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Journal of X-ray Science and Technology

Xi Tan, Kai Xiang, Liang Liu, Jing Wang, Shan Tan
The total variation (TV) regularization has been widely used in statistically iterative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction, showing ability to preserve object edges. However, the TV regularization can also produce staircase effect and tend to over-smooth the reconstructed images due to its piecewise constant assumption. In this study, we proposed to use the structure tensor total variation (STV) that penalizes the eigenvalues of the structure tensor for CBCT reconstruction. The STV penalty extends the TV penalty, with many important properties maintained such as convexity and rotation and translation invariance...
February 7, 2019: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Petr V Glybochko, Yuriy G Alyaev, Sergey B Khokhlachev, Dmitriy N Fiev, Evgeniy V Shpot, Evgenity A Bezrukov, Nikolay V Petrovsky, Deying Zhang, Alexandra V Proskura, Marila V Iurova, Ethan Lester Matz, Xisheng Wang, Anthony Atala, Yuanyuan Zhang, Dmitriy V Butnaru
Contrast-enhanced multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) is commonly used in the diagnosis of complex malignant tumours. This technology provides comprehensive and accurate information about tumour size and shape in relation to solid tumours and the affected adjacent organs and tissues. This case report demonstrates the benefit of using MSCT 3D imaging for preoperative planning in a patient with late-stage (T4) sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma, a rare renal malignant tumour. The surgical margin on the liver was negative, and no metastases to veins, lungs or other organs were detected by abdominal and chest contrast-enhanced CT...
January 21, 2019: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Milad Najafzadeh, Abolfzal Nickfarjam, Keyvan Jabbari, Daniel Markel, James C L Chow
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose calculation accuracy in the Prowess Panther treatment planning system (TPS) using the collapsed cone convolution (CCC) algorithm. METHODS: The BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) package was used to predict the dose distribution of photon beams produced by the Oncor ® linear accelerator (linac). The MC model of an 18 MV photon beam was verified by measurement using a p-type diode dosimeter. Percent depth dose (PDD) and dose profiles were used for comparison based on three field sizes: 5×5, 10×10, and 20×20cm2...
January 2, 2019: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Dildar Hussain, Seung-Moo Han, Tae-Seong Kim
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture is considered one of the salient disability factors across the global population. People with hip fractures are prone to become permanently disabled or die from complications. Although currently the premier determiner, bone mineral density has some notable limitations in terms of hip fracture risk assessment. OBJECTIVES: To learn more about bone strength, hip geometric features (HGFs) can be collected. However, organizing a hip fracture risk study for a large population using a manual HGFs collection technique would be too arduous to be practical...
December 26, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Fengqi Lu, Yu Gao, Que Kong, Peng Qiao, Min Shao, Min Xie
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography (CTPA) examination has been frequently applied in detecting suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). How to reduce radiation dose to patients is also of concern. OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of using 640-slice CT wide-detector volume scan with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm in low-dose CTPA. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients who performed with CTPA were divided into two groups randomly...
December 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
M K A Karim, N A Rahim, K Matsubara, S Hashim, M H A Mhareb, Y Musa
BACKGROUND: Numerous techniques had been proposed to reduce radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) including the use of radiation shielding. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate efficacy of using a bismuth breast shield and optimized scanning parameter to reduce breast absorbed doses from CT thorax examination. METHODS: Five protocols comprising the standard CT thorax clinical protocol (CP1) and four modified protocols (CP2 to CP5) were applied in anthropomorphic phantom scans...
December 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Beichen Ding, Wen Song, Feilong Du, Liang Chen, Xiaodong Song
Prostatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a subtype of prostate stromal sarcoma which is rarely reported in adults and usually huge in size. Although there is no consensus on the standard therapy to prostatic RMS, complete resection with negative margin is identified as the best way for maximum survival time. However, to remove a much enlarged prostate completely from a RMS patient is still a very difficult task for a skilled urologist so far. As three-dimension (3D) technology becomes more widely used in medicine, surgeons have the opportunity to challenge previously impossible surgery...
December 7, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Min Jiang, Zhiping Qu, Yi Sun
Sparse-view Computed Tomography (CT) has important significance in industrial inspection and medical diagnosis. Mojette transform is a kind of discrete Radon transform that can yield exact reconstructions instead of an approximate solution due to finite Radon sampling. However, the image is iteratively reconstructed pixel by pixel from corner to center, and the image error is proportional to the number of iterations. In this paper, we propose that there exist different sets of projection combinations to recover the original image within the close-to-minimal iterations...
December 7, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yongxia Zhao, Yize Xu, Yunfeng Bao, Xue Geng, Tianle Zhang, Dongxue Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the difference in absorbed organ dose and image quality for head-neck CT angiography using organ dose modulation compared with 3D smart mA modulation in different body mass indices (BMIs) using an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR-V) algorithm. METHODS: Three hundred patients underwent head-neck CTA were equally divided into three groups: A (18.5 kg/m2≦BMI <  24.9 kg/m2), B (24.9 kg/m2≦BMI <  29.9 kg/m2) and C (29...
November 29, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Reem H El-Gebaly, Monira M Rageh, Islam K Maamoun
BACKGROUND: SPECT MPI (Single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging) is an essential tool for diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, but it also involves considerable exposure to ionizing radiation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the radioprotective potential of lipoic acid free and nano-capsule against 99mTc-MIBI-induced injury in cardiovascular tissue. METHODS: The radioprotective ability was assessed by blood count, histopathology and heart enzymes in different groups of mice...
