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European Journal of Neuroscience

Farah Chali, Giampaolo Milior, Serge Marty, Mélanie Morin-Brureau, Caroline Le Duigou, Etienne Savary, Corinne Blugeon, Laurent Jourdren, Richard Miles
Lipid homeostasis is dysregulated in some neurodegenerative diseases and after brain injuries due to excess glutamate or lack of oxygen. However the kinetics and cell specificity of dysregulation in different groups of lipids during excitotoxic neuronal death are not clear. Here we examined changes during excitotoxic neuronal death induced by injecting kainic acid (KA) into the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus. We compared neuronal loss and glial cell proliferation with changes in lipid-related transcripts and markers for different lipid groups, over 12 days after KA-treatment...
February 14, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ingeborg H Hansen, Claus Agerskov, Lars Arvastson, Jesper F Bastlund, Helge B D Sørensen, Kjartan F Herrik
Quantitative electroencephalography from freely-moving rats is commonly used as a translational tool for predicting drug-effects in humans. We hypothesized that drug-effects may be expressed differently depending on whether the rat is in active locomotion or sitting still during recording sessions, and proposed automatic state-detection as a viable tool for estimating drug-effects free of hypo-/hyperlocomotion induced effects. We aimed at developing a fully automatic and validated method for detecting two behavioral states: active and inactive, in one-second intervals and to use the method for evaluating ketamine, DOI, d-cycloserine, d-amphetamine, and diazepam effects specifically within each state...
February 14, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jigang Chen, Wen Chen, Kaiwei Han, Enbo Qi, Rongbin Chen, Minkun Yu, Lijun Hou, Liquan Lv
Sympathetic hyperactivity occurs in a subgroup of patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a key region for the activity of sympathetic nervous system. Oxidative stress in the RVLM is proved to be responsible for the increased level of sympathetic activity in animal models of hypertension and heart failure. In this study, we investigated whether oxidative stress in the RVLM contributed to the development of sympathetic hyperactivity after TBI in rats. Model of diffuse axonal injury was induced using Sprague-Dawley rats, and level of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and plasma Norepinephrine (NE) was measured to evaluate the sympathetic activity...
February 14, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
M B Maina, M G Yunusa, A M Bukar, U Ahmad, A T Salihu, H A Ibrahim, A Muhammad, S K Hamidu, A U Yaro, M A Awadelkareem, F E Nasr, T Baden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Luke John Ney, Allison Matthews, Raimondo Bruno, Kim Louise Felmingham
The recent study by Wyrofsky, Reyes, Yu, Kirby, and Van Bockstaele (2018) has provided important new evidence for sex-driven modulation of endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) signalling during the stress response. It was reported in this study that cannabinoid receptor type 1 (Cnr1) deletion resulted in increased locus-coeruleus norepinephrine excitability in male but not female mice. The study also reported increased norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotrophin hormone levels in male but not female Cnr1 knockout mice (Wyrofsky et al...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
I Fuelscher, K Caeyenberghs, P G Enticott, M Kirkovski, S Farquharson, J Lum, C Hyde
Mirror neurons (MN) have been proposed as the neural substrate for a wide range of clinical, social and cognitive phenomena. Over the last decade, a commonly used tool for investigating MN activity in the human brain has been functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) repetition suppression (RS) paradigms. However, the available evidence is mixed, largely owing to inconsistent application of the methodological criteria necessary to infer MN properties. This raises concerns about the degree to which one can infer the presence (or absence) of MN activity from earlier accounts that adopted RS paradigms...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Sauro E Salomoni, Paul W Hodges
Noxious stimuli induce a nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) to protect the tissue from injury. Although the NWR was once considered as a stereotyped response, previous studies report distinct responses depending on the stimulation site and context for limbs. We aimed to determine whether noxious stimuli over the trunk produced adaptable complex NWR. We hypothesized that organization of the NWR of the trunk muscle would vary with the site of noxious input and would differ between body and spine postures, which modify the potential for specific muscles to remove threat...
February 11, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hwa Chul Shin, Byung Gon Jo, Chan-Yong Lee, Kang-Woo Lee, Uk Namgung
A growing body of evidence shows that the electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can improve mental illness including depression. Here we investigated whether the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is involved in regulating the responsiveness of hippocampal neurons in rats under chronic restraint stress (CRS). c-Fos protein signals were detected 2 h after VNS in 5-HT1A receptor-positive neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) as well as in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Chronic VNS was performed on a daily basis for 2 weeks using an implanted microelectrode in rats that had undergone CRS for 2 weeks...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
José Bargas, Juan Mena-Segovia, Yoland Smith, J Paul Bolam
This Special Issue of EJN is dedicated to original papers and reviews that arose from presentations given during for the 13th Meeting of the International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS) held in Mérida, Mexico in the spring of 2016. The meeting was organised by José Bargas and his team, with over 200 people attending. It consisted of 10 oral sessions and 2 poster sessions (with wine to encourage lively debate). The meeting was preceded by a Clinical Workshop, a Publishing Workshop and a Basic Science Tutorial Session...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Masayuki Watanabe, Ken-Ichi Okada, Yuta Hamasaki, Mari Funamoto, Yasushi Kobayashi, Michael MacAskill, Tim Anderson
Human cognitive behavior is predictive rather than reflexive because of volitional action preparation. Recent studies have shown that the covert process of volitional action preparation can be decoded from overt fixational eye movements of fixational/microsaccades and pupil dilation. Ocular drift, the slowest fixational eye movements, is also under the active neural control, but its relationship with cognitive behavior is unknown. Here, we examined whether ocular drift also reflects volitional action preparation...
