Madeleine F Wittenberg, Shannon Fitzgerald, Emily Pluhar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adolescents who are pregnant experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than nonpregnant peers and pregnant adults. Clinicians caring for youth are often the first point of clinical contact for pregnant adolescents but report low confidence in assessing and treating reproductive health concerns. In the current review, we outline risk factors for depressive symptoms among pregnant adolescents and provide guidance on best practices in assessment and treatment of depressive symptoms in this pediatric sub-population...
March 30, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Carlos Carmona, Marianne E Nellis, Oliver Karam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the hemostatic changes induced by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), the need to balance the risks of bleeding and clotting with anticoagulation and hemostatic transfusions, and the inherent risks to these interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Both bleeding and clotting are frequent complications of ECMO. To prevent clotting events, virtually, all children are anticoagulated. However, the optimal anticoagulation strategy is unknown...
March 28, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Erin M Sadler, Ololade Okito, Lamia Soghier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The neonatal ICU (NICU) setting is a unique opportunity to not only detect major changes in caregiver mental health through universal perinatal mood and anxiety disorder (PMAD) screening but also intervene with specialized support. We review evidence for addressing caregiver mental health in the NICU, explore current guidelines and models for integrated behavioural health programmes, and describe challenges specific to NICUs, particularly in standalone paediatric hospitals...
March 28, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Alice Ruscica, Christie Chen, Lorraine Ng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the pediatric acute care setting that have an impact on clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: POCUS can improve diagnostic efficiency and expedite management in pediatric patients who present to the emergency department with common complaints such as respiratory distress, abdominal pain, shock, and pain. SUMMARY: Rapid advancements in POCUS have allowed it to become a powerful tool in pediatric care...
March 28, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Lauren A Bell, Scott E Hadland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adolescent and young adult overdoses and overdose fatalities continue to increase despite reductions in self-reported substance use. This review aims to explore factors contributing to this overdose epidemic, highlight signs of overdose and the role of the overdose reversal medication naloxone, and provide recommendations for practice change to support patients and decrease their risk of unintentional overdose. RECENT FINDINGS: The potent opioid fentanyl is a common contaminant in nonopioid substances, as well as in heroin and counterfeit pills, heightening risk of fatal overdose...
March 28, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Elizabeth Rosenfeld, Diva D De León
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight advances in congenital hyperinsulinism (HI), including newly described molecular mechanisms of disease, novel therapeutic interventions, and improved understanding of long-term outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Important advances have been made elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for HI. Non-coding variants in HK1 have been found to cause aberrant hexokinase expression. Inactivating mutations in SLC25A36 have been identified in children with features of the hyperinsulinism hyperammonemia syndrome...
March 28, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Aravind Yadav, Susan E Pacheco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To date, there is no evidence that humanity will implement appropriate mitigation measures to avoid the catastrophic impact of climate change on the planet and human health. Vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children will be the most affected. This review highlights epidemiologic data on climate change-related prenatal environmental exposures affecting the fetus and children's respiratory health. RECENT FINDINGS: Research on outcomes of prenatal exposure to climate change-related environmental changes and pediatric pulmonary health is limited...
March 28, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Ziwei Wang, Marcus Shaker, Karen Hsu Blatman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review updated recommendations in the 2022 Drug Allergy Practice Parameters for the evaluation and management of drug hypersensitivity reactions. RECENT FINDINGS: Adverse drug reactions have become increasingly prominent with the advent of new and emerging pharmacologic therapies. Hypersensitivity reactions encompass a significant proportion of adverse drug reactions and negatively impact both the individual patient and overall health system...
March 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Gennaro D'Amato, Maria D'Amato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Respiratory allergy correlates strictly with air pollution and climate change. Due to climate change, the atmospheric content of trigger factors such as pollens and moulds increase and induce rhinitis and asthma in sensitized patients with IgE-mediated allergic reactions.Pollen allergy is frequently used to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and allergic respiratory diseases. Pollen allergens trigger the release of immunomodulatory and pro-inflammatory mediators and accelerate the onset of sensitization to respiratory allergens in predisposed children and adults...
March 15, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jenna Lillemoe, Sara E Holmstrom, Sakina H Sojar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transgender and Gender Diverse (TGD) youth represent a growing subset of pediatric patients who are at increased risk for harmful health outcomes. Consideration of these risks during emergency encounters may decrease these undesired, sometimes fatal, adverse events. RECENT FINDINGS: Gender affirmative care of TGD youth is considered a basic healthcare right as noted by several academic societies including the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and the American Psychological Association [1-3] (Table 1)...
