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Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN

Xiao-Huan Zou, Xin-Xin Guo, Hui-Zhen Su, Chong Wang, En-Lin Dong, Ning Wang, Wan-Jin Chen, Qi-Jie Zhang
Autosomal recessive optic neuropathies (IONs) are extremely rare disorders affecting retinal ganglion cells and the nervous system. RTN4IP1 has recently been identified as the third known gene associated with the autosomal recessive ION optic atrophy 10 (OPA10). Patients with RTN4IP1 mutations show early-onset optic neuropathy that can be followed by additional neurological symptoms such as seizures, ataxia, mental retardation, or even severe encephalopathy. Here, we report two siblings from a Chinese family who presented with early-onset optic neuropathy, epilepsy, and mild intellectual disability...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Douglas E Brenneman, William A Kinney, Sara Jane Ward
Treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) or KLS-13019 (novel CBD analog), has previously been shown to prevent paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The mechanism of action for CBD- and KLS-13019-mediated protection now has been explored with dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the mitochondrial Na+ Ca2+ exchanger-1 (mNCX-1). Treatment with this siRNA produced a 50-55% decrease in the immunoreactive (IR) area for mNCX-1 in neuronal cell bodies and a 72-80% decrease in neuritic IR area as determined with high-content image analysis...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Laila Al-Ayadhi, Afaf El-Ansary, Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Gehan Ahmed Mostafa
Neurotrophic factors, including the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), are of importance for synaptic plasticity regulation, intended as the synapses' ability to strengthen or weaken their responses to differences in neuronal activity. Such plasticity is essential for sensory processing, which has been shown to be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study is the first to investigate the impact of auditory integration therapy (AIT) of sensory processing abnormalities in autism on plasma GDNF levels...
May 9, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Marwa Yousef, Ercan Babür, Sumeyra Delibaş, Burak Tan, Ayşenur Çimen, Nurcan Dursun, Cem Süer
The expression of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) governs the subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal synapses. This process, called metaplasticity, is associated with a transient increase in the levels of several kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Akt kinase. It has been increasingly realized that the chemical changes in the hippocampus caused by hypothyroidism may be the key underlying causes of the learning deficits, memory loss, and impaired LTP associated with this disease...
May 9, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Svetlana Demyanenko, Valentina Dzreyan, Anatoly Uzdensky
We suggest novel experimental model of nerve injury-bilaterally axotomized ganglia of the crayfish ventral nerve cord (VNC). Using proteomic antibody microarrays, we showed upregulation of apoptosis execution proteins (Bcl-10, caspases 3, 6, and 7, SMAC/DIABLO, AIF), proapoptotic signaling proteins and transcription factors (c-Myc, p38, E2F1, p53, GADD153), and multifunctional proteins capable of initiating apoptosis in specific situations (p75, NMDAR2a) in the axotomized VNC ganglia. Simultaneously, anti-apoptotic proteins (p21WAF-1, MDM2, Bcl-x, Mcl-1, MKP1, MAKAPK2, ERK5, APP, calmodulin, estrogen receptor) were overexpressed...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Yuwen Chen, Xingyu Chen, Zhiyang Yao, Yuqi Shi, Junwen Xiong, Jingjing Zhou, Zhengding Su, Yongqi Huang
The major function of microtubule-associated protein tau is to promote microtubule assembly in the central nervous system. However, aggregation of abnormally phosphorylated tau is a hallmark of tauopathies. Although the molecular mechanisms of conformational transitions and assembling of tau molecules into amyloid fibril remain largely unknown, several factors have been shown to promote tau aggregation, including mutations, polyanions, phosphorylation, and interactions with other proteins. 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved, multifunctional proteins that are mainly expressed in the central nervous system...
May 6, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Jialei Yang, Xulong Wu, Jiao Huang, Zhaoxia Chen, Guifeng Huang, Xiaojing Guo, Lulu Zhu, Li Su
TP53 has been reported to be involved in diverse neurological processes related to the pathogenesis of psychosis. In this study, we aim to determine the association of TP53 polymorphisms, rs1042522 and rs17879353, with the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ) or bipolar disorder (BD) in Chinese Han population. A total of 548 SCZ patients, 512 BD patients, and 598 healthy controls were recruited. Genotyping was conducted through Sequenom MassARRAY technology platform. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect TP53 expression level...
