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Experimental Physiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30905078/is-non-normalized-chest-wall-electromyogram-activity-a-reliable-index-of-respiratory-neural-drive-on-the-surface%C3%A0-yes
#1
David P Burns, Ken D O'Halloran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30905077/modulative-effect-of-new-hydrazide-derivative-on-wheat-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-in-rats
#2
Sara Siddiqui, Malka M Samra, Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad Shahid, Ayesha Ramzan, Muhammad Makshoof Athar, Muhammad Asim Raza Basra
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Pulmonary inflammation is associated with asthma, wheat and thresher dust contributed to pulmonary inflammation when exposed/inhaled regularly as by bakers and farmers. Mechanisms through which wheat induced pulmonary inflammation and how the hydrazide derivative exerts its modulative anti-inflammatory effect have not been previously explored. What is the main finding and its importance? 10 mg/Kg of hydrazide derivative exhibited significant reduction in wheat induced pulmonary inflammation rat model mainly by down-regulating the inflammatory cell infiltration, pathological lesions in the lungs and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, COX-1, COX-2 and T-cell proliferation...
March 24, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30905067/no-heartbreak-at-high-altitude-preserved-cardiac-function-in-chronic-hypoxia
#3
Mike Stembridge, Benjamin D Levine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30889297/%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-indirectly-support-impaired-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-responsiveness-in-the-isolated-type-2-diabetic-rat-heart
#4
Rosalind F Cook, Carol T Bussey, Ingrid C Fomison-Nurse, Gillian Hughes, Andrew Bahn, Patricia A Cragg, Regis R Lamberts
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Are there specific contributions of β1 - and β2 -adrenoceptor subtypes to the impaired β-adrenoceptor responsiveness of the type 2 diabetic heart. What is the main finding and its importance? In hearts, isolated from the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat model of type 2 diabetes, we showed that the β1 - adrenoceptors are the main subtype to regulate heart rate, contraction and relaxation. Notably, the β2 - adrenoceptor subtype actions seem to indirectly support function in the diabetic heart...
March 19, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864218/regulation-of-glut4-translocation-in-an-in-vitro-cell-model-using-postprandial-human-serum-ex-vivo
#5
Karl E Cogan, Brian P Carson, Bijal Patel, Miryam Amigo-Benavent, Philip M Jakeman, Brendan Egan
NEW FINDINGS: What is the research question? This study employed a novel experimental model in which culture media is conditioned with human serum ex vivo to investigate nutrient-mediated regulation of GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle cells in vitro. What is the main finding and importance? Human serum stimulated GLUT4 translocation, an effect differentially modulated by whether the culture media is conditioned with fasted serum, or serum collected after feeding of intact or hydrolysed whey protein...
March 13, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30861251/circulatory-responses-at-the-onset-of-handgrip-exercise-in-patients-with-parkinson-disease
#6
Jeann L Sabino-Carvalho, Milena Samora, André L Teixeira, Mauricio Daher, Lauro C Vianna
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The initial circulatory response to isometric exercise in young healthy subjects is thought to be cholinergic-mediated. Do patients with Parkinson Disease (PD), a specific population known to present cholinergic dysfunction, present impairment in these initial circulatory responses? What is the main finding and its importance? The initial fall in total peripheral resistance was absent in patients with PD, as well as in older subjects, which augmented the pressor response at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise...
March 12, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30843284/interval-running-training-improves-age-related-skeletal-muscle-wasting-and-bone-loss-animal-experiment-in-ovariectomized-rats
#7
Jeong-Seok Kim, Jin Jeon, Jin-Jeong An, Ho-Keun Yi
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Various types of running training play an important role in the prevention of age-related diseases, such as sarcopenia and osteoporosis. However, among various types of running training, interval running training affects age-related muscle wasting and bone loss, and its mechanisms are still unclear. This study was to clarify its effect and mechanism in OVX-induced rat models. What is the main finding and its importance? Interval running training could improve muscle growth and osteogenic differentiation by enhancing the expression of BMPs and SIRTs in aging-induced OVX rats...
