ola-Davies, A B Saba, A A Adedapo, M A Yakubu
Cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal with extensive industrial and biological applications. To assess the toxic effects of, and mechanisms involved in cobalt chloride (CoCl2 )-induced cardio-renal dysfunctions. Male Wistar rats were exposed orally, daily through drinking water to 0 ppm (control), 150 ppm, 300 ppm, and 600 ppm of CoCl2 , respectively. Following exposure, results revealed significant ( p < 0.05) rise in markers of oxidative stress, but decreased activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione content in cardiac and renal tissues...
December 31, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
X Liu, Q Chen, X Ding, Y Zhao, K Zhang, P Yu, F Cui, B Xue
The effects of X-ray radiation on spermatogenesis, sperm motility, and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in mice were analyzed. Male C57BL/6 J mice were divided into control and two irradiation groups ( n = 9 mice/group). After irradiation of their reproductive regions, the mice were fed for 3 days (irradiation group 1) or 7 days (control and irradiation group 2). The sperm viability, motility, velocity, and motion curve were analyzed. After piRNA expression profiling, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for validation...
December 31, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
H M Hafez, M A Morsy, M Z Mohamed, N M Zenhom
Paeonol, a natural phenolic compound, possesses diverse beneficial effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Gastric ulcer is still the most prevalent irritant illness among the gastrointestinal diseases. The present study explored the protective effect of paeonol at two dose levels in indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were arranged into six groups: control, paeonol-treated, IND-treated, IND/paeonol (low and high doses)-treated, and ranitidine-treated groups...
December 24, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
H Bouzenna, N Samout, S Dhibi, S Mbarki, S Akermi, A Khdhiri, A Elfeki, N Hfaiedh
The present study is planned to examine the antioxidant activity (AA) and the protective effect of the essential oil of Citrus limon (EOC) against aspirin-induced histopathological changes in the brain, lung, and intestine of female rats. For this purpose, 28 albino rats were classified to control group (group C), aspirin group (group A), EOC group (group EOC), and pretreatment with EOC and treated with aspirin group (group EOC + A). The antioxidant activities of EOC were evaluated by three different assays including reducing power, β-carotene, and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
December 19, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Y Al-Brakati, R B Kassab, M S Lokman, E K Elmahallawy, H K Amin, A E Abdel Moneim
The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and ebselen (Eb) on arsenic (As)-induced renal toxicity in female rats. Sodium arsenite was orally administrated at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days, either alone or 1 h before TQ (10 mg/kg) or Eb (5 mg/kg) administration. Renal tissue As concentration and oxidative stress markers, including lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitrite/nitrate, and glutathione (GSH) levels, were determined. In addition to the oxidative stress response, antioxidant enzyme activities including that of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were measured...
December 17, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
D T Stanković, S M Ristić, A A Vukadinović, M D Mirković, S S Vladimirov, Z Milanović, M Radović, M Mijović, D M Stanković, T J Sabo, S D Vranješ-Đurić, D Janković
It was reported that novel O, O'-diethyl-(S, S)-ethylenediamine- N, N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl) propanoate dihydrochloride (DE-EDCP) displayed in vitro antiproliferative activity on several human and mouse cancer cell lines, which was comparable to that of the prototypical anticancer drug cisplatin. In order to reveal its toxicity profile, acute and repeated-dose toxicity studies were performed in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) Han mice. The intravenous LD50 values of DE-EDCP were found to be 95.3 and 101...
December 17, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
D H Lim, J-T Sohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
L Chen-Chen, C de Jesus Silva Carvalho, A V de Moraes Filho, J H Véras, C G Cardoso, Eflc Bailão, M A Spanó, K S Cunha
Abacavir (ABC), zidovudine (AZT), and lamivudine (3TC) are nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) widely used as combination-based antiretroviral therapy against human immunodeficiency virus. Despite effective viral suppression using NRTI combinations, genotoxic potential of NRTIs can be increased when administered in combination. This study investigated the toxic and genotoxic potential of ABC when administered alone or in combination with AZT and/or 3TC using the somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster...
December 14, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
D Rašić, V Micek, M S Klarić, M Peraica
Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN) commonly coexist in grains. Aiming to evaluate oxidative stress in OTA + CTN toxicity, male Wistar rats were orally treated with two doses of OTA (0.125 and 0.250 mg kg-1 of body weight (b.w.)), CTN (2 mg kg-1 of b.w.) and resveratrol (RSV; 20 mg kg-1 of b.w.) and combined daily during 3 weeks. Protein carbonyl concentrations were measured in kidneys and liver; catalytic activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) level in plasma, kidneys and liver, while malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was measured in plasma, kidneys, liver and urine...
December 14, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
J M Moon, B J Chun, S D Lee, M H Shin
This study investigated whether hyperthermia within the first 24 h after presentation was associated with long-term neurological outcomes after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This retrospective study included 200 patients with acute severe CO poisoning. Hyperthermia (≥ 37.5°C) developed during the first 24 h after presentation in 55 (27.5%) patients, and poor long-term neurological sequelae assessed at 23 months after acute CO poisoning developed in 19.5% of the patients. The incidence of poor long-term neurological outcomes was significantly higher in the hyperthermia group than in the normothermia group...
December 14, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M J van Rensburg, M van Rooy, M J Bester, J C Serem, C Venter, H M Oberholzer
Water contamination with metals due to anthropogenic activity is increasing and subsequent exposure increases the risk of associated toxicity. Exposure is not limited to a single metal but usually involves mixtures of different metals at different concentrations. Little is known about the contribution of this type of exposure, in humans, to the development of non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, and an increased risk to thrombosis. The World Health Organization has established limits for metal levels in drinking water and this includes levels for copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and mercury (Hg)...
December 12, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Gautam, Y N Paudel, Saz Abidin, U Bhandari
The current study investigated the role of guggulsterone (GS), a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, in the choline metabolism and its trimethylamine (TMA)/flavin monooxygenases/trimethylamine- N-oxide (TMAO) inhibiting potential in a series of in vitro and in vivo studies as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectroscopy (MS), and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS techniques. Atherosclerosis (AS) was successfully induced in a group of experimental animals fed with 2% choline diet for 6 weeks...
December 9, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Z Mohamed, H M Hafez, M Hassan, M A Ibrahim
Liver is a precious organ to maintain body life. Hepatotoxicity is a worldwide health problem that is still a challenge for research. Although countless pharmaceutical drugs and herbal compounds were screened for their hepatoprotective effects, the death from hepatotoxicity is increasing. Thus, there is continuous necessity of searching for the hepatoprotective effect of commonly used drugs. Accordingly, our aim was to examine a hepatoprotective potential for the antihypertensive drug, verapamil, and searching for new insights underlie its protective mechanism...
December 9, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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