November 29, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yechen Zhu, Yangchuan Liu, Qi Zhang, Cishen Zhang, Xin Gao
BACKGROUND: Due to large dimensional matrix multiplications, the existing iterative algorithms for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction often face problems of heavy computational workload and large volume of memory usage. OBJECTIVE: This study proposes and tests an iterative algorithm of 3DA-TVAL3 for fast reconstruction of CBCT images using undersampled measurement data and the reduced amount of computer memories. METHODS: In order to reduce computational workload and computer memories based on the sparsity of the CBCT measurement matrix, the proposed iterative algorithm applies elementwise scalar multiplications in the iterative computation to search for optimal solution...
November 27, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jiaxing Tan, Yumei Huo, Zhengrong Liang, Lihong Li
BACKGROUND: Computer aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules from computed tomography (CT) is crucial for early diagnosis of lung cancer. Self-learned features obtained by training datasets via deep learning have facilitated CADe of the nodules. However, the complexity of CT lung images renders a challenge of extracting effective features by self-learning only. This condition is exacerbated for limited size of datasets. On the other hand, the engineered features have been widely studied...
November 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Young-Pyo Kim, Yong-Pil Park, Min-Woo Cheon
In this study, we designed mobile X-ray equipment that generates high-power X-rays, using an internal power source by means of a super-capacitor, and evaluated its safety. The proposed X-ray equipment uses the charging voltage of a battery to store high density energy, supplementing the electric charge of the super-capacitor, which can instantly release a large amount of energy. Further, pulse frequency modulation was applied to produce high voltage and thereby improve energy efficiency. The developed mobile X-ray equipment enables to generate an output of 30 kW and, therefore, can be applied to many diagnostic fields...
November 8, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yan Li, Yongliang Dai, Nan Yu, Xiaoyi Duan, Weishan Zhang, Youmin Guo, Jiansheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Improved visualization of lung cancer-associated vessels is vital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 3-D quantitative CT in lung cancer-associated pulmonary vessel assessment. METHODS: Vascular CT changes were assessed visually and using FACT-Digital lung TM software (n = 162 patients, 178 controls). The total number of pulmonary vessels (TNV) and mean lumen area of pulmonary vessels (MAV) vertical to cross-sections of fifth/sixth-generation bronchioles were measured...
November 8, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Dragos Trinca, Eduard Libin
Performing X-ray computed tomography (CT) examinations with less radiation has recently received increasing interest: in medical imaging this means less (potentially harmful) radiation for the patient; in non-destructive testing of materials/objects such as testing jet engines, the reduction of the number of projection angles (which for large objects is in general high) leads to a substantial decreasing of the experiment time. In the experiment, less radiation is usually achieved by either (1) reducing the radiation dose used at each projection angle or (2) using sparse view X-ray CT, which means significantly less projection angles are used during the examination...
October 30, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Andrew M Davis, Erik A Pearson, Xiaochuan Pan, Charles A Pelizzari, Hania Al-Hallaq
BACKGROUND: Some patients cannot be imaged with cone-beam CT for image-guided radiation therapy because their size, pose, or fixation devices cause collisions with the machine. OBJECTIVE: To investigate imaging trajectories that avoid such collisions by using virtual isocenter and variable magnification during acquisition while yielding comparable image quality. METHODS: The machine components most likely to collide are the gantry and kV detector...
October 30, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Xiaobo Li, Liuqing Jiang, Benhua Xu, Dairong Cao, Yu Lei, Biying Liu, Sicong Li
BACKGROUND: During the MRI examination, pediatric patients sleep under the sedation so that the image artifacts caused by the patient motion could be minimized. However, the sedative injection at the buttocks might cause a difficulty in the diagnosis of the buttock diseases using the MRI manifestations. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the imaging characteristics of MR for the pediatric patients with the sedative injected at the buttocks in order to correctly diagnose the diseases...
October 25, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Andre Mouton, P Toby Breckon
We evaluate the impact of denoising and Metal Artefact Reduction (MAR) on 3D object segmentation and classification in low-resolution, cluttered dual-energy Computed Tomography (CT). To this end, we present a novel 3D materials-based segmentation technique based on the Dual-Energy Index (DEI) to automatically generate subvolumes for classification. Subvolume classification is performed using an extension of Extremely Randomised Clustering (ERC) forest codebooks, constructed using dense feature-point sampling and multiscale Density Histogram (DH) descriptors...
October 16, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Ketong Wu, Haiyang Lai, Yang Liu, Bo Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of percutaneous transvenous retrieval of intravascular fractured catheter and to evaluate the possible reasons and final results in cancer patients. METHODS: A dataset of 19 patients was used. Percutaneous transvenous retrieval of intravascular fractured catheter was performed in each patients. Clinical data was retrospectively analyzed with respect to the efficacy, safety and outcome, and chest radiography was performed to verify that no catheter fragments were left...
October 6, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Xiaoyue Guo, Li Zhang, Yuxiang Xing
BACKGROUND: High dose efficiency of photon counting detector based spectral CT (PCD-SCT) and its value in some clinical diagnosis have been well acknowledged. However, it has not been widely adopted in practical use for medical diagnosis and security inspection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence on PCD-SCT from multiple aspects including the number of energy channels, k-edge materials, energy thresholding, basis functions in spectral information decomposition, and the combined optimal setting for these parameters and configurations...
September 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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