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International Journal of Developmental Biology

Luis-Carlos Tábara, Olivier Vincent, Ricardo Escalante
VMP1 and DedA proteins are conserved families of transmembrane proteins in eukaryotes and prokaryotes respectively. Despite numerous reports involving these proteins in multiple cellular processes, their molecular function is still unknown. They share the domain of unknown function PF09335, suggesting a possible functional relationship between these protein families. Here we show that VMP1 from different species contain two short motifs conserved in the bacterial DedA proteins and the yeast protein Tvp38. The hