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Growth Factors

Weiping Wang, Aiping Xu, Hong Xu
We performed this study to better elucidate the correlations between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms and congenital heart diseases (CHD). Eligible articles were searched in PubMed, Medline, Embase and CNKI. Eighteen studies were finally included in our meta-analysis. A significant association with the risk of CHD was detected for the rs1570360 polymorphism in additive comparison in overall analyses. Further subgroup analyses according to ethnicity of study participants and type of disease demonstrated that the rs833061 polymorphism was significantly correlated with the risk of CHD in Asians under additive genetic model, and the rs3025039 polymorphism was significantly correlated with the risk of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in dominant, recessive and allele models...
January 28, 2019: Growth Factors
Alper Kizildağ, Yasin Çiçek, Taner Arabaci, Oğuz Köse
The present study evaluates the effects of leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) combined with open flap debridement (OFD) on clinical parameters and growth factors levels (GFL) in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. This trial was registered at as NCT02594605. 16 patients (32 sites) with chronic periodontitis who had at least two areas of horizontal bone loss, were treated with OFD alone or L-PRF with OFD (OFD + L-PRF). GFL in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were analyzed at baseline, 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after operation...
January 9, 2019: Growth Factors
Jian Huang, Lan Zhao, Di Chen
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common diseases, affecting more than 10% of populations and thus creating immense socioeconomic burden. The pathological changes of OA involve the entire joint, which is composed of multiple types of tissues and cells, exemplified by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone thickening, osteophyte formation, synovium inflammation and hypertrophy, and ligament degeneration. As joint homeostasis requires a complex network of growth factors to regulate anabolic and catabolic events, the dysregulation of growth factor signalling would have negative impacts on structure and function of multiple joint tissues and eventually lead to the onset and progression of OA...
January 9, 2019: Growth Factors
Yanwei Su, Heng Luo, Jixin Yang
Pulmonary inflammation and progressive lung destruction are the major causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), resulting in emphysema and irreversible pulmonary dysfunction. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), is known to play a protective role in the process of various inflammatory diseases. However, its effect on COPD is poorly understood. This study was designed to determine the effect of HB-EGF on lung inflammation and injury in a murine model of pulmonary emphysema. HB-EGF promoted percent survival and body weight, attenuated lung injury, inflammatory cells, and cytokines infiltration, and prevented lung function decline...
January 2, 2019: Growth Factors
Hussein Kadhem Al-Hakeim, Zainab Hussein Alhillawi
Bone disorders and disturbed calcium (Ca) homeostasis are common disorders in β-thalassaemia major (β-TM). In the present study, two bone related markers are studied in β-TM patients with negative C-reactive protein for the first time; fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and CAPS protein. Another goal is to estimate the correlation between the recent parameters and bone biomaterials as a function of iron status parameters in β-TM patients. The results revealed that, in patients with β-TM serum FGFR2, CAPS, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Mg significantly increased while serum Ca levels were low as compared with controls...
October 30, 2018: Growth Factors
Edmond M Linossi, Dale J Calleja, Sandra E Nicholson
The development and activity of our immune system are largely controlled by the action of pleiotropic cytokines and growth factors, small secreted proteins, which bind to receptors on the surface of immune cells to initiate an appropriate physiological response. Cytokine signalling is predominantly executed by intracellular proteins known as the Janus kinases (JAKs) and the signal transducers and activators of transcriptions (STATs). Although the 'nuts and bolts' of cytokine-activated pathways have been well established, the nuanced way in which distinct cellular outcomes are achieved and the precise molecular details of the proteins that regulate these pathways are still being elucidated...
October 15, 2018: Growth Factors
Kira Behrens, Warren S Alexander
Platelets are anuclear blood cells required for haemostasis and are implicated in other processes including inflammation and metastasis. Platelets are produced by megakaryocytes, specialized cells that are themselves generated by a process of controlled differentiation and maturation of bone-marrow stem and progenitor cells. This process of megakaryopoiesis involves the coordinated interplay of transcription factor-controlled cellular programming with extra-cellular cues produced locally in supporting niches or as circulating factors...
