journal

Current Opinion in Pediatrics | Page 2

journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32068595/neonatal-functional-echocardiography
#21
Cecile Tissot, Yogen Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of echocardiography has dramatically changed over the past decade and use of functional echocardiography has become increasingly popular among neonatologists and pediatric intensivists in making clinical decisions in sick infants and children. The purpose of this review is to outline the current capabilities and limitations of functional echocardiography, best practices for its clinical application, and evidence for its utility. RECENT FINDINGS: Functional echocardiography can provide direct assessment of hemodynamics at bedside and can be used as a modern hemodynamic monitoring tool in the neonatal intensive care unit...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32068593/update-on-penicillin-allergy-delabeling
#22
Marcus Shaker, Samuel McWilliams, Matthew Greenhawt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review phenotyping and risk classification of penicillin allergy and provide an update on penicillin allergy delabeling strategies for primary care. RECENT FINDINGS: Beta-lactams are considered the treatment of choice for a wide range of bacterial pathogens; however, many patients receive second-line agents due to being labeled as having an allergy to penicillin. This approach can lead to antibiotic resistance and inferior health outcomes. While 10% of the population is labeled as penicillin allergic, penicillin anaphylaxis occurs in less than 1% of patients...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32068592/less-invasive-surfactant-administration-best-practices-and-unanswered-questions
#23
Egbert Herting, Christoph Härtel, Wolfgang Göpel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe current concepts in the field of Less Invasive Surfactant Administration (LISA). The use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has become standard for the treatment of premature infants with respiratory problems throughout the world. However, if CPAP fails, technologies like LISA are needed that can combine surfactant delivery and spontaneous breathing with the support of noninvasive modes of ventilation. RECENT FINDINGS: LISA with thin catheters has been in use in Germany for more than 15 years...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31876622/editorial-pediatric-nephrolithiasis
#24
Michel Baum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31851056/point-of-care-ultrasound-in-the-neonatal-icu
#25
Laura E Miller, Jason Z Stoller, María V Fraga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is an emerging clinical tool in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Recent literature describing the use of POCUS for various applications in the NICU has garnered increased interest among neonatologists. RECENT FINDINGS: Diagnostic applications for POCUS in the NICU include the evaluation and serial monitoring of common pulmonary diseases, hemodynamic instability, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), among others...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31790031/urologic-treatment-of-nephrolithiasis
#26
Bruce J Schlomer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the options and recent developments in the urologic treatment of nephrolithiasis in children. The prevalence of nephrolithiasis in children has increased over time. The urologic treatment of nephrolithiasis ranges from observation to medical expulsive therapy with an alpha blocker for a stone in a ureter to a variety of procedures for stone removal. RECENT FINDINGS: Observation for small, asymptomatic renal stones is a reasonable strategy in children...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31789978/inherited-conditions-resulting-in-nephrolithiasis
#27
Bernd Hoppe, Cristina Martin-Higueras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prevalence of pediatric urolithiasis is increasing, which is definitively visible in increasing numbers of presentations in emergency or outpatient clinics. In pediatric patients, a genetic or metabolic disease has to be excluded, so that adequate treatment can be installed as early as possible. Only then either recurrent stone events and chronic or even end-stage kidney disease can be prevented. RECENT FINDINGS: The genetic background of mostly monogenic kidney stone diseases was unravelled recently...
April 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32068596/dietary-risk-factors-for-urinary-stones-in-children
#28
David J Sas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the incidence of urinary stone disease in children is increasing, identifying dietary risk factors becomes vitally important, especially in the context of targeting interventions to reduce risk for stone formation. Indiscriminant dietary restrictions are not appropriate for paediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Although large, prospective studies are still needed to better quantify dietary risk factors for paediatric stone formers, a number of smaller studies provide data to identify common risk factors to help prevent stone formation, while minimizing inappropriate dietary restrictions...
February 13, 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32068594/autism-considerations-for-transitions-of-care-into-adulthood
#29
Stephanie Enner, Samiya Ahmad, Anne M Morse, Sanjeev V Kothare
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The steady rise in number of youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has led to the need to examine transition of care considerations specific to ASD. Improved understanding and guidance addressing these needs will allow pediatric and adult providers to work together to optimize social, medical, and occupational outcomes for these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Health-care transition is a delicate time when children with ASD outgrow the services of pediatric programs and enter a fragmented healthcare system that is unfamiliar, insufficiently knowledgeable, and underfunded for their needs...