May 5, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
R J Macias-Velez, L Fukushima-Díaz de León, C Beas-Zárate, M C Rivera-Cervantes
Erythropoietin, a multitarget molecule exhibited neuroprotective properties, especially against cerebral ischemia. However, little effort has been made to determinate both the administration pathway and doses that diminishes neuronal damage. In this study, we investigate the effect on CA1 region of different intranasal doses of rHuEPO (500, 1000 and 2500 IU/kg) applied in distinct post-damage times (1, 6, and 24 h) against ischemic cellular damage. Furthermore, most effective dose and time were used to evaluate gen and protein expression changes in 3 key molecules (EPO, EPOR, and βcR)...
May 3, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Margarita V Alfimova, Nikolay V Kondratyev, Alexander S Tomyshev, Irina S Lebedeva, Tatyana V Lezheiko, Vasiliy G Kaleda, Lilia I Abramova, Vera E Golimbet
The study aimed to confirm the association of the schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS) hit rs2514218 located near the DRD2 gene with the risk of the disease and to investigate the relationships between rs2514218 and schizophrenia-related clinical and neuroimaging phenotypes. Genotypes at the rs2514218 site were determined for 2148 schizophrenia spectrum patients and 1273 control subjects from the Russian population. In subsets of subjects, we assessed symptomatic dimensions using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (n = 1651) and Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (n = 471)...
May 3, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Danping Huang, Min Liu, Yang Zhou, Bingxin Zhao, Xuqin Chen
It has been reported that myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) participates in the progression of inflammation after release from neutrophils and monocytes. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism(s) of the MRP8/14-augmented inflammatory response in mice with pneumococcal meningitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) meningitis was established by intracerebral injection of SP suspension. Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and received the following injections: phosphate-buffer saline (PBS), MRP8/14 alone, SP alone, and SP plus MRP8/14...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Chunqing Wang, Hangzhou Lv, Qing Li, Ke Gong, Lei Luo Yang, Zean Wei, Yujie Pan, Mingyong Wang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be lethal; however, the precise mechanisms underlying healing are unclear, limiting the development of effective therapies. In this study, the molecular mechanisms involved in SCI were investigated. Clinical peripheral blood samples from normal individuals and patients with incomplete SCI (ISCI) and complete SCI (CSCI) were analyzed by RNA-Seq. The expression levels of EPHA4, CDK16, BAD, MAP2 Normal 2, EGR, and RHOB differed significantly between the SCI group and normal individuals, and these results were verified by q-PCR...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
U Serpil Sari, Aysin Kisabay, Melike Batum, Serdar Tarhan, Nihal Dogan, Aysun Coskunoglu, Sirri Cam, Hikmet Yilmaz, Deniz Selcuki
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary microangiopathy with adult onset caused by a missense mutation in the NOTCH3 gene in chromosome 19p13. It presents with autosomal dominant arteriopathy, subcortical infarctions, and leukoencephalopathy. Its common clinical presentations are seen as recurrent strokes, migraine or migraine-like headaches, progressive dementia, pseudobulbar paralysis, and psychiatric conditions. Two patients with CADASIL syndrome, whose diagnosis was made based on clinical course, age of onset, imaging findings, and genetic assays in the patients and family members, are presented here because of new familial polymorphisms...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Dan Ye, Yuxun Shi, Yue Xu, Jingjing Huang
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis is considered an important pathological hallmark of glaucoma. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic peptide with potent neuroprotective properties. In our previous study, we found that the expression of PACAP and its high-affinity receptor PACAP receptor type 1 (PAC1R) increased markedly after optic nerve crush (ONC), and occurred mainly in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. This suggests that the upregulation of PACAP may play a vital role in inhibiting RGC death after ONC...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ciqing Yang, Xiaoying Li, Bichao Zhang, Sulei Fu, Shuanqing Li, Jianing Shen, Lihong Guan, Liang Qiao, Juntang Lin
Rap1 and N-cadherin regulate glia-independent translocation of cortical neurons. It remains unclear how Rap1 regulates N-cadherin-mediated neuronal migration. Here, we overexpressed Rap1gap in mouse brains (embryonic day 16) to inactivate Rap1, and observed that neurons did not migrate to the outer layer. We confirmed that Rap1 was involved in the regulation of late neurons in vivo. Rap1gap overexpression and Rap1 suppression in CHO cells decreased the expression of cytoskeletal proteins such as tubulin. Changes in the expression of cell morphology regulators, such as N-cadherin and β-catenin, were also observed...