October 15, 2018: Growth Factors
Xiangwen Zhao, Liang Meng, Jimin Jiang, Xinglong Wu
We performed this study to better elucidate the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms and coronary heart disease (CHD). Eligible articles were searched in PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus and CNKI. A total of 24 studies containing 6489 CHD patients and 5664 control subjects were analyzed. Our overall and subgroup analyses suggested that rs699947 polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in both Caucasians and Asians, rs1570360 polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in Caucasians, and rs3025039 polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in Asians...
October 15, 2018: Growth Factors
Davut Sinan Kaplan, Asuman Canak, Emregul Isık, Mustafa Orkmez, Burcu Kumru
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is mainly secreted by the liver. It is a factor that is not fully understood in relation to growth. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase protein. It is thought that may have an effect on the release and function of GH and IGF-1. Visfatin is synthesized from adipose tissue as primary. It may be prognostic marker associated with growth factors. As a result of our work, FGF21 is not associated with short stature but levels of SIRT1 and visfatin are associated with short stature...
October 10, 2018: Growth Factors
Xiao Zhang, Si Chen, Yunsong Liu, Ping Zhang, Yanjun Ge, Jing Guo, Gang Wu, Yongsheng Zhou
As robust osteoinductive cytokines, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a significant role in bone tissue engineering. Constituted of two different polypeptides, heterodimeric BMPs are more effective than the homodimers in bone formation. While most studies focused on the murine cell lines, such as murine preosteoblasts MC3T3-E1, the role of heterodimeric BMPs in the osteogenic differentiation of human cells remains uncertain, which hinders their application to practical treatment. In this study, we compared the osteoinductive effects of BMP-2/7 heterodimer in human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with their homodimers BMP-2 and BMP-7, in which MC3T3-E1 cells were utilized as a positive control...
September 21, 2018: Growth Factors
Deike Hesse, Jan Trost, Nadine Schäfer, Kristin Schwerbel, Andreas Hoeflich, Annette Schürmann, Gudrun A Brockmann
Besides liver, IGF-I is expressed in adipose tissue. However, the effects of this local IGF-I on adipose tissue and metabolism are unclear. We generated adipocyte-specific knock-out mice on the background of the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) line to evaluate the contribution of adipocyte-IGF-I on glucose metabolism and adipose tissue development. BFMI mice are obese, non-diabetic with elevated plasma insulin and IGF-I concentration. The knock-out in adipocytes led to a total white adipose tissue expression of 50-60% due to unaltered Igf-1 expression in stromavascular cells...
April 2018: Growth Factors
Pranav R Buch, Isha Ranadive, Isha Desai, Suresh Balarakrishnan
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme known for its role in promoting inflammation, pain and cancer. It has more recently been attributed a function in epimorphic regeneration of vertebrate appendages. However, its position among the molecular regulators of regeneration remains unclear. This work was aimed at analyzing the influence of COX-2 on critical mediators of regenerative processes in the lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis. It was found during the early events of regeneration that MMP and FGF genes get altered in their expression in response to administration of etoricoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor...
April 2018: Growth Factors
Kumudhini Kugathasan, Michael M Halford, Peter G Farlie, Damien Bates, Darrin P Smith, You Fang Zhang, James P Roy, Maria L Macheda, Dong Zhang, James L Wilkinson, Margaret L Kirby, Donald F Newgreen, Steven A Stacker
Ryk is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family of proteins that control and regulate cellular processes. It is distinguished by binding Wnt ligands and having no detectable intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity suggesting Ryk is a pseudokinase. Here, we show an essential role for Ryk in directing morphogenetic events required for normal cardiac development through the examination of Ryk-deficient mice. We employed vascular corrosion casting, vascular perfusion with contrast dye, and immunohistochemistry to characterize cardiovascular and pharyngeal defects in Ryk-/- embryos...
April 2018: Growth Factors
Joana Mesquita, João Paulo Castro-de-Sousa, Sara Vaz-Pereira, Arminda Neves, Luís A Passarinha, Cândida T Tomaz
VEGF-A and VEGF-B are proangiogenic and key regulating factors for blood vessel growth. This study aims to compare VEGF-A and VEGF-B levels in the serum and vitreous of patients with neovascular pathology versus non-neovascular pathology. Our findings showed vitreous VEGF-A and VEGF-B levels increased in patients with neovascular disease, with higher levels of VEGF-A compared to VEGF-B (p ≤ .05). In the diabetic retinopathy (DR) group, higher vitreous VEGF-A or VEGF-B were found in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) than in non-PDR...
