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Prehospital and Disaster Medicine

Frederick M Burkle
The development of autocratic leaders in history reveals that many share severe character disorders that are consistently similar across borders and cultures. Diplomats and humanitarians negotiating for access to populations in-need and security of their programs, especially in health, must understand the limitations placed on the traditional negotiation process. These shared character traits stem from a cognitive and emotional developmental arrest in both childhood and adolescence resulting in fixed, life-long, concrete thinking patterns...
January 15, 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Sue Anne Bell, HwaJung Choi, Kenneth M Langa, Theodore J Iwashyna
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which an exposure to disaster is associated with change in health behaviors. METHODS: Federal disaster declarations were matched at the county-level to self-reported behaviors for participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 2000-2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between disaster and change in physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and cigarette smoking...
January 15, 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Gloria Leon, Carol Amaratunga, Marvin Birnbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Kyle A Fratta, Jennifer N Fishe, Jennifer F Anders, Tessa G Smith
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) protocol implementation can be a challenging endeavor given the large and diverse provider workforce. These efforts can be even more challenging given training restrictions, career and volunteer combination EMS agencies, and inconsistent work schedules. In an effort to educate as many providers as possible in a relatively short time, the community of practice educational model was used during a new evidence-based EMS protocol implementation. This model identifies providers who are enthusiastic during initial training as advocates...
January 11, 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Adam James Smith, Ken Jackimczyk, Bruce Horwood, Daniel Christenson
In the prehospital setting, many providers advocate for video laryngoscopy as the initial method of intubation to improve the likelihood of a successful first attempt. However, bright ambient light can worsen visualization of the video laryngoscope liquid crystal display (LCD).Case ReportA patient involved in a motor vehicle accident was evaluated by an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) crew. Initial endotracheal intubation attempt using video laryngoscopy was aborted after the patient desaturated. The primary reason for the failure was poor visualization of the video laryngoscope LCD, despite attempts to block direct sunlight...
January 10, 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Amy N B Johnston, Jasmine Wadham, Josea Polong-Brown, Michael Aitken, Jamie Ranse, Alison Hutton, Brent Richards, Julia Crilly
IntroductionMass gatherings such as marathons are increasingly frequent. During mass gatherings, the provision of timely access to health care services is required for the mass-gathering population, as well as for the local community. However, the nature and impact of health care provision during sporting mass gatherings is not well-understood.PurposeThe aim of this study was to describe the structures and processes developed for an emergency health team to operate an in-event, acute health care facility during one of the largest mass-sporting participation events in the southern hemisphere, the Gold Coast Marathon (Queensland, Australia)...
January 7, 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Kaitlyn E Watson, Vivienne Tippett, Judith A Singleton, Lisa M Nissen
BACKGROUND: In addition to the traditional logistics role, pharmacists are undertaking important new roles in disasters. Despite this, little is known about the level of acceptance of these activities by other providers.ProblemThe aim of this study was to determine the international opinion of disaster and health professionals regarding the emerging roles of pharmacists in disasters. METHODS: Delegates at the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine's (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) 20th Congress in Toronto, Canada (April 2017) were invited to complete an anonymous survey posing eight questions regarding attitudes towards pharmacists' roles in disasters...
January 3, 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Ying Ying Yew, Rafael Castro Delgado, David James Heslop, Pedro Arcos González
OBJECTIVES: The Richter Scale measures the magnitude of a seismic occurrence, but it does not feasibly quantify the magnitude of the "disaster" at the point of impact in real humanitarian needs, based on United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR; Geneva, Switzerland) 2009 Disaster Terminology. A Disaster Severity Index (DSI) similar to the Richter Scale and the Mercalli Scale has been formulated; this will quantify needs, holistically and objectively, in the hands of any stakeholders and even across timelines...
January 2, 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Mazen El Sayed, Chady El Tawil, Hani Tamim, Aurelie Mailhac, N Clay Mann
BACKGROUND: Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs), including Thomas A. Swift Electric Rifles (TASERs), are increasingly used by law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the US and world-wide. Little is known about the experience of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers with these incidents. OBJECTIVES: This study describes EMS encounters with documented TASER use and barb removal, characteristics of resulting injuries, and treatment provided. METHODS: This retrospective study used five combined, consecutive National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS; Salt Lake City, Utah USA) public-release datasets (2011-2015)...
December 28, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Richard J Rj Salway, Zachary Adler, Trenika Williams, Francisca Nwoke, Patricia Roblin, Bonnie Arquilla
IntroductionRecent natural and infrastructural disasters, such as Hurricanes Sandy (2012) and Katrina (2005) and the Northeastern power outage of 2003, have emphasized the need for hospital staff to be trained in disaster management and response. Even an internal hospital disaster may require the safe and efficient evacuation and transfer of patients with varying medical conditions and complications. A notably susceptible population is renal transplant patients, including those with post-transplant complications...
December 27, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Becca M Scharf, Rick A Bissell, Jamie L Trevitt, J Lee Jenkins
IntroductionFrequent calls to 911 and requests for emergency services by individuals place a costly burden on emergency response systems and emergency departments (EDs) in the United States. Many of the calls by these individuals are non-emergent exacerbations of chronic conditions and could be treated more effectively and cost efficiently through another health care service. Mobile integrated community health (MICH) programs present a possible partial solution to the over-utilization of emergency services by addressing factors which contribute to a patient's likelihood of frequent Emergency Medical Services (EMS) use...
December 27, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Sheila A Turris, Christopher W Callaghan, Haddon Rabb, Matthew Brendan Munn, Adam Lund
IntroductionMusic festivals are globally attended events that bring together performers and fans for a defined period of time. These festivals often have on-site medical care to help reduce the impact on local health care systems. Historically, the literature suggests that patient transfers off-site are frequently related to complications of substance use. However, there is a gap in understanding why patients are transferred to hospital when an on-site medical team, capable of providing first aid services blended with a higher level of care (HLC) team, is present...
December 27, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Nicholas M G Friedman, Emily K O'Connor, Timothy Munro, David Goroff
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient research on medical care at mass-gathering events (MGEs) on college and university campuses. Fun Day is an annual celebratory day held at Skidmore College (Saratoga Springs, New York USA), a small liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States. Fun Day is focused around an outdoor music festival; students also congregate and celebrate throughout the surrounding campus. To improve care and alleviate strain on local resources, a model was developed for the provision of emergency care by a collegiate-based, volunteer first-response service - Skidmore College Emergency Medical Services (EMS) - in coordination with a contracted, private ambulance service...
December 26, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Amy F Wolkin, Amy H Schnall, Nicole K Nakata, Esther M Ellis
Effective communication is a critical part of managing an emergency. During an emergency, the ways in which health agencies normally communicate warnings may not reach all of the intended audience. Not all communities are the same, and households within communities are diverse. Because different communities prefer different communication methods, community leaders and emergency planners need to know their communities' preferred methods for seeking information about an emergency. This descriptive report explores findings from previous community assessments that have collected information on communication preferences, including television (TV), social media, and word-of-mouth (WoM) delivery methods...
December 26, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Maria Moitinho de Almeida, Johan von Schreeb
Human stampedes are a major cause of mortality in mass gatherings, but they have received limited scientific attention. While the number of publications has increased, there is no recent review of new study results. This study compiles and reviews available literature on stampedes, their prevention, preparedness, and response.A search for peer-reviewed and grey literature in PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), Google Scholar (Google Inc...
November 27, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Erin C Smith, Frederick M Burkle
IntroductionIn the years following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City (New York USA), otherwise known as 9/11, first responders began experiencing a range of health and psychosocial impacts. Publications documenting these largely focus on firefighters. This research explores paramedic and emergency medical technician (EMT) reflections on the long-term impact of responding to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. METHODS: Qualitative methods were used to conduct interviews with 54 paramedics and EMTs on the 15-year anniversary of 9/11...
February 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Mandana MirMohamadaliIe, Reza Khani Jazani, Sanaz Sohrabizadeh, Alireza Nikbakht Nasrabadi
IntroductionNatural disasters have many effects on vulnerable groups, especially infants and children. Protecting breastfeeding in disasters is important, because artificial feeding puts a lot of risk to the child. In disasters, artificial nutrition is dangerous to children and its supplementation requires special equipment. There is little information on the nutritional status of infants after disasters in Iran.ProblemThe purpose of this study was to explore the barriers to appropriate lactation after disasters in Iran...
February 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Ronak B Patel
Current debates about precision medicine take different perspectives on its relevance and value in global health. The term has not yet been applied to disaster medicine or humanitarian health, but it may hold significant value. An interpretation of the term for global public health and disaster medicine is presented here for application to vulnerable populations. Embracing the term may drive more efficient use and targeting of limited resources while encouraging innovation and adopting the new approaches advocated in current humanitarian discourse...
December 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Nicolaus W Glomb, Adeola A Kosoko, Cara B Doughty, Marideth C Rus, Manish I Shah, Megan Cox, Cafen Galapi, Presley S Parkes, Shelley Kumar, Bushe Laba
BACKGROUND: In June 2012, the Botswana Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW; Gaborone, Botswana) initiated a national Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in response to significant morbidity and mortality associated with prehospital emergencies. The MOHW requested external expertise to train its developing workforce. Simulation-based training was planned to equip these health care providers with clinical knowledge, procedural skills, and communication techniques. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the educational needs of the pioneer Botswana MOHW EMS providers based on retrospective EMS logbook review and EMS provider feedback to guide development of a novel educational curriculum...
December 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Grigory Ostrovskiy, Amos J Shemesh
A large number of civilian agencies have published guides and recommendations on how to assemble personal and family emergency kits. However, the kits resulting from following these guidelines are impractical, particularly in the event evacuation becomes necessary. This report describes an alternative approach to assembling an emergency kit. OstrovskiyG, ShemeshAJ. Contents of a bug-out bag. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(6):647-649.
December 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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