March 7, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Cristina Tomatis Souverbielle, Guliz Erdem, Pablo J Sánchez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategies of nonpolio enterovirus and parechovirus (PeV) infections, and identify research gaps. RECENT FINDINGS: There is currently no approved antiviral agent for enterovirus or PeV infections, although pocapavir may be provided on a compassionate basis. Elucidation of the structure and functional features of enterovirus and PeV may lead to novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccine development...
March 6, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Melissa Lorenzo, Suzanne Beno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric button battery and cannabis ingestions are rising in incidence and have the potential for significant harm. This review will focus on the clinical presentation and complications of these two common inadvertent ingestions in children, as well as recent regulatory efforts and advocacy opportunities. RECENT FINDINGS: The rising incidence of cannabis toxicity in children has corresponded with its legalization across several countries in the last decade...
March 6, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Tregony Simoneau, Jonathan M Gaffin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review provides an assessment of the recent pediatric literature evaluating socioeconomic drivers of asthma incidence and morbidity. The review addresses the specific social determinants of health related to housing, indoor and outdoor environmental exposures, healthcare access and quality, and the impact of systematic racism. RECENT FINDINGS: Many social risk factors are associated with adverse asthma outcomes. Children living in low-income, urban neighborhoods have greater exposure to both indoor and outdoor hazards, including molds, mice, second-hand smoke, chemicals, and air pollutants, all of which are associated with adverse asthma outcomes...
March 2, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Megan Hannon, Todd Lyons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review the recent guidelines and literature regarding the diagnosis and the treatment of common pediatric musculoskeletal infections: septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, pyomyositis, and Lyme disease. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decade, a better understanding of the causative organisms of common bacterial infections, including Kingella, leads to prompt targeted antimicrobial coverage in all musculoskeletal infections...
February 22, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Marieke M van der Zalm, Daniele Donà, Helena Rabie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three years into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, data on pediatric COVID-19 from African settings is limited. Understanding the impact of the pandemic in this setting with a high burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases is critical to implementing effective interventions in public health programs. RECENT FINDINGS: More severe COVID-19 has been reported in African settings, with especially infants and children with underlying comorbidities at highest risk for more severe disease...
February 21, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Nathan Georgette, Galina Lipton, Joyce Li
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trauma is the leading cause of death in children over 5 years old. Early mortality is associated with trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC), with balanced resuscitation potentially mitigating the effects of TIC. We review TIC, balanced resuscitation and the best evidence for crystalloid fluid versus early blood products, massive transfusion protocol (MTP) and the optimal ratio for blood products. RECENT FINDINGS: Crystalloid fluids have been associated with adverse events in paediatric trauma patients...
February 13, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Proma Paul, Bronner P Gonçalves, Kirsty Le Doare, Joy E Lawn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) is currently the only preventive approach against clinical consequences of maternal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization. In this review, we discuss new findings of total perinatal GBS burden and relative effectiveness of differing targeting of IAP, notably microbiology-based and risk factor-based screening, including potential limitations. Finally, we provide updates on maternal GBS vaccines and their potential cost-effectiveness in disease reduction...
February 8, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Tina A Leone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss a structured training process that can be used to guide curricula development in procedural skills in neonatal perinatal medicine training programs. RECENT FINDINGS: Achieving proficiency in life savings skills such as neonatal endotracheal intubation does not occur for all graduates of neonatal perinatal medicine programs. Innovations in procedural skills training offer opportunities to enhance the current educational environment and improve competency at all levels of learning...
February 8, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Michelle Lamary, C Briana Bertoni, Kathleen Schwabenbauer, John Ibrahim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recommendations made by several scientific bodies advocate for adoption of evidence-based interventions during the first 60 min of postnatal life, also known as the 'Golden Hour', to better support the fetal-to-neonatal transition. Implementation of a Golden Hour protocol leads to improved short-term and long-term outcomes, especially in extremely premature and extreme low-birth-weight (ELBW) neonates. Unfortunately, several recent surveys have highlighted persistent variability in the care provided to this vulnerable population in the first hour of life...
February 2, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Silvia Nunes Szente Fonseca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease of public health significance. Its geographic distribution includes 128 countries worldwide, affecting 390 million people every year causing significant morbidity and mortality in children and adults everywhere. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past, severe dengue affected mostly adults in the Americas; this scenario has changed and now cases of dengue, severe dengue, and dengue deaths have increased in children under 15 years in Brazil and in Colombia...
January 31, 2023: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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