Jennifer Keating, Salim Hashmi, Ross E Vanderwert, Rhys M Davies, Catherine R G Jones, Sarah A Gerson
Doll play may provide opportunities for children to rehearse social interactions, even when playing alone. Previous research has found that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) was more engaged when children played with dolls alone, compared to playing with tablet games alone. Children's use of internal state language (ISL) about others was also associated with pSTS activity. As differences in social cognition are frequently observed in autistic people, we were interested in the brain and language correlates of doll play in children with varying levels of autistic traits...
September 20, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Frida Torell, Sae Franklin, David W Franklin, Michael Dimitriou
Most individuals experience their dominant arm as being more dexterous than the non-dominant arm, but the neural mechanisms underlying this asymmetry in motor behaviour are unclear. Using a delayed-reach task, we have recently demonstrated strong goal-directed tuning of stretch reflex gains in the dominant upper limb of human participants. Here, we used an equivalent experimental paradigm to address the neural mechanisms that underlie the preparation for reaching movements with the non-dominant upper limb. There were consistent effects of load, preparatory delay duration and target direction on the long latency stretch reflex...
September 19, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Victor Pando-Naude, Tomas Edward Matthews, Andreas Højlund, Sebastian Jakobsen, Karen Østergaard, Erik Johnsen, Eduardo A Garza-Villarreal, Maria A G Witek, Virginia Penhune, Peter Vuust
The pleasurable urge to move to music (PLUMM) activates motor and reward areas of the brain and is thought to be driven by predictive processes. Dopamine in motor and limbic networks is implicated in beat-based timing and music-induced pleasure, suggesting a central role of basal ganglia (BG) dopaminergic systems in PLUMM. This study tested this hypothesis by comparing PLUMM in participants with Parkinson's disease (PD), age-matched controls, and young controls. Participants listened to musical sequences with varying rhythmic and harmonic complexity (low, medium and high), and rated their experienced pleasure and urge to move to the rhythm...
September 19, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sean G Lacoursiere, Brendan B McAllister, Crystal Hadikin, Wayne W Tschetter, Hugo Lehmann, Robert J Sutherland
Damage to the hippocampus produces profound retrograde amnesia, but odour and object discrimination memories can be spared in the retrograde direction. Prior lesion studies testing retrograde amnesia for object/odour discriminations are problematic due to sparing of large parts of the hippocampus, which may support memory recall, and/or the presence of uncontrolled, distinctive odours that may support object discrimination. To address these issues, we used a simple object discrimination test to assess memory in male rats...
September 18, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Annie Ly, Alexandra Barker, Hayden Hotchkiss, Emily D Prévost, Dillon J McGovern, Zachary Kilpatrick, David H Root
Foraging is a universal behaviour that has co-evolved with predation pressure. We investigated the role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) GABA neurons in robotic and live predator threat processing and their consequences in post-threat encounter foraging. Both robotic and live predator interactions increased BNST GABA neuron activity. Mice were trained to procure food in a laboratory-based foraging apparatus in which food pellets were placed at incrementally greater distances from a nest zone...
September 16, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Robin Piquet, Angélique Faugère, Shauna L Parkes
Adaptive behaviour often necessitates that animals learn about events in a manner that is specific to a particular context or environment. These hierarchical organisations allow the animal to decide which action is the most appropriate when faced with ambiguous or conflicting possibilities. This study examined the role of hippocampus in enabling animals to use the context to guide action selection. We used a hierarchical instrumental outcome devaluation task in which male rats learn that the context provides information about the unique action-outcome relations that are in effect...
September 12, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Gesa Feenders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ulrich Pomper, Lorenza Zaira Curetti, Maria Chait
Listeners often operate in complex acoustic environments, consisting of many concurrent sounds. Accurately encoding and maintaining such auditory objects in short-term memory is crucial for communication and scene analysis. Yet, the neural underpinnings of successful auditory short-term memory (ASTM) performance are currently not well understood. To elucidate this issue, we presented a novel, challenging auditory delayed match-to-sample task while recording MEG. Human participants listened to 'scenes' comprising three concurrent tone pip streams...
September 10, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Silvia Zanchi, Luigi F Cuturi, Giulio Sandini, Monica Gori, Elisa R Ferrè
Determining the spatial relation between objects and our location in the surroundings is essential for survival. Vestibular inputs provide key information about the position and movement of our head in the three-dimensional space, contributing to spatial navigation. Yet, their role in encoding spatial localisation of environmental targets remains to be fully understood. We probed the accuracy and precision of healthy participants' representations of environmental space by measuring their ability to encode the spatial location of visual targets (Experiment 1)...
September 9, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hugo R Jourde, Raphaëlle Merlo, Mary Brooks, Meredith Rowe, Emily B J Coffey
Closed-loop auditory stimulation (CLAS) is a brain modulation technique in which sounds are timed to enhance or disrupt endogenous neurophysiological events. CLAS of slow oscillation up-states in sleep is becoming a popular tool to study and enhance sleep's functions, as it increases slow oscillations, evokes sleep spindles and enhances memory consolidation of certain tasks. However, few studies have examined the specific neurophysiological mechanisms involved in CLAS, in part because of practical limitations to available tools...
September 7, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Cosmin-Andrei Șerban, Andrei Barborică, Adina-Maria Roceanu, Ioana-Raluca Mîndruță, Jan Ciurea, Mihai Stancu, Alexandru C Pâslaru, Ana-Maria Zăgrean, Leon Zăgrean, Mihai Moldovan
We proposed that the brain's electrical activity is composed of a sequence of alternating states with repeating topographic spectral distributions on scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), referred to as oscillatory macrostates. The macrostate showing the largest decrease in the probability of occurrence, measured as a percentage (reactivity), during sensory stimulation was labelled as the default EEG macrostate (DEM). This study aimed to assess the influence of awareness on DEM reactivity (DER). We included 11 middle cerebral artery ischaemic stroke patients with impaired awareness having a median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 6/15 and a group of 11 matched healthy controls...
