Cüneyt Çalışkan, Ahmet Doğan Kuday, Tuğba Özcan, Nihal Dağ, Kerem Kınık
INTRODUCTION: Mass gatherings are events where many people come together at a specific location for a specific purpose, such as concerts, sports events, or religious gatherings, within a certain period of time. In mass-gathering studies, many rates and ratios are used to assess the demand for medical resources. Understanding such metrics is crucial for effective planning and intervention efforts. Therefore, this systematic review aims to investigate the usage of rates and ratios reported in mass-gathering studies...
April 5, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Matthew J Levy, Christopher M Wend, William P Flemming, Antoin Lazieh, Andrew J Rosenblum, Candace M Pineda, Douglas M Wolfberg, Jennifer Lee Jenkins, Craig A Goolsby, Asa M Margolis
INTRODUCTION: In the United States, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs). Designed to encourage bystanders to aid at the scene of an emergency, GSLs generally limit the risk of civil tort liability if the care is rendered in good faith. Nation-wide, a leading cause of preventable death is uncontrolled external hemorrhage. Public bleeding control initiatives aim to train the public to recognize life-threatening external bleeding, perform life-sustaining interventions (including direct pressure, tourniquet application, and wound packing), and to promote access to bleeding control equipment to ensure a rapid response from bystanders...
April 4, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Michael D April, Andrew D Fisher, Julie A Rizzo, Franklin L Wright, Julie M Winkle, Steven G Schauer
BACKGROUND: Identifying patients at imminent risk of death is critical in the management of trauma patients. This study measures the vital sign thresholds associated with death among trauma patients. METHODS: This study included data from patients ≥15 years of age in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database. Patients with vital signs of zero were excluded. Documented prehospital and emergency department (ED) vital signs included systolic pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and calculated shock index (SI)...
April 2, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Jack F Bennett, David J Cottrell
INTRODUCTION: Music festivals have become an increasingly popular form of mass-gathering event, drawing an increasing number of attendees across the world each year. While festivals exist to provide guests with an enjoyable experience, there have been instances of serious illness, injury, and in some cases death. Large crowds, prolonged exposure to loud music, and high rates of drug and alcohol consumption can pose a dangerous environment for guests as well as those looking after them...
April 2, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Faisal A AlGhamdi, Nasser A AlJoaib, Abdulaziz M Saati, Mishal A Abu Melha, Mohammad A Alkhofi
BACKGROUND: Prehospital pediatric intubation is a potentially life-saving procedure in which paramedics are relied upon. However, due to the anatomical nature of pediatrics and associated adverse events, it is more challenging compared to adult intubation. In this study, the knowledge and attitude of paramedics was assessed by measuring their overall success rate and associated complications. METHODS: An online search using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL was conducted using relevant keywords to include studies that assess success rates and associated complications...
March 27, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Evan Avraham Alpert, Jacob Assaf, Ahmad Nama, Ruchama Pliner, Eli Jaffe
On October 7, 2023, Israel experienced the worst terror attack in its history - 1,200 people were killed, 239 people were taken hostage, and 1,455 people were wounded. This mass-casualty event (MCE) was more specifically a mega terrorist attack. Due to the overwhelming number of victims who arrived at the two closest hospitals, it became necessary to implement secondary transfers to centers in other areas of the country. Historically, secondary transfer has been implemented in MCEs but usually for the transfer of critical patients from a Level 2 or Level 3 Trauma Center to a Level 1 Center...
March 25, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Marwa Osman, Gülşen Taşdelen Teker, Kerim Hakan Altıntaş
BACKGROUND: Floods are the most frequent natural disasters with a significant share of their mortality. Preparedness is capable of decreasing the mortality of floods by at least 50%. This paper aims to present the psychometric properties of a scale developed to evaluate the behavior of preparedness to floods in Sudan and similar settings. METHODS: In this methodological scale development study, experts assessed the content validity of the items of the developed scale...
March 25, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Sinem Berik Safçi, Esra Aybal, Özlem Erçen Diken
INTRODUCTION AND STUDY OBJECTIVE: In Turkey, a total of 269 earthquakes took place from 1900 through 2023. The most devastating earthquakes in terms of casualties and extensive destruction occurred at 4:17am and 1:24pm local time on February 6, 2023 with the epicenters located in Pazarcik (Kahramanmaras) and Ekinozu (Kahramanmaras) and magnitudes of 7.7Mw and 7.6Mw, respectively. The aim of this study was to define the frequency of lung complications that occurred directly and/or developed during the intensive care follow-up of individuals affected by the Kahramanmaras earthquakes...
March 20, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Angeliki Bistaraki, Nikos Stefanopoulos
INTRODUCTION: Mass gatherings (MGs) usually represent significant challenges for the public health and safety sector of the host cities. Organizing a safe and successful mass event highly depends on the effective collaboration among different public and private organizations. It is necessary to establish successful coordination to ensure that all the key stakeholders understand their respective roles and responsibilities. The inconsistency between the variety of participating agencies because of their different culture can result in delays in decision making...
March 15, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Rizky Andana Pohan, Marimbun Marimbun, Wan Chalidaziah, Erfan Ramadhani, Ramtia Darma Putri, Palasara Brahmani Laras
BACKGROUND: Volcanic eruption is one of the most common disasters in Indonesia. One of the most fatal volcanic eruptions in Indonesia in 2023 was the eruption of Mount Marapi in West Sumatra. This caused a psychological impact on the survivors and families of the victims who died. PROBLEM: Psychological interventions are usually only provided to survivors. It is very rare to find psychosocial assistance provided to the families of victims who died, even though they also experience acute and prolonged mental health disorders, such as trauma and even depression...
March 15, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Sara P Sandifer, Bryan J Wexler, Avram Flamm
INTRODUCTION: Disaster medicine (DM) is a unique field that has undergone significant development as disaster events become increasingly complicated to respond to. However, DM is not recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) or Accreditation Committee of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), and therefore lacks board certification. Furthermore, prior studies have shown that there is unique body of DM knowledge not being addressed in emergency medicine (EM) residency or Emergency Medical Services (EMS) fellowship, resulting in fundamental DM topics not being covered amongst graduate medical education (GME) programs most prepared to produce DM physicians...
March 11, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Ozlem Susur, Murat Yesіlaras, Yesim Eyler
INTRODUCTION: Lactate is a frequently used biomarker in emergency departments (EDs), especially in critically ill patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between lactate and lactate clearance with in-hospital mortality in unselected ED patients. METHODS: This study was carried out retrospectively in the ED of a tertiary hospital. Patients aged 18 years and older whose blood lactate level was obtained in the ED were included in the study...
March 8, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Rizky Andana Pohan, Erfan Ramadhani, Marimbun Marimbun, Wan Chalidaziah, Nengsih Nengsih, Marhaban Marhaban
BACKGROUND: Indonesia is located within the Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire, so natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and landslides are common. Preparedness is essential to prevent many casualties due to various disasters. PROBLEM: The Aceh, Indonesia earthquake and tsunami in 2004 was one of the most devastating disasters since the 1990s. Some of the victims were children. This is because there was no pattern of preparedness in dealing with disasters when the incident took place; even the word tsunami was not familiar in Indonesia at that time...
March 8, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Daniel Du Pont, Rebecca Fenderson, Krystal Hunter, Alexander Kuc, Gerard Carroll
OBJECTIVE: Opioid use disorder is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. In order to reverse opioid overdose as quickly as possible, many institutions and municipalities have encouraged people with no professional medical training to carry and administer naloxone. This study sought to provide preliminary data for research into the rates of adverse effects of naloxone when administered by bystanders compared to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel, since this question has not been studied previously...
March 7, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Emily L Larson, JiWon Woo, Gyeongtae Moon, Kathy Liu, Matthew Vergel, Reed Jenkins, Kelly Jiang, Zachary Darby, Asa Margolis, Ahmet Kilic
BACKGROUND: Patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs) represent a growing population presenting to Emergency Medical Services (EMS), but little is known about their prehospital care. This study aimed to characterize current EMS protocols in the United States for patients with VADs. METHODS: States with state-wide EMS protocols were included. Protocols were obtained from the state EMS website. If not available, the office of the state medical director was contacted...
March 6, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Gawin Tiyawat, J Marc Liu, Thongpitak Huabbangyang, Cesar Luis Roza-Alonso, Rafael Castro-Delgado
BACKGROUND: Medical professionals can use mass-casualty triage systems to assist them in prioritizing patients from mass-casualty incidents (MCIs). Correct triaging of victims will increase their chances of survival. Determining the triage system that has the best performance has proven to be a difficult question to answer. The Advanced Prehospital Triage Model (Modelo Extrahospitalario de Triaje Avanzado; META) and Sort, Assess, Lifesaving Interventions, Treatment/Transport (SALT) algorithms are the most recent triage techniques to be published...
February 26, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Remzi Cetinkaya, Mehmet Ozel, Ali Cankut Tatliparmak, Sarper Yılmaz, Rohat Ak
OBJECTIVE: This case series aims to provide a comprehensive description of the utilization of doppler ultrasonography (USG) and computerized tomography angiography (CTA) in evaluating patients with earthquake-induced crush injuries in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This retrospective case series was conducted on 11 patients who presented with crush injuries following a seismic event. These patients underwent initial assessment using doppler USG, with CTA performed when deemed necessary...
February 26, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
David W Schoenfeld, Caroline E Thomas, Lee Palmer, William Justice, Esther Hwang, Kate D Zimmerman, Jeffrey M Goodloe, Jonathan D Shecter, Stephen H Thomas
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Deployment of law enforcement operational canines (OpK9s) risks injuries to the animals. This study's aim was to assess the current status of states' OpK9 (veterinary Emergency Medical Services [VEMS]) laws and care protocols within the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional standardized review of state laws/regulations and OpK9 VEMS treatment protocols was undertaken. For each state and for the District of Columbia (DC), the presence of OpK9 legislation and/or care protocols was ascertained...
February 15, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Özlem Çakın, Melike Yüce Aktepe, Samet Acar, Süleyman İbze
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of the patients who applied to the emergency department (ED) of Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine Hospital (Antalya, Türkiye) after the Kahramanmaraş-Pazarcık earthquake dated February 6, 2023, as earthquake victims were included in the study. The results of the study could be a guide in terms of emergency health services and the healthy management of disasters...
February 13, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Roberto Barcala Furelos, Andrew Schmidt, José Manteiga Urbón, Silvia Aranda García, Martín Otero-Agra, Nicolò di Tullio, Joel de Oliveira, Santiago Martínez Isasi, Felipe Fernández-Méndez
INTRODUCTION: Control of massive hemorrhage (MH) is a life-saving intervention. The use of tourniquets has been studied in prehospital and battlefield settings but not in aquatic environments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is to assess the control of MH in an aquatic environment by analyzing the usability of two tourniquet models with different adjustment mechanisms: windlass rod versus ratchet. METHODOLOGY: A pilot simulation study was conducted using a randomized crossover design to assess the control of MH resulting from an upper extremity arterial perforation in an aquatic setting...
February 8, 2024: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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