April 2018: Growth Factors
Aleks C Guanizo, Chamira Dilanka Fernando, Daniel J Garama, Daniel J Gough
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is a key signalling protein engaged by a multitude of growth factors and cytokines to elicit diverse biological outcomes including cellular growth, differentiation, and survival. The complete loss of STAT3 is not compatible with life and even partial loss of function mutations lead to debilitating pathologies like hyper IgE syndrome. Conversely, augmented STAT3 activity has been reported in as many as 50% of all human tumours. The dogma of STAT3 activity posits that it is a tyrosine phosphorylated transcription factor which modulates the expression of hundreds of genes...
April 2018: Growth Factors
Kankshi Sahu, Anumegha Gupta, Alka Sharma, Meenakshi Tiwari, Ashutosh N Pandey, Shilpa Prasad, Pramod K Yadav, Ajai K Pandey, Tulsidas G Shrivastav, Shail K Chaube
In mammals, preovulatory oocytes are encircled by several layers of granulosa cells (GCs) in follicular microenvironment. These follicular oocytes are arrested at diplotene arrest due to high level of cyclic nucleotides from encircling GCs. Pituitary gonadotropin acts at the level of encircling GCs and increases adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) signaling pathway. The MAPK3/1 disrupts the gap junctions between encircling GCs and oocyte...
April 2018: Growth Factors
James P Roy, Michael M Halford, Steven A Stacker
The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a well-characterized family of growth factor receptors that have central roles in human disease and are frequently therapeutically targeted. The RYK, ROR, PTK7 and MuSK subfamilies make up an understudied subset of WNT-binding RTKs. Numerous developmental, stem cell and pathological roles of WNTs, in particular WNT5A, involve signalling via these WNT receptors. The WNT-binding RTKs have highly context-dependent signalling outputs and stimulate the β-catenin-dependent, planar cell polarity and/or WNT/Ca2+ pathways...
April 2018: Growth Factors
Guang Bin Zheng, Jae Hyup Lee, Yuan-Zhe Jin
This study compared osteoinductivity and osteogenic capacity between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using hMSCs in vitro and a beagle's posterolateral spinal fusion model. Cultured hMSCs were treated with AB204 or rhBMP-2 with low to high doses. Three male beagles were performed posterolateral spinal fusion with biphasic calcium phosphate (2 ml) + AB204 or rhBMP-2 (20, 50 or 200 µg). They were euthanized after 8 weeks. The fusion rate and bone formation of spine samples were examined. AB204 had higher alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and osteogenic-related gene expression than rhBMP-2...
December 2017: Growth Factors
J Ødegård, J E Sondresen, M Aasrum, I H Tveteraas, T K Guren, T Christoffersen, G H Thoresen
Hepatocytes are responsive to mitogenic effects of several ligands acting via EGFR. Studying primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, we found that, as compared to EGF, HB-EGF had a markedly higher affinity of the EGFR, while AR and TGFα had lower affinity. HB-EGF was also more potent compared to the other growth factors regarding phosphorylation of EGFR, Shc, ERK1/2 and Akt. All ligands induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, indicating receptor heterodimerization. TGFα, despite having much lower receptor affinity, was about equally potent and efficacious as HB-EGF as a stimulator of DNA synthesis...
December 2017: Growth Factors
Li Liu, Jena J Steinle
Dysfunctional insulin signalling is a causative factor in type-2 diabetes. While insulin signal transduction has been well investigated in many tissues, less is known in retinal tissues. We have previously reported that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in retinal damage in diabetes. We used TLR4 retinal Müller cell-specific knockout mice and Müller cells in culture to investigate the effects of loss of TLR4 on Müller cell insulin signal transduction. Loss of TLR4 in the mouse retinal Müller cells led to increased insulin receptor and Akt phosphorylation, with reduced insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation on serine 307, which was associated with reduced cleavage of caspase 3...
December 2017: Growth Factors
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