April 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Harish Joshi, Basavaraj Vastrad, Chanabasayya Vastrad
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are locally invasive with high morbidity. The objective of this study was to diagnose important genes and pathways related to the invasiveness of NFPAs and gain more insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of NFPAs. The gene expression profiles of GSE51618 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database with 4 non-invasive NFPA samples, 3 invasive NFPA samples, and 3 normal pituitary gland samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are screened between invasive NFPA samples and normal pituitary gland samples, followed by pathway and ontology (GO) enrichment analyses...
April 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Wei Chen, Hao Liu, Tuo Wang, Gang Bao, Ning Wang, Rui-Chun Li
Glioma remains the leading cause of brain tumor-related death worldwide. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a family of mitochondrial oxidoreductases that play important roles in mitochondrial metabolism and redox control. AIF-1 has been demonstrated to exert cell-killing effect via apoptosis in cancer cells, whereas the role of AIF-2 in cancer cells has not been determined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AIF-2 in human glioma cells. We found that AIF-2 was upregulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines, especially in U251 cells...
April 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Jayantee Kalita, Usha K Misra, Ashish K Dubey
Central nervous system infection may be associated with oxidative stress and may influence clinical severity and outcome. We report oxidative stress markers in the patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and correlate these with clinico-radiological severity and outcome. Fifty-six patients with TBM diagnosed on the basis of clinical, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and magnetic resonance (MRI) were included. Plasma glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the patients and 55 matched healthy controls...
April 11, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Aarti Nagayach, Anshuman Singh, Alfred I Geller
mGluR5-containing synapses have essential roles in synaptic plasticity, circuit physiology, and learning, and dysfunction at these synapses is implicated in specific neurological disorders. As mGluR5-containing synapses are embedded in large and complex distributed circuits containing many neuron and synapse types, it is challenging to elucidate the roles of these synapses and to develop treatments for the associated disorders. Thus, it would be advantageous to deliver different genes into pre- and postsynaptic neurons connected by a mGluR5-containing synapse...
April 10, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Afsane Bahrami, Hamidreza Bahrami-Taghanaki, Zahra Khorasanchi, Maryam Tayefi, Gordon A Ferns, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
Vitamin status and the presence of subclinical inflammation may affect cognitive performance and behavior. We have investigated the relationship between serum fat soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, and E) and inflammatory markers with aggression and cognitive abilities, in a population of healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 940 adolescent girls was performed. Serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E, hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and antibody titers to Hsp27 (anti-Hsp27) were measured. Hematological indices including lymphocyte, neutrophil, platelet counts, and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) were evaluated...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Katarzyna Bogus, Artur Pałasz, Aleksandra Suszka-Świtek, John J Worthington, Marek Krzystanek, Ryszard Wiaderkiewicz
Antipsychotic drugs, known as the antagonists of dopaminergic receptors, may also affect a large spectrum of other molecular signaling pathways in the brain. Despite the numerous ongoing studies on neurosteroid action and regulation, there are no reports regarding the influence of extended treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics on brain aromatase (CYP19A1) expression. In the present study, we assessed for the first time aromatase mRNA and protein levels in the brain of rats chronically (28 days) treated with olanzapine, clozapine, and haloperidol using quantitative real-time PCR, end-point RT-PCR, and Western blotting...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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