February 13, 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32068598/what-does-innovation-look-like
#30
Thomas A Hooven, Tara M Randis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31895160/the-growing-role-of-epigenetics-in-childhood-cancers
#31
Eshini Panditharatna, Mariella G Filbin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Altered epigenetics is central to oncogenesis in many pediatric cancers. Aberrant epigenetic states are induced by mutations in histones or epigenetic regulatory genes, aberrant expression of genes regulating chromatin complexes, altered DNA methylation patterns, or dysregulated expression of noncoding RNAs. Developmental contexts of dysregulated epigenetic states are equally important for initiation and progression of many childhood cancers. As an improved understanding of disease-specific roles and molecular consequences of epigenetic alterations in oncogenesis is emerging, targeting these mechanisms of disease in childhood cancers is increasingly becoming important...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31895159/tibial-tubercle-avulsion-fractures-in-children
#32
Pia Franz, Eva Luderowski, María Tuca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and discuss the fundamentals of pediatric tibial tubercle avulsion fractures (TTAFs) including preferred imaging modalities, systems for fracture classification, frequently associated injuries, treatment options, outcomes, and common complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Although TTAFs amount to fewer than 1% of all physeal injuries in children, the incidence is increasing, likely because of greater participation in high-level athletics...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31876621/technology-and-precision-therapy-delivery-in-childhood-cancer
#33
Caitlin Tydings, AeRang Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe current advances in pediatric precision therapy through innovations in technology and engineering. A multimodal approach of chemotherapy, surgery and/or radiation therapy has improved survival outcomes for pediatric cancer but with significant early and late toxicities. The pediatric population is particularly vulnerable given their age during treatment. Advances in precision interventions discussed include image guidance, ablation techniques, radiation therapy and novel drug delivery mechanisms that offer the potential for more targeted approach approaches with improved efficacy while limiting acute and late toxicities...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31851055/rotavirus-vaccination-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-units-where-are-we-a-rapid-review-of-recent-evidence
#34
Mélanie Sicard, Kristina Bryant, Martha L Muller, Caroline Quach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rotavirus is a leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in infants. Neonates hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are at risk of rotavirus infections with severe outcomes. The administration of rotavirus vaccines is only recommended, in the United States and Canada, upon discharge from the NICU despite rotavirus vaccines being proven well tolerated and effective in these populations, because of risks of live-attenuated vaccine administration in immunocompromised patients and theoretical risks of rotavirus vaccine strains shedding and transmission...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31851054/polydactyly-a-review-and-update-of-a-common-congenital-hand-difference
#35
Lauren E Wessel, Aaron Daluiski, Samir K Trehan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe various forms of hand polydactyly and their different treatment approaches. Hand polydactyly is commonly classified as ulnar (small finger) or radial (thumb). Polydactyly can be sporadic, genetic, and/or associated with syndromic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Both ulnar and radial polydactyly can be surgically treated to optimize hand aesthetics and function. Timing of surgery is based on multiple factors, most notably including safety of anesthesia and socialization of the affected child...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31833952/the-cannabidiol-conundrum-potential-benefits-and-risks-of-cannabidiol-products-for-children
#36
Lauren Singer, Hannah Tokish, Faith Park, Christine Campisi, Ruth L Milanaik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the federal ban on hemp products was lifted in December 2018, cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid derived from hemp, has become increasingly popular and accessible. CBD is sold in the form of oils, tablets, and foods in locations including gas stations, cafés, and drug stores. Despite a lack of reliable evidence, many parents praise its purported therapeutic effects on a variety of childhood ailments. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidiolex was the first CBD-based medication to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2018 for the treatment of two rare and severe forms of epilepsy, known as Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndrome, in patients of at least 2 years of age...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31815781/pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia-updates-on-biology-risk-stratification-and-therapy
#37
Caitlin W Elgarten, Richard Aplenc
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite advances in therapy over the past decades, overall survival for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not exceeded 70%. In this review, we highlight recent insights into risk stratification for patients with pediatric AML and discuss data driving current and developing therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in cytogenetics and molecular profiling, as well as improvements in detection of minimal residual disease after induction therapy, have informed risk stratification, which now relies heavily on these elements...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31815780/clubfoot-for-the-primary-care-physician-frequently-asked-questions
#38
Annie Yau, Shevaun M Doyle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide primary care physicians with updates on recent literature regarding clubfoot and answer questions asked by parents and caregivers of children with clubfoot. The topics discussed include prenatal counseling, relapse after Ponseti treatment, long-term outcomes following successful treatment of clubfoot, and the effect of diagnosis and treatment on the parent or caregiver. RECENT FINDINGS: Clubfoot is one of the most commonly searched orthopaedic conditions on the internet by parents...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31790025/advances-in-pediatric-psychooncology
#39
Lori Wiener, Katie A Devine, Amanda L Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the current literature on psychosocial care of children with cancer with particular focus on evidence-based standards of care, including developments in systematic distress screening, utilization of patient-reported outcomes, evidence-based interventions, survivorship, palliative care and bereavement. RECENT FINDINGS: Although attention to the psychosocial needs of the child and family is increasingly recognized as an essential element of care for children with cancer, implementing evidence-based care remains suboptimal...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31789975/tarsal-coalition
#40
Jamil F Soni, Weverley Valenza, Carolina Matsunaga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tarsal coalitions may cause painful pes planovalgus and recurrent sprains, and can lead to arthrosis if improperly managed. In this review, we discuss the current topics related to talocalcaneal and calcaneonavicular coalitions. RECENT FINDINGS: Tarsal coalitions are initially managed with conservative therapy, and when this approach fails, surgery is performed. Treatment of calcaneonavicular coalitions involves resection of the coalition and interposition of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle or fat, and in cases of marked valgus deformity, correction of the deformity...
February 2020: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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