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Journals Trends in Endocrinology and Me...

Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism : TEM

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38760201/the-sphinx-helps-to-answer-the-riddle-of-cardiac-regeneration
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jae Woo Jung, Timothy Hla, Zoltan Arany
Cardiomyocyte (CM) death drives heart failure worldwide, and efficient CM regeneration remains a fervently pursued but unachieved goal. Ji and colleagues recently described a novel approach to regeneration by orchestrating divergent sphingolipid signaling pathways in CMs and cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). The findings uncover new biology and offer interesting translational opportunities.
May 16, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38760200/why-cells-need-iron-a-compendium-of-iron-utilisation
#2
REVIEW
Megan R Teh, Andrew E Armitage, Hal Drakesmith
Iron deficiency is globally prevalent, causing an array of developmental, haematological, immunological, neurological, and cardiometabolic impairments, and is associated with symptoms ranging from chronic fatigue to hair loss. Within cells, iron is utilised in a variety of ways by hundreds of different proteins. Here, we review links between molecular activities regulated by iron and the pathophysiological effects of iron deficiency. We identify specific enzyme groups, biochemical pathways, cellular functions, and cell lineages that are particularly iron dependent...
May 16, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38749883/contributions-of-white-adipose-tissue-to-energy-requirements-for-female-reproduction
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth S Anaya, Evelyn L de Groot, John P Lydon, Stephanie A Pangas, Sean M Hartig
Body composition impacts female fertility and there are established relationships between adipose tissue and the reproductive system. Maintaining functional adipose tissue is vital for meeting the energetic demands during the reproductive process, from ovulation to delivery and lactation. White adipose tissue (WAT) shows plastic responses to daily physiology and secretes diverse adipokines that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, but many other interorgan interactions remain to be determined. This review summarizes the current state of research on the dialogue between WAT and the female reproductive system, focusing on the impact of this crosstalk on ovarian and endometrial factors essential for fecundity...
May 14, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38744606/digital-twins-and-artificial-intelligence-in-metabolic-disease-research
#4
REVIEW
Clara Mosquera-Lopez, Peter G Jacobs
Digital twin technology is emerging as a transformative paradigm for personalized medicine in the management of chronic conditions. In this article, we explore the concept and key characteristics of a digital twin and its applications in chronic non-communicable metabolic disease management, with a focus on diabetes case studies. We cover various types of digital twin models, including mechanistic models based on ODEs, data-driven ML algorithms, and hybrid modeling strategies that combine the strengths of both approaches...
May 13, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38719726/intermittent-fasting-influences-immunity-and-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Daniel M Marko, Meghan O Conn, Jonathan D Schertzer
Intermittent fasting (IF) modifies cell- and tissue-specific immunometabolic responses that dictate metabolic flexibility and inflammation during obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fasting forces periods of metabolic flexibility and necessitates increased use of different substrates. IF can lower metabolic inflammation and improve glucose metabolism without lowering obesity and can influence time-dependent, compartmentalized changes in immunity. Liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and immune cells communicate to relay metabolic and immune signals during fasting...
May 7, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38705760/microbiome-dynamics-in-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#6
REVIEW
Chae Won Kim, Hyun-Jin Kim, Heung Kyu Lee
Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is one of the leading immunotherapies, although a variable extent of resistance has been observed among patients and across cancer types. Among the efforts underway to overcome this challenge, the microbiome has emerged as a factor affecting the responsiveness and efficacy of ICB. Active research, facilitated by advances in sequencing techniques, is assessing the predominant influence of the intestinal microbiome, as well as the effects of the presence of an intratumoral microbiome...
