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Current Opinion in Rheumatology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747734/cryptic-conspirators-a-conversation-about-thrombocytopenia-and-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#1
Andrew P Vreede, Paula L Bockenstedt, W Joseph McCune, Jason S Knight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is best known for conveying increased risk of thrombotic events and pregnancy morbidity, thrombocytopenia is also recognized as a common association. In this review, we will explore the relationship between thrombocytopenia and APS, highlighting our evolving understanding - and persistent knowledge gaps - through clinically oriented questions and answers. RECENT FINDINGS: A history of thrombocytopenia likely portends a more severe APS phenotype (including increased risk of thrombosis)...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747733/patient-preferences-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-treatment
#2
Betty Hsiao, Liana Fraenkel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recent articles discussing patient preferences for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies examined patient preferences for RA treatment in several populations, finding that most participants were willing to accept certain risks of adverse effects to gain potential benefits. Perspectives regarding cannabis were studied, with patients describing medical marijuana as an alternative therapy to be used with prescription medications or as means of tapering off these medications...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624284/measuring-outcomes-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-pearls-and-pitfalls
#3
Marina Magrey, Christopher Ritchlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) warrant a comprehensive clinical assessment because of the lack of biomarkers of disease activity, prognosis and response to biologic therapy. Multiple AS-related questionnaires have been developed to assess the disease status accurately, but feasibility remains a problem in clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to assess the pearls and pitfalls of AS-related outcome measures. RECENT FINDINGS: Single-item questionnaires to measure pain, stiffness and fatigue in patients with AS are easily administrable but may lack a sufficient degree of responsiveness on an individual patient level...
January 7, 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601231/the-vitamin-d-and-calcium-controversy-an-update
#4
Joshua R Lewis, Marc Sim, Robin M Daly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is widely recommended for prevention of falls and fracture, particularly in the elderly where calcium intakes and vitamin D levels are often inadequate. A number of meta-analyses have questioned the benefits of untargeted or 'holistic' supplementation for falls and fracture, and raised the possibility of adverse cardiovascular effects. This review provides an update on these controversies. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances have largely centred around new trials of vitamin D and meta-analyses of published trials and observational studies...
December 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30575598/patient-perspectives-in-gout-a-review
#5
Jasvinder A Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have produced evidence regarding the patient perspectives in gout including from disease experience to disease outcomes. Therefore, an overview on the topic can help improve our understanding of the patient experience. RECENT FINDINGS: This article explores several aspects of the patient perspective including the impact of gout on a patient's life, patient knowledge and beliefs regarding gout and its treatments, patient-perceived barriers to optimal medication adherence in gout and patient's perception of their gout...
December 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30575597/genetic-advances-in-gout-potential-applications-in-clinical-practice
#6
Vicky Tai, Tony R Merriman, Nicola Dalbeth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many novel genetic associations in the field of hyperuricaemia and gout have been described recently. This review discusses advances in gout genetics and their potential clinical applications. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 30 serum urate-associated loci, some of which represent targets for drug development in gout. Some genes implicated in initiating the inflammatory response to deposited crystals in gout flares have also been described...
December 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30540579/postactivated-b-cells-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-update-on-translational-aspects-and-therapeutic-considerations
#7
Eva Schrezenmeier, Sarah Y Weißenberg, Ana-Luisa Stefanski, Franziska Szelinski, Annika Wiedemann, Andreia C Lino, Thomas Dörner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent insights and current understanding of the role of postactivated B cells in SLE and related pathogenic and potential therapeutic implications. RECENT FINDING: B cells are considered key players in SLE and experience from various B-cell-targeted therapies underlines their clinical relevance. In the last years, new insights have been obtained on B-cell abnormality within the complex pathophysiology of SLE. These insights involve a revised understanding of BCR signaling, that has been reported to be hyperresponsive in the past, but newer studies suggest a postactivation functiotype in terms of reduced BCR and TLR signaling...
December 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30540578/gene-function-studies-in-sle
#8
Florencia Rosetti, Abigail de la Cruz, José C Crispín
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to discuss recent developments in our understanding of how systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated genes contribute to autoimmunity. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene-function studies have revealed mechanisms through which SLE-associated alleles of IFIH1, TNFAIP3, IRF5, and PRDM1 likely contribute to the development of autoimmunity. Novel research has identified Mac-1 (encoded by ITGAM), CaMK4, and iRhom2 as plausible therapeutic targets in lupus nephritis...