February 5, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Toshikazu Ikuta, Paul D Loprinzi
Interhemispheric functional connectivity is associated with cognitive functioning. Although previous work has evaluated the association of cardiorespiratory fitness on cognitive function, there has been a limited investigation of the association of cardiorespiratory fitness on the functional connectivity of memory-related brain structures. As such, the objective of this study was to examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and parahippocampal- and hippocampal interhemispheric functional connectivity...
February 5, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Xun Sun, Le Li, Ce Mo, Lei Mo, Ruiming Wang, Guosheng Ding
Inhibition and shifting are two key components of domain-general cognitive control. Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates of both components, but it is still unclear whether the relevant brain regions are specifically involved in one specific component or commonly engaged in both components. Here, we addressed this question by using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a modified saccade paradigm that was effective to disentangle inhibition and shifting in one experiment. The results showed that both the middle frontal gyrus and left parietal lobe were involved in both components but the middle frontal gyrus was more active for the inhibition while the inferior parietal lobe was more active for the shifting processing...
February 1, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
A M Proverbio, M Carminati
Inter-individual differences in the numerical ability of healthy adults have been previously demonstrated, mainly with tasks involving mental number line or size representation. However, electrophysiological correlates of superior vs. poor arithmetic ability (in the healthy population) have been scarcely investigated. We correlated electric potentials with math performance in 13 skilled and 13 poor calculators selected from a sample of 41 graduate students on the basis of their poor or superior math abilities assessed through a timed test...
January 31, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Victor S C Wong, Marc Meadows, David Goldberg, Dianna E Willis
The development and survival of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are dependent on multiple trophic factors as well as membrane electrical activity. Semaphorins (Sema) constitute a family of membrane-associated and secreted proteins that have garnered significant attention as a potential SGN "navigator" during cochlea development. Previous studies using mutant mice demonstrated that Sema3A plays a role in the SGN pathfinding. The mechanisms, however, by which Sema3A shapes SGNs firing behaviour are not known...
January 31, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Shelley A Tischkau
Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain-containing proteins are critical to homeostatic regulatory networks that mediate responsiveness to environmental change. PAS domains are multifunctional structural motifs that allow protein-protein interactions among family members, typically forming heterodimeric transcription factors to affect the transcription of target genes. Prototypical PAS domain-dependent pathways include the circadian clock network and metabolic regulation of the xenobiotic response through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)...
January 31, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Anna Wirz-Justice, Francesco Benedetti
Mood disorders are often characterised by alterations in circadian rhythms, sleep disturbances, and seasonal exacerbation. Conversely, chronobiological treatments utilise zeitgebers for circadian rhythms such as light to improve mood and stabilise sleep, and manipulations of sleep timing and duration as rapid antidepressant modalities. Although sleep deprivation ("wake therapy") can act within hours, and its mood-elevating effects be maintained by regular morning light administration /medication /earlier sleep, it has not entered the regular guidelines for treating affective disorders as a first-line treatment...
January 31, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Marilyn J Duncan
Aging leads to changes in circadian rhythms, including decreased amplitude or robustness, altered synchrony with the environment, and reduced coordination of rhythms within body. These circadian rhythm alterations are more pronounced in age-associated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which they often precede the onset of other symptoms by many years. As well as their early onset, the findings that fragmentation of daily rest-activity rhythms in non-demented older subjects is associated earlier cognitive decline, increased risk of incident AD, and preclinical AD neuropathology, suggest that circadian rhythm disruption may contribute to the development and progression of the neuropathological changes occurring in AD...
January 28, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
A Lipponen, J L O Kurkela, I Kyläheiko, S Hölttä, T Ruusuvirta, J A Hämäläinen, P Astikainen
Spectrotemporally complex sounds carry important information for acoustic communication. Among the important features of these sounds is the temporal duration. An event-related potential called mismatch negativity indexes auditory change detection in humans. An analogous response (mismatch response) has been found to duration changes in speech sounds in rats but not yet in mice. We addressed whether mice show this response, and, if elicited, whether this response is functionally analogous to mismatch negativity or whether adaptation-based models suffice to explain them...
January 28, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Wei-Hsiang Lin, Richard A Baines
Pumilio (Pum), an RNA-binding protein, is a key component of neuron firing-rate homeostasis that likely maintains stability of neural circuit activity in all animals, from flies to mammals. Whilst Pum is ubiquitously expressed, we understand little about how synaptic excitation regulates its expression in the CNS. Here, we characterized the Drosophila dpum promoter and identified multiple Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2)-binding elements. We cloned 12 dmef2 splice variants and used a luciferase-based assay to monitor dpum promoter activity...
January 28, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Filipe B Rodrigues, Lauren M Byrne, Enrico De Vita, Eileanoir B Johnson, Nicola Z Hobbs, John S Thornton, Rachael I Scahill, Edward J Wild
Multiple targeted therapeutics for Huntington's disease are now in clinical trials, including intrathecally-delivered compounds. Previous research suggests CSF dynamics may be altered in Huntington's disease, which could be of paramount relevance to intrathecal drug delivery to the brain. To test this hypothesis we conducted a prospective cross-sectional study comparing people with early stage Huntington's disease with age- and gender-matched healthy controls. CSF peak velocity, mean velocity and mean flow at the level of the cerebral aqueduct, and sub-arachnoid space in the upper and lower spine, were quantified using phase contrast MRI...
January 28, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
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