March 7, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30840346/increased-caveolin-1-expression-enhances-the-receptor-operated-ca-2-entry-in-the-aorta-of-2k1c-hypertensive-rats
#8
Fu-Rong Yang, Zhuang-Li Zhu, Yun-Ping Mu, Xiao-Ling Zhuang, Da-Cen Lin, Zhi-Juan Wu, Long-Xin Gui, Mo-Jun Lin
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? To examine and compare the contributions of Cav-1 to the contractile responses mediated by L-VDCC, SOCC and ROCC in two different types of arteries from 2K1C-treated hypertensive rats. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrated that caveolae density and Cav-1 expression were significantly up-regulated in the aorta of 2K1C-treated hypertensive rats, but not in the third-order branches of mesenteric arteries. We highlight that Cav-1 plays an important role in aortic constriction via enhancing ROCE in the hypertensive rat model...
March 6, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30834572/pacemaker-network-properties-determine-intestinal-motor-pattern-behaviour
#9
Jan D Huizinga, Sean P Parsons
Lammers, W. J., & Stephen, B. (2008). Origin and propagation of individual slow waves along the intact feline small intestine. Experimental Physiology, 93, 334-346. Wei, R., Parsons, S. P., & Huizinga, J. D. (2017). Network properties of interstitial cells of Cajal affect intestinal pacemaker activities and motor patterns, according to a mathematical model of weakly coupled oscillators. Experimental Physiology, 102, 329-346. Vather, R., O'Grady, G., Lin, A. Y., Du, P., Wells, C. I., Rowbotham, D., … Bissett, I...
March 4, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30830992/myths-and-methodologies-how-loud-is-the-story-told-by-the-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-evoked-silent-period
#10
Jakob Škarabot, Ricardo N O Mesquita, Callum G Brownstein, Paul Ansdell
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? The origin, interpretation and methodological constraints of the silent period induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation are reviewed. What advances does it highlight? The silent period is generated by both cortical and spinal mechanisms. Therefore, it seems inappropriate to preface silent period with 'cortical' unless additional measures are employed. Due to many confounding variables, a standardised approach to the silent period measurement cannot be suggested...
March 4, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30825356/peripheral-and-central-respiratory-system-pathology-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-prodromal-signature-of-clinical-relevance
#11
Eric F Lucking, Ken D O'Halloran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30821402/quantitative-assessment-of-nocturnal-neural-respiratory-drive-in-children-with-and-without-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-utilising-surface-emg
#12
Sandra Y Chuang, Arthur Teng, Jane Butler, Simon Gandevia, Indra Narang, Nancy Briggs, Hiran Selvadurai, Adam Jaffe
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Recent studies have suggested potential utility of non-normalised respiratory muscle electromyogram as an index of neural respiratory drive (NRD). Whether NRD measured using non-normalised surface electromyogram of the lateral chest wall overlying diaphragm (sEMGcw) recorded during nocturnal clinical polysomnography can differentiate children with and without obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is not known. What is the main finding and its importance? Non-normalised sEMGcw was increased in children with OSA and an additional group of snoring children without OSA but subjectively increased respiratory effort compared to primary snorers...
March 1, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30821073/postural-respiratory-related-cortical-activation-and-rostral-fluid-shift-in-awake-healthy-humans
#13
Claire Launois, Elisa Perger, Valérie Attali, Marie-Cécile Nierat, Mathieu Raux, Isabelle Arnulf, Thomas Similowski, Stefania Redolfi
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Moving to supine induces upper airway modifications and fluid shift to the neck, which represent inspiratory load that predisposes to upper airway collapse. Is there cortical participation in the response to the load induced by moving to supine in awake healthy subjects? What is the main finding and its importance? Moving to supine induces transient cortical activation in awake healthy subjects with greater fluid shift, supporting possible cortical participation in the response to upper airway load induced by moving to supine...
February 28, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30821070/sexual-dimorphism-of-liver-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-susceptibility-in-prepubertal-rats-and-the-effect-of-sex-steroid-supplementation
#14
Camila Lüdke Rossetti, Hellen Marianne de Oliveira Costa, Clarissa Souza Barthem, Michele Hinerasky da Silva, Denise P de Carvalho, Wagner Seixas da-Silva
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Compared to males, adult females have protective mechanisms against obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although some metabolic diseases are influenced by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), a possible sexual dimorphism in the occurrence of hepatic ER stress has not been reported thus far. What is the main finding and its importance? The transition from the prepubertal to the adult age is associated with an increase in the unfolded protein response markers in the liver of male rats, which is probably due to the increase in serum testosterone levels...