December 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30672908/gene-function-studies-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#9
Florencia Rosetti, Abigail de la Cruz, José C Crispín
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to discuss recent developments in our understanding of how systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated genes contribute to autoimmunity. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene-function studies have revealed mechanisms through which SLE-associated alleles of IFIH1, TNFAIP3, IRF5, and PRDM1 likely contribute to the development of autoimmunity. Novel research has identified Mac-1 (encoded by ITGAM), CaMK4, and iRhom2 as plausible therapeutic targets in lupus nephritis...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624285/the-microbiome-in-systemic-autoimmune-disease-mechanistic-insights-from-recent-studies
#10
Carina Dehner, Rebecca Fine, Martin A Kriegel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The resident bacterial communities and the host immune system have coevolved for millennia. However, recent changes in modern societies have disrupted this coevolutionary homeostasis and contributed to a rise in immune-mediated conditions. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recently elucidated mechanisms of how certain taxa within the bacterial microbiome propagate autoimmunity. RECENT FINDINGS: Interactions between the bacterial microbiome with innate and adaptive immune cells propagate autoreactivity, chronic inflammation, and tissue damage in susceptible hosts...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624283/methods-for-measuring-patient-preferences-an-update-and-future-directions
#11
Alexa Meara, Norah L Crossnohere, John F P Bridges
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights the growing number of available methods used to measure patient preferences and discusses how this impacts preference research in rheumatology. Spurred by the growing role of preferences in regulatory decisions and drug development, researchers have begun applying preference methods to study questions beyond the clinical context. We explore these trends, provide case studies highlighting changes in measuring patient preferences, compare strengths and weaknesses of common stated-preference methods, and discuss considerations for the future use of these methods...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30608250/quality-improvement-initiatives-in-rheumatology-an-integrative-review-of-the-last-5-years
#12
Lucy H Liu, Sonam Choden, Jinoos Yazdany
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed recent quality improvement initiatives in the field of rheumatology to identify common strategies and themes leading to measurable change. RECENT FINDINGS: Efforts to improve quality of care in rheumatology have accelerated in the last 5 years. Most studies in this area have focused on interventions to improve process measures such as increasing the collection of patient-reported outcomes and vaccination rates, but some studies have examined interventions to improve health outcomes...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601232/editorial-updates-in-crystal-deposition-diseases
#13
Sara K Tedeschi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601230/diagnostic-advances-in-synovial-fluid-analysis-and-radiographic-identification-for-crystalline-arthritis
#14
Monica Zell, Dawen Zhang, John FitzGerald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review addresses diagnostic methods for crystalline arthritis including synovial fluid analysis, ultrasound, and dual energy CT scan (DECT). RECENT FINDINGS: There are new technologies on the horizon to improve the ease, sensitivity, and specificity of synovial fluid analysis. Raman spectroscopy uses the spectral signature that results from a material's unique energy absorption and scatter for crystal identification. Lens-free microscopy directly images synovial fluid aspirate on to a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip, providing a high-resolution, wide field of view (∼20 mm) image...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601229/gout-and-cardiovascular-disease-crystallized-confusion
#15
Aryeh M Abeles, Michael H Pillinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gout is associated with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the biological relationship between the two remains uncertain. The demonstration of reduction of cardiovascular risk with appropriate gout treatment would argue for a causal role for gout in cardiovascular disease. We reviewed recent studies that address the relationship between gout and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies are conflicting; some show that lowering serum uric acid levels leads to better cardiovascular outcomes, whereas others show no such benefit...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601228/the-role-of-febuxostat-in-gout
#16
Thomas Bardin, Pascal Richette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concerns about the cardiovascular safety of febuxostat lead to reconsideration of the place of febuxostat in the management of gout. RECENT FINDINGS: The CARES trial is a randomized controlled trial mandated by the FDA to compare the cardiovascular safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in the management of gout. About 6190 patients with gout and major cardiovascular disease, randomly assigned to allopurinol or febuxostat, were prospectively followed up for a median of 32 months...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30562182/the-immune-podocyte
#17
Rhea Bhargava, George C Tsokos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a serious manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus and is characterized by proteinuria and renal failure. Proteinuria is a marker of poor prognosis and is attributed to podocyte loss and dysfunction. It is often debated whether these cells are innocent bystanders or active participants in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis. RECENT FINDINGS: Podocytes share many elements of the innate and adaptive immune system...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30562181/low-dose-interleukin-2-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
Jens Y Humrich, Gabriela Riemekasten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview behind the concept and recent advances of low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). RECENT FINDINGS: A disruption of regulatory T cell homeostasis caused by an acquired deficiency of IL-2 is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of SLE. Here, we highlight the key rationales for the clinical translation of low-dose IL-2 therapy in SLE and summarize the main findings from two independent, early phase uncontrolled clinical studies that investigated the immunological and clinical responses to low-dose IL-2 therapy in patients with active SLE...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30540580/neutrophils-in-lupus-nephritis
#19
Hiroshi Nishi, Tanya N Mayadas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease characterized by IgG-autoantibodies to nuclear antigens that can deposit in the kidney and trigger lupus nephritis. Neutrophils accumulate in the kidneys of patients with proliferative LUPUS NEPHRITIS and neutrophil products and a subset of granulocytes, called low-density granulocytes (LDG) may contribute to lupus nephritis pathogenesis. Here, we will discuss recent studies implicating neutrophils in the pathogenesis of human SLE nephritis and then examine studies that provide mechanistic insights into how these cells are recruited to the glomerulus following immune complex deposition and how their products may promote lupus nephritis...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30461544/molecular-taxonomy-of-osteoarthritis-for-patient-stratification-disease-management-and-drug-development-biochemical-markers-associated-with-emerging-clinical-phenotypes-and-molecular-endotypes
#20
Ali Mobasheri, Willem Evert van Spil, Emma Budd, Ilona Uzieliene, Eiva Bernotiene, Anne-Christine Bay-Jensen, Jonathan Larkin, Marc C Levesque, Oreste Gualillo, Yves Henrotin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the molecular taxonomy of osteoarthritis from the perspective of molecular biomarkers. We discuss how wet biochemical markers may be used to understand disease pathogenesis and progression and define molecular endotypes of osteoarthritis and how these correspond to clinical phenotypes. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis is a heterogeneous and multifaceted disease with multiple causes, molecular endotypes and corresponding clinical phenotypes...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
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