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International Review of Psychiatry

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784334/a-role-for-the-microbiome-in-mother-infant-interaction-and-perinatal-depression
#1
Amanda Sanders, Hannah Rackers, Mary Kimmel
Perinatal depression is a significant public health problem, due to its negative impact on maternal well-being and long-term adverse effects for children. Mother-infant interaction and maternal responsiveness and sensitivity are a hypothesized mechanism by which perinatal depression effects child development, and increasing research in the microbiota-gut-brain axis may provide a new avenue of investigation. There is limited efficacy for treatment of perinatal depression for improving the mother-infant relationship and child outcomes...
February 20, 2019: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701996/allopregnanolone-and-reproductive-psychiatry-an-overview
#2
Katherine McEvoy, Lauren M Osborne
Psychiatric symptoms that coincide with reproductive transitions are related to changes in sex steroids, but studies show that this relationship is governed by individual women's vulnerability to change rather than by differences in level. There is growing interest in the role of allopregnanolone (ALLO), a 3-α reduced metabolite of progesterone and a strong allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor, in such symptoms, with enough evidence now across various times of reproductive transition to offer an overview of the role of this hormone in reproductive psychiatry...
January 31, 2019: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701995/perinatal-depression-care-pathway-for-obstetric-settings
#3
Nancy Byatt, Wanlu Xu, Leonard L Levin, Tiffany A Moore Simas
Perinatal depression is common and can have deleterious effects on mothers, infants, children, partners, and families. Despite this, few women who screen positive for depression receive psychiatric treatment. A comprehensive perinatal depression care pathway includes: (1) screening, (2) assessment, (3) triage and referral, (4) treatment access, (5) treatment initiation, (6) symptom monitoring, and (7) adaptation of treatment based on measurement until symptoms remit. This depression care pathway provides a scaffold on which to frame the challenges encountered when, and the opportunities that exist for, addressing depression in obstetric settings...
January 31, 2019: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701993/examining-the-relationship-between-perinatal-depression-and-neurodevelopment-in-infants-and-children-through-structural-and-functional-neuroimaging-research
#4
Christy Duan, Megan M Hare, Morganne Staring, Kristina M Deligiannidis
Depression is the most common perinatal psychiatric disorder, but little is known about how it may impact offspring neurodevelopment, as well as the mechanisms by which it may confer transgenerational psychiatric risk. This review presents imaging studies conducted to evaluate the relationship between perinatal depression (PND) and infant and child neurodevelopment. Altered structural and functional connectivity is implicated in children exposed to PND and anxiety. Overall, there are changes in connectivity between amygdala and the prefrontal cortex...
January 31, 2019: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522374/systematic-review-of-sex-based-differences-in-opioid-based-effects
#5
Andrew S Huhn, Meredith S Berry, Kelly E Dunn
There are several biological factors that might play a role in physiological response to opioids and/or the onset of problematic opioid use; however, sex-based differences in non-analgesic opioid-based effects are poorly understood. The goal of this review is to provide a current analysis of the pre-clinical literature on sex-based differences in response to endogenous and exogenous opioids, including the interplay between sex hormones and opioid receptor-mediated neuronal activity and associated behaviours...
December 6, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522370/pharmacotherapy-for-opioid-addiction-in-community-corrections
#6
Robert P Schwartz, Mary M Mitchell, Kevin E O'Grady, Sharon M Kelly, Jan Gryczynski, Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Michael S Gordon, Jerome H Jaffe
Pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction with methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone has proven efficacy in reducing illicit opioid use. These treatments are under-utilized among opioid-addicted individuals on parole, probation, or in drug courts. This paper examines the peer-reviewed literature on the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction of adults under community-based criminal justice supervision in the US. Compared to general populations, there are relatively few papers addressing the separate impact of pharmacotherapy on individuals under community supervision...
December 6, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522342/what-does-the-ecological-and-epidemiological-evidence-indicate-about-the-potential-for-cannabinoids-to-reduce-opioid-use-and-harms-a-comprehensive-review
#7
Gabrielle Campbell, Wayne Hall, Suzanne Nielsen
Pre-clinical research supports that cannabinoids reduce opioid dose requirements, but few studies have tested this in humans. This review evaluates ecological and epidemiological studies that have been cited as evidence that medical cannabis use may reduce opioid use and opioid-related harms. Medline and Embase were searched for relevant articles. Data were extracted on study setting, analyses approach, covariates, and outcomes. Eleven ecological and 14 epidemiological studies were found. In ecological studies, states that allow medical cannabis laws have reported a slower rate of increase in opioid overdose deaths compared with states without such laws...
December 6, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30422079/current-perspectives-on-psychedelic-therapy-use-of-serotonergic-hallucinogens-in-clinical-interventions
#8
Albert Garcia-Romeu, William A Richards
Humans have used serotonergic hallucinogens (i.e. psychedelics) for spiritual, ceremonial, and recreational purposes for thousands of years, but their administration as part of a structured therapeutic intervention is still a relatively novel practice within Western medical and psychological frameworks. In the mid-20th century, considerable advances were made in developing therapeutic approaches integrating administration of low (psycholytic) and high (psychedelic) doses of serotonergic hallucinogens for treatment of a variety of conditions, often incorporating psychoanalytic concepts prevalent at that time...
November 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30398080/double-jeopardy-a-review-of-weight-gain-and-weight-management-strategies-for-psychotropic-medication-prescribing-during-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#9
Nicolas J Schlienz, Andrew S Huhn, Traci J Speed, Mary M Sweeney, Denis G Antoine
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an important treatment tool for the opioid epidemic. One challenge is that many persons who present for MMT also have co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Individually, both methadone and psychiatric medications carry risk of weight gain. Therefore, concurrent prescribing of methadone and psychiatric medications places dual diagnosis patients at even greater risk. As a parallel obesity epidemic grows, results from clinical trials assessing weight gain and weight management strategies among MMT and psychiatric patients can both inform and guide clinical practice...
November 6, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30398071/comorbid-chronic-pain-and-opioid-use-disorder-literature-review-and-potential-treatment-innovations
#10
Traci J Speed, Vinay Parekh, William Coe, Denis Antoine
Chronic pain (CP) and opioid use disorder (OUD) remain challenging complex public health concerns. This is an updated review on the relationship between CP and OUD and the use of stepped care models for assessment and management of this vulnerable population. A literature search was conducted from 2008 to the present in PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo using the terms pain or chronic pain and opioid-related disorders, opiate, methadone, buprenorphine, naltrexone, opioid abuse, opioid misuse, opioid dependen*, heroin addict, heroin abuse, heroin misuse, heroin dependen*, or analgesic opioids, and stepped care, integrated services, multidisciplinary treatment, or reinforcement-based treatment...
October 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30260256/awe-a-putative-mechanism-underlying-the-effects-of-classic-psychedelic-assisted-psychotherapy
#11
Peter S Hendricks
A psychological model of classic psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy informed by contemporary scientific data is presented in this paper. It is suggested that classic psychedelic-occasioned mystical experience is characterized by profound awe, a discrete emotion experienced in the presence of a vast stimulus requiring accommodation of mental structures. Awe, in turn, promotes the small self, a construct that, in the extreme, is analogous to those of unitive experience and ego dissolution. The small self is conceptualized as key to understanding the downstream effects of mystical experience occasioned in the context of classic psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy...
September 27, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30251904/psychedelics-and-the-new-behaviourism-considering-the-integration-of-third-wave-behaviour-therapies-with-psychedelic-assisted-therapy
#12
Zach Walsh, Michelle S Thiessen
This narrative review examines evidence related to the potential for third wave behaviour therapies to serve as adjuncts to psychedelic-assisted therapy. It identifies shared theoretical foundations for both approaches, and notes enhanced mindfulness, decentering, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance as common mechanisms of action. It also identifies potential targets for which both approaches have demonstrated therapeutic potential, including problematic substance use, self-directed and other-directed violence, and mood disorders...
September 25, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30240282/psychedelics-and-music-neuroscience-and-therapeutic-implications
#13
Frederick S Barrett, Katrin H Preller, Mendel Kaelen
From the beginning of therapeutic research with psychedelics, music listening has been consistently used as a method to guide or support therapeutic experiences during the acute effects of psychedelic drugs. Recent findings point to the potential of music to support meaning-making, emotionality, and mental imagery after the administration of psychedelics, and suggest that music plays an important role in facilitating positive clinical outcomes of psychedelic therapy. This review explores the history of, contemporary research on, and future directions regarding the use of music in psychedelic research and therapy, and argues for more detailed and rigorous investigation of the contribution of music to the treatment of psychiatric disorders within the novel framework of psychedelic therapy...