May 4, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38705759/lipid-associated-macrophages-between-aggravation-and-alleviation-of-metabolic-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Ruonan Xu, Nemanja Vujić, Valentina Bianco, Isabel Reinisch, Dagmar Kratky, Jelena Krstic, Andreas Prokesch
Lipid-associated macrophages (LAMs) are phagocytic cells with lipid-handling capacity identified in various metabolic derangements. During disease development, they locate to atherosclerotic plaques, adipose tissue (AT) of individuals with obesity, liver lesions in steatosis and steatohepatitis, and the intestinal lamina propria. LAMs can also emerge in the metabolically demanding microenvironment of certain tumors. In this review, we discuss major questions regarding LAM recruitment, differentiation, and self-renewal, and, ultimately, their acute and chronic functional impact on the development of metabolic diseases...
May 4, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697900/pancreatic-islet-adaptation-in-pregnancy-and-postpartum
#8
REVIEW
Nelmari Ruiz-Otero, Jeffery S Tessem, Ronadip R Banerjee
Pancreatic islets, particularly insulin-producing β-cells, are central regulators of glucose homeostasis capable of responding to a variety of metabolic stressors. Pregnancy is a unique physiological stressor, necessitating the islets to adapt to the complex interplay of maternal and fetal-placental factors influencing the metabolic milieu. In this review we highlight studies defining gestational adaptation mechanisms within maternal islets and emerging studies revealing islet adaptations during the early postpartum and lactation periods...
May 1, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38697899/disentangling-fetal-insulin-hypersecretion-and-insulin-resistance
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Christopher J Nolan, Gernot Desoye
Disentangling which of insulin hypersecretion and insulin resistance is upstream in obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D) is challenging. Here, we consider the dynamics of insulin secretion and action in the fetuses of mothers with diabetes. We argue that fetal insulin hypersecretion occurs first, with insulin resistance being an adaptive protective response.
May 1, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38688781/mcu-genetically-altered-mice-suggest-how-mitochondrial-ca-2-regulates-metabolism
#10
REVIEW
Jiuzhou Huo, Jeffery D Molkentin
Skeletal muscle has a major impact on total body metabolism and obesity, and is characterized by dynamic regulation of substrate utilization. While it is accepted that acute increases in mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ increase carbohydrate usage to augment ATP production, recent studies in mice with deleted genes for components of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) complex have suggested a more complicated regulatory scenario. Indeed, mice with a deleted Mcu gene in muscle, which lack acute mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, have greater fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and less adiposity...
April 29, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38688780/is-the-endotoxin-complement-cascade-the-major-driver-in-lipedema
#11
REVIEW
Ilja L Kruglikov, Philipp E Scherer
Lipedema is a poorly understood disorder of adipose tissue characterized by abnormal but symmetrical deposition of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) in proximal extremities. Here, we propose that the underlying cause for lipedema could be triggered by a selective accumulation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS; also known as endotoxin) in gluteofemoral WAT. Together with a malfunctioning complement system, this induces low-grade inflammation in the depot and raises its uncontrollable expansion. Correspondingly, more attention should be paid in future research to the endotoxemia prevalent in patients with lipedema...
April 29, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38664153/revisiting-liver-metabolism-through-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-inhibition
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Armando Jesús Pérez-Díaz, María Ángeles Núñez-Sánchez, Bruno Ramos-Molina
Liver-targeted acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) inhibitors in metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) trials reveal notable secondary effects: hypertriglyceridemia and altered glucose metabolism, paradoxically with reduced hepatic steatosis. In their study, Deja et al. explored how hepatic ACC influences metabolism using different pharmacological and genetic methods, coupled with targeted metabolomics and stable isotope-based tracing techniques.
April 24, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38664152/mitochondrial-venus-is-more-likely-to-have-a-lower-birthweight
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Elina Aleksejeva, Masoud Zamani Esteki, Andres Salumets
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are associated with a moderately higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, but the causes are unknown. A recent study by Mertens et al. reveals a link between being born through ART, ovarian stimulation, and an increased incidence of mitochondrial heteroplasmic variants that correlate with lower birthweight.
