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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

Anand Kumar Sharma, Radhika Khandelwal, Yogendra Sharma
Secretagogin (SCGN) is a calcium sensor protein enriched in neuroendocrine cells in general and pancreatic β-cells in particular. SCGN regulates insulin secretion through several Ca2+ -dependent interactions. Recent studies implicate SCGN in the β-cell physiology and extracellular insulin function, making it an intriguing candidate in diabetes research. Here, we propose a conjoining theme of diversified SCGN function in diabetes pathology. In our opinion, SCGN is an attractive therapeutic candidate ascribed by its role in β-cell maintenance and neuronal functions and in the efficacy of insulin...
February 13, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Chiara Vantaggiato, Elena Panzeri, Andrea Citterio, Genny Orso, Marco Pozzi
Antipsychotics frequently cause obesity and related metabolic disorders that current psychopharmacological/endocrinological theories do not explain consistently. An integrative/alternative theory implies metabolic alterations happening at the cellular level. Many observations in vitro and in vivo, and pivotal observations in humans, point towards chemical properties of antipsychotics, independent of receptor binding characteristics. Being amphiphilic weak bases, antipsychotics can disrupt lysosomal function, affecting cholesterol trafficking; moreover, by chemical mimicry, antipsychotics can inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis...
February 1, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Peng Jia, Hong Xue, Li Yin, Alfred Stein, Minqi Wang, Youfa Wang
Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and remote sensing (RS) are revolutionizing obesity-related research. The primary applications of GIS have included visualizing obesity outcomes and risk factors, constructing obesogenic environmental indicators, and detecting geographical patterns of obesity prevalence and obesogenic environmental features. GPS was mainly used to delineate individual activity space and combined with other devices to measure obesogenic behaviors. RS has been understated for its role as important sources of data about natural and built environments...
January 31, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Zaher Merhi, Eleni A Kandaraki, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
Human, animal, and in vitro studies provide evidence that advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its metabolic and reproductive consequences. AGEs are able to induce, via activation of key intracellular signaling pathways, the generation of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, thus contributing to the adverse health impact of PCOS. This review presents the implications of AGEs in several disease pathophysiologies, including PCOS, as well as the cellular and systemic effects of AGEs on insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, and ovarian function...
January 31, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Andrew P Koutnik, Dominic P D'Agostino, Brendan Egan
The ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) are the subject of renewed interest given recently established pleiotropic effects regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and gene expression. Anticatabolic effects of β-hydroxybutyrate have recently been demonstrated in human skeletal muscle under inflammatory insult, thereby expanding upon the wide-ranging therapeutic applications of nutritional ketosis.
January 31, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Rui L Reis, Manuela E Gomes
The interplay between cell/tissue damage caused by metabolic dysfunction and regenerative potential remains elusive. The tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) field is now facing a worldwide epidemic of obesity. This Forum article uncovers prospective questions to be addressed in TERM toward the development of effective regenerative therapies adjusted to these new demands.
January 28, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Isin Cakir, Eduardo A Nillni
Overweight and obesity pose significant health problems globally, and are causatively linked to metabolic dysregulation. The hypothalamus integrates neural, nutritional, and hormonal cues to regulate homeostasis, including circadian rhythm, body temperature, thirst, food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism. Hypothalamic neuropeptides play a fundamental role in these processes. Studies during the past two decades suggest a role of central endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathophysiology of obesity...
January 25, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
David E Place, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which diet and exercise regulate disease has the potential to help identify new treatments. In their recent study, Chakraborty et al. (Cell Reports 2018;25:677-689) discovered that supplementation with a metabolic precursor produced β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), counteracting the pathological effects of high-salt diet-induced hypertension, suggesting a new treatment modality.
January 19, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Yi Fang, Shuang Tang, Xiaoling Li
Sirtuins are highly conserved NAD+ -dependent enzymes that are capable of removing a wide range of lipid lysine acyl-groups from protein substrates in a NAD+ -dependent manner. These NAD+ -dependent activities enable sirtuins to monitor cellular energy status and modulate gene transcription, genome stability, and energy metabolism in response to environmental signals. Consequently, sirtuins are important for cell survival, stress resistance, proliferation, and differentiation. In recent years, sirtuins are increasingly recognized as crucial regulators of stem cell biology in addition to their well-known roles in metabolism and aging...
January 7, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Aline Loehfelm, Alisa Boucsein, Dominik Pretz, Alexander Tups
Metabolic syndrome and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two major health issues in modern society causing an extraordinary financial burden for the global healthcare systems. A tight link between the pathologies of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and more recently between T2D and AD, has been discovered. Furthermore, in recent years it has become apparent that the circadian clock has an important function in controlling metabolism. This review integrates the role of the circadian clock in the development of these metabolic derangements and vice versa...
December 26, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Zaina Adnan
Acromegaly per se predisposes to diabetes. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) have an overall neutral effect on glycemic control. However, a marked increase in hyperglycemia was observed recently since the introduction of pasireotide long-acting release (PAS-LAR). Sodium glucose cotransporter inhibitors (SGLT2is) have proven their efficacy, cardiovascular safety, and superiority in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, this class is rarely recommended for patients with diabetes and acromegaly...