September 21, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30102082/therapeutic-use-of-classic-psychedelics-to-treat-cancer-related-psychiatric-distress
#14
Stephen Ross
Cancer is highly prevalent and one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Psychological and existential suffering is common in cancer patients, associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Promising early-phase clinical research (1960s to early 1970s) suggested a therapeutic signal for serotoninergic psychedelics (e.g. psilocybin, LSD) in treating cancer-related psychiatric distress. After several decades of quiescence, research on psychedelic-assisted therapy to treat psychiatric disorders in cancer patients has resumed within the last 2 decades in the US and Europe...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30102081/psychedelics-as-anti-inflammatory-agents
#15
Thomas W Flanagan, Charles D Nichols
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)2A receptor agonists have recently emerged as promising new treatment options for a variety of disorders. The recent success of these agonists, also known as psychedelics, like psilocybin for the treatment of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction, has ushered in a renaissance in the way these compounds are perceived in the medical community and populace at large. One emerging therapeutic area that holds significant promise is their use as anti-inflammatory agents...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30179536/the-cannabis-conundrum-steering-policy-and-medicine-with-insufficient-data
#16
Ryan Vandrey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30179535/sweet-flowers-are-slow-and-weeds-make-haste-leveraging-methodology-from-research-on-tobacco-alcohol-and-opioid-analgesics-to-make-rapid-and-policy-relevant-advances-in-cannabis-science
#17
Evan S Herrmann, Brantley P Jarvis, Alicia C Sparks, Amy M Cohn, Bartosz Koszowski, Zachary R Rosenberry, Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Wallace B Pickworth, Erica N Peters
The legalization of medical and recreational cannabis use has occurred ahead of science. The current evidence base has poor utility for determining if cannabis products can meet the standards of safety, efficacy, and quality intrinsic to modern medicine, and for informing regulation of cannabis as a legal intoxicant. Individual jurisdictions that pass cannabis reforms may not have adequate resources to support the level of new scientific research needed to inform regulatory actions; this could make it difficult to keep a rapidly growing multi-billion-dollar cannabis industry in check...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30179534/cannabis-and-cannabinoid-drug-development-evaluating-botanical-versus-single-molecule-approaches
#18
Marcel O Bonn-Miller, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Mallory J E Loflin, Suman Chandra, Ryan Vandrey
Accumulating evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system is a promising target for the treatment of a variety of health conditions. Two paths of cannabinoid drug development have emerged. One approach is focused on developing medications that are directly derived from the cannabis plant. The other utilizes a single molecule approach whereby individual phytocannabinoids or novel cannabinoids with therapeutic potential are identified and synthesized for pharmaceutical development. This commentary discusses the unique challenges and merits of botanical vs single molecule cannabinoid drug development strategies, highlights how both can be impacted by legalization of cannabis via legislative processes, and also addresses regulatory and public health considerations that are important to consider as cannabinoid medicine advances as a discipline...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30179533/comparing-medical-and-recreational-cannabis-use-among-employees-associations-with-health-and-work-related-outcomes
#19
Jennifer R Rineer, Sarah Duhart Clarke, Laurie A Cluff, Nicholas C Peiper
Nearly one in five US employees reports having used cannabis in the past year. As policies and laws regarding cannabis use rapidly change, concerns have arisen over employees' use of cannabis, for both medical and recreational purposes. While extant workplace research has not distinguished between types of cannabis users, other studies have found that medical users are clinically and socio-demographically different from non-medical users. This study utilized a sample of employed National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) respondents to examine differences in workplace characteristics and health outcomes among employed medical, recreational, and mixed-use cannabis users...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30010452/medical-cannabis-legalization-and-state-level-prevalence-of-serious-mental-illness-in-the-national-survey-on-drug-use-and-health-nsduh-2008-2015
#20
Lauren M Dutra, William J Parish, Camille K Gourdet, Sarah A Wylie, Jenny L Wiley
Although research has established a link between cannabis legalization and use, and cannabis use and mental health, the relationship between medical cannabis legalization and mental health remains uncharacterized. This analysis investigated the relationship between state medical cannabis laws (restrictive, i.e. covering a narrow set of medical conditions; or liberal, i.e. covering a broad range of medical conditions), whether the law permits patients to petition their physician to approve medical cannabis use for specific medical conditions, and state prevalence of serious mental illness (SMI) in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health 2008-2015...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
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