April 24, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38664151/chemical-chaperones-in-metabolic-fitness-beyond-protein-folding
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ester Zito, Alain Lescure, Nica Borgese
Chemical chaperones are small molecules that improve protein folding, alleviating aberrant pathological phenotypes due to protein misfolding. Recent reports suggest that, in parallel with their role in relieving endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, chemical chaperones rescue mitochondrial function and insulin signaling. These effects may underlie their pharmacological action on metabolically demanding tissues.
April 24, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38644094/harnessing-beta-cell-regeneration-biology-for-diabetes-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Stephanie Bourgeois, Sophie Coenen, Laure Degroote, Lien Willems, Annelore Van Mulders, Julie Pierreux, Yves Heremans, Nico De Leu, Willem Staels
The pandemic scale of diabetes mellitus is alarming, its complications remain devastating, and current treatments still pose a major burden on those affected and on the healthcare system as a whole. As the disease emanates from the destruction or dysfunction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells, a real cure requires their restoration and protection. An attractive strategy is to regenerate β-cells directly within the pancreas; however, while several approaches for β-cell regeneration have been proposed in the past, clinical translation has proven challenging...
April 20, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38637223/opportunities-and-challenges-in-phage-therapy-for-cardiometabolic-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Koen Wortelboer, Hilde Herrema
The worldwide prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) is increasing, and emerging evidence implicates the gut microbiota in this multifactorial disease development. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that selectively target a bacterial host; thus, phage therapy offers a precise means of modulating the gut microbiota, limiting collateral damage on the ecosystem. Several studies demonstrate the potential of phages in human disease, including alcoholic and steatotic liver disease. In this opinion article we discuss the potential of phage therapy as a predefined medicinal product for CMD and discuss its current challenges, including the generation of effective phage combinations, product formulation, and strict manufacturing requirements...
April 17, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38637222/pediatric-thyroid-side-effects-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Cesare Morgante, Alessandra Fierabracci, Armando Grossi
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are associated with multiple endocrine side effects, including thyroid disfunctions. In addition, the efficacy and safety profiles of ICIs in the pediatric population need clarification. Here, we discuss the main evidence regarding the efficacy and thyroid toxicities of ICIs in children.
April 17, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38609814/effects-of-apoe4-on-omega-3-brain-metabolism-across-the-lifespan
#18
REVIEW
Brandon Ebright, Marlon V Duro, Kai Chen, Stan Louie, Hussein N Yassine
Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have important roles in human nutrition and brain health by promoting neuronal functions, maintaining inflammatory homeostasis, and providing structural integrity. As Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology progresses, DHA metabolism in the brain becomes dysregulated, the timing and extent of which may be influenced by the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) allele. Here, we discuss how maintaining adequate DHA intake early in life may slow the progression to AD dementia in cognitively normal individuals with APOE4, how recent advances in DHA brain imaging could offer insights leading to more personalized preventive strategies, and how alternative strategies targeting PUFA metabolism pathways may be more effective in mitigating disease progression in patients with existing AD dementia...
April 11, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38599899/selenium-diabetes-and-their-intricate-sex-specific-relationship
#19
REVIEW
Kamil Demircan, Thilo Samson Chillon, Jeyoung Bang, Vadim N Gladyshev, Lutz Schomburg
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, which is inserted as selenocysteine (Sec) into selenoproteins during biosynthesis, orchestrating their expression and activity. Se is associated with both beneficial and detrimental health effects; deficient supply or uncontrolled supplementation raises concerns. In particular, Se was associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In this review, we discuss the intricate relationship between Se and diabetes and the limitations of the available clinical and experimental studies...
April 10, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38599902/is-masld-lost-in-translation-in-mice
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Aysim Gunes, Jennifer L Estall
Lack of preclinical model translation is often blamed for failed drug development. Here we discuss mouse models within the context of human steatotic liver disease (SLD). Variables such as aging and non-food hepatic stressors are often ignored but could explain challenges in reproducing the human disease in a laboratory.
April 9, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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