December 23, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Handan Melike Dönertaş, Matías Fuentealba, Linda Partridge, Janet M Thornton
Increasing human life expectancy has posed increasing challenges for healthcare systems. As people age, they become more susceptible to chronic diseases, with an increasing burden of multimorbidity, and the associated polypharmacy. Accumulating evidence from work with laboratory animals has shown that ageing is a malleable process that can be ameliorated by genetic and environmental interventions. Drugs that modulate the ageing process may delay or even prevent the incidence of multiple diseases of ageing. To identify novel, anti-ageing drugs, several studies have developed computational drug-repurposing strategies...
December 20, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Ilja L Kruglikov, Zhuzhen Zhang, Philipp E Scherer
Hair follicles (HFs) strongly interact with adipocytes within the dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT), suggesting a strong physiological dependence on the content of immature and mature adipocytes in this layer. This content is regulated by the proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursors, as well as by dedifferentiation of mature existing adipocytes. Spatially, long-range interactions between HFs and dWAT involve the exchange of extracellular vesicles which are differentially released by precursors, preadipocytes, and mature adipocytes...
December 14, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Jiali Yang, Lingrong Wen, Yueming Jiang, Bao Yang
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are transcription factors highly involved in physiological development and metabolism in the human body. They also play important roles in the treatment of cancer and metabolic diseases. Chemicals that interact with ERs can be used to treat diseases and maintain health. Phytoestrogens are natural chemicals that have been documented to possess significant ER modulatory activities. However, since phytoestrogens usually exist at low quantities in nature, heterologous biosynthesis techniques have quickly developed in recent years in order meet the demands for needed therapeutic amounts...
December 4, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Varykina G Thackray
Recent studies have shown that sex and sex steroids influence the composition of the gut microbiome. These studies also indicate that steroid regulation of the gut microbiome may play a role in pathological situations of hormonal excess, such as PCOS. Indeed, studies demonstrated that PCOS is associated with decreased alpha diversity and changes in specific Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, previously associated with metabolic dysregulation. These studies suggest that androgens may regulate the gut microbiome in females and that hyperandrogenism may be linked with a gut 'dysbiosis' in PCOS...
November 29, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Willem M Kühtreiber, Denise L Faustman
The bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is a microorganism developed as a vaccine for tuberculosis 100 years ago and used as therapy for bladder cancer 40 years ago. More recently, BCG has shown therapeutic promise for type 1 diabetes (T1D) and several other autoimmune diseases. In T1D, BCG restored blood sugars to near normal, even in patients with advanced disease of >20 years duration. This clinically important effect may be driven by resetting of the immune system and the shifting of glucose metabolism from overactive oxidative phosphorylation, a state of minimal sugar utilization, to aerobic glycolysis, a state of high glucose utilization, for energy production...
February 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Guang Lin, Liping Wang, Paul C Marcogliese, Hugo J Bellen
The pathogenic mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease (PD)/parkinsonism affect mitochondrial and endolysosomal trafficking. The retromer is required to retrieve some proteins from endosomes to the Golgi and plasma membrane. Here, we discuss how retromer-dependent retrieval also affects ceramide metabolism. Compelling studies across PD models in Drosophila and mammalian neurons reveal a pathogenic cascade implicating retromer dysfunction and mitochondrial defects. We argue that ceramides may play a critical role in the pathobiology based on the studies of PLA2G6 and VPS35 in Drosophila mutants and human knock-down cells...
February 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Jonathan H Pérez, Elisabetta Tolla, Ian C Dunn, Simone L Meddle, Tyler J Stevenson
Ubiquitous in non-mammalian vertebrates, extra-retinal photoreceptors (ERPs) have been linked to an array of physiological, metabolic, behavioral, and morphological changes. However, the mechanisms and functional roles of ERPs remain one of the enduring questions of modern biology. In this review article, we use a comparative framework to identify conserved roles and distributions of ERPs, highlighting knowledge gaps. We conclude that ERP research can be divided into two largely unconnected categories: (i) identification and localization of photoreceptors and (ii) linkage of non-retinal light reception to behavioral and physiological processes, particularly endocrine systems...
January 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Juan Domínguez-Bendala, Mirza Muhammad Fahd Qadir, Ricardo Luis Pastori
Adult pancreatic regeneration is one of the most contentious topics in modern biology. The long-held view that the islets of Langerhans can be replenished throughout adult life through the reactivation of ductal progenitor cells has been replaced over the past decade by the now prevailing notion that regeneration does not involve progenitors and occurs only through the duplication of pre-existing mature cells. Here we dissect the limitations of lineage tracing (LT) to draw categorical conclusions about pancreatic regeneration, especially in view of emerging evidence that traditional lineages are less homogeneous and cell fates more dynamic than previously thought...
January 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Christine A Mills, Alec G Trub, Matthew D Hirschey
Fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in mitochondria produces a key metabolite called lipoic acid. However, a new study by Van Vranken et al.[1] (Mol. Cell 2018;71:567-580) shows that mitochondrial FAS regulates the assembly of oxidative phosphorylation complexes, thereby functioning as a nutrient sensor for mitochondrial respiration.
January 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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