September 7, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Chan Zhu, Yan Yang, Yizhi Song, Jun Guo, Guang Yu, Juanjuan Tang, Zongxiang Tang
Xanthotoxin (XAT) is a natural furanocoumarin clinically used in the treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis. Recent studies have also investigated its effects on anti-inflammatory, anti-cognitive dysfunction, and anti-amnesia as a guideline for clinic application. However, little is known about its effects on pain relief. Here, we tested the analgesic effects of XAT in serious acute pain and chronic pain models. For acute pain, we used hot-, capsaicin- and formalin-induced paw licking. Nociceptive threshold was measured by mechanical stimuli with von Frey filaments...
September 6, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Giuseppe Rabini, Giulia Funghi, Claudia Meli, Enrica Pierotti, Francesca Saviola, Jorge Jovicich, Alessandra Dodich, Costanza Papagno, Luca Turella
In Parkinson's disease (PD), impairment of Theory of Mind (ToM) has recently attracted an increasing number of neuroscientific investigations. If and how functional connectivity of the ToM network is altered in PD is still an open question. First, we explored whether ToM network connectivity shows potential PD-specific functional alterations when compared to healthy controls (HC). Second, we tested the role of the duration of PD in the evolution of functional alterations in the ToM network. Between-group connectivity alterations were computed adopting resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of four groups: PD patients with short disease duration (PD-1, n = 72); PD patients with long disease duration (PD-2, n = 22); healthy controls for PD-1 (HC-1, n = 69); healthy controls for PD-2 (HC-2, n = 22)...
September 6, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sudhakar Tripathi, Ravi Bhushan Mishra, Anand Bihari, Sanjay Agrawal, Puneet Joshi
The establishment of long-term potentiation (LTP) is a prime process for the formation of episodic memory. During the establishment of LTP, activations of various components are required in the signaling cascade of the LTP pathway. Past efforts to determine the activation of components relied extensively on the cellular or molecular level. In this paper, we have proposed a computational model based on gene-level cascading and interaction in LTP signaling for the establishment and control of current signals for achieving the desired level of activation in the formation of episodic memory...
September 5, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Maria Regoni, Flavia Valtorta, Jenny Sassone
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Several pathways of programmed cell death are likely to play a role in dopaminergic neuron death, such as apoptosis, necrosis, pyroptosis and ferroptosis, as well as cell death associated with proteasomal and mitochondrial dysfunction. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuron death could inform the design of drugs that promote neuron survival...
September 5, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Annie C Gilbert, Jasmine G Lee, Max Wolpert, Shari R Baum
Despite the importance of prosodic processing in utterance parsing, a majority of studies investigating boundary localization in a second language focus on word segmentation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the parsing of phrase boundaries in first and second languages from different prosodic typologies (stress-timed vs. syllable-timed). Fifty English-French bilingual adults who varied in native language (French or English) and second language proficiency listened to English and French utterances with different prosodic structures while event-related brain potentials were recorded...
September 4, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yin Yang, Tomas Ondrejcak, Neng-Wei Hu, Sadia Islam, Eugene O'Rourke, Richard B Reilly, Colm Cunningham, Michael J Rowan, Igor Klyubin
Non-invasive sensory stimulation in the range of the brain's gamma rhythm (30-100 Hz) is emerging as a new potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the effect of repeated combined exposure to 40 Hz synchronized sound and light stimuli on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo in three rat models of early AD. We employed a very complete model of AD amyloidosis, amyloid precursor protein (APP)-overexpressing transgenic McGill-R-Thy1-APP rats at an early pre-plaque stage, systemic treatment of transgenic APP rats with corticosterone modelling certain environmental AD risk factors and, importantly, intracerebral injection of highly disease-relevant AD patient-derived synaptotoxic beta-amyloid and tau in wild-type animals...
September 1, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Rumaiza Mamsa, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt
Amyloid plaques are considered to be the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroinflammation further aggravates the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Calpains and NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes are involved in the neuroinflammatory pathway and affect the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Hyperactivation of calpains is responsible for the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby affecting each other's molecular mechanism and causing astrogliosis, microgliosis, and neuronal dysfunction...
August 31, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Giacomo Guidali, Agnese Zazio, Delia Lucarelli, Eleonora Marcantoni, Antonietta Stango, Guido Barchiesi, Marta Bortoletto
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked potentials (TEPs) are a promising proxy for measuring effective connectivity, that is, the directed transmission of physiological signals along cortico-cortical tracts, and for developing connectivity-based biomarkers. A crucial point is how stimulation parameters may affect TEPs, as they may contribute to the general variability of findings across studies. Here, we manipulated two TMS parameters (i.e. current direction and pulse waveform) while measuring (a) an early TEP component reflecting contralateral inhibition of motor areas, namely, M1-P15, as an operative model of interhemispheric cortico-cortical connectivity, and (b) motor-evoked potentials (MEP) for the corticospinal pathway...
August 31, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
Heather Strelevitz, Alireza A Dehaqani, Luigi Balasco, Yuri Bozzi
Many clinical and research efforts aim to develop antidepressant drugs for those suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). Yet, even today, the available treatments are suboptimal and unpredictable, with a significant proportion of patients enduring multiple drug attempts and adverse side effects before a successful response, and, for many patients, no response at all. Thus, a clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying MDD is necessary. In the 'Brain Development and Disease' class of our Master's program in Cognitive Sciences, we ask students to collect data about the expression of a gene whose altered expression and/or function is related to a brain disorder...
August 31, 2023: European Journal of Neuroscience
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