February 28, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30821049/superior-mesenteric-and-renal-flow-patterns-during-intraortic-counterpulsation
#15
Daniel M Johnson, Pieter Lozekoot, Monique de Jong, Orlando Parise, Maged Makhoul, Francesco Matteucci, Fabiana Lucà, Jos G Maessen, Sandro Gelsomino
NEW FINDINGS: Visceral ischemia remains one of the majorly feared complications during the use of the intraaortic balloon pump. Employing an animal model, we directly measured the flows at the abdominal level and examined flow patterns during IABP. We show that there is a significant balloon-related reduction in superior mesenteric flow in both early and mid-diastole. ABSTRACT: A number of previous studies have shown that blood flow in the visceral arteries is altered during IABP treatment...
February 28, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30820991/regular-aerobic-exercise-ameliorated-troponin-i-carbonylation-to-mitigate-aged-rat-soleus-muscle-functional-recession
#16
Wenfeng Liu, Heyu Kuang, Yan Xia, Zachary C Pope, Zhiyuan Wang, Changfa Tang, Dazhong Yin
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What is the biological role of carbonylation in muscles' age-related functional decline and how might exercise affect the carbonylation process differently compared to habitual sedentary behavior? What is the main finding and its importance? The carbonylation of TNNI1, TPM1, and ACTN1 demonstrated a relationship with muscles' age-related functional decline. Exercise attenuated the decline by slowing the rate of carbonylation and promoting antioxidant reactions within the muscle...
February 28, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30811744/therapeutic-effect-of-oligomeric-proanthocyanidin-in-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#17
Qing Wang, Jing Wang, Zhichao Yang, Ruoxuan Sui, Qiang Miao, Yanhua Li, Jiezhong Yu, Chunyun Liu, Guangxian Zhang, Baoguo Xiao, Cungen Ma
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC) has the capacity to alleviate abnormalities in neurological functioning. However, whether OPC can reduce the progression of demyelination or promote remyelination in demyelinating diseases remains unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? OPC can improved cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelination by inhibiting immune cell infiltration, reversing over-activated microglia, decreasing the inflammatory cytokines secreted by inflammatory cells and decreasing the production of MOG35-55 specific antibody in the brain...
February 27, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30801870/nox5-molecular-biology-and-pathophysiology
#18
Rhian M Touyz, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, Francisco Rios, Augusto C Montezano, Livia L Camargo
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Nox), comprise 7 family members (Nox1-5, duox1/2) and are major producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. ROS are critically involved in cell signalling and function. While all Noxs share structural homology comprising six transmembrane domains with two heme-binding regions and a NADPH-binding region on the intracellular C-terminus, their regulatory systems, mechanisms of activation and tissue distribution differ. This explains the diverse function of Noxs...
February 23, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30801859/evening-high-intensity-interval-exercise-does-not-disrupt-sleep-or-alter-energy-intake-despite-changes-in-acylated-ghrelin-in-middle-aged-men
#19
Penelope Larsen, Frank Marino, Kerri Melehan, Kym J Guelfi, Rob Duffield, Melissa Skein
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) is recommended to be avoided within 4 h of bedtime due to potential sleep disruptions which may affect appetite-related hormone interactions and subsequent energy intake. Yet, the interactions between sleep and appetite following early evening HIIE has not been previously explored. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that HIIE can be performed in the early evening without subsequent sleep disruptions and may favourably alter appetite-related hormone concentrations...
February 23, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30791159/medex-2015-the-key-role-of-cardiac-mechanics-to-maintain-biventricular-function-at-high-altitude
#20
Claire Maufrais, Thomas Rupp, Pierre Bouzat, François Estève, Stéphane Nottin, Guillaume Walther, Samuel Verges
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? This study is the first to investigate the effects of high-altitude trekking on biventricular mechanics, including measurements of left ventricular subendocardial and subepicardial function. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide new evidence that an increased contractility and untwisting efficiency, a key element of diastolic function, probably plays a key role in preservation of cardiac function during high-altitude trekking...
February 21, 2019: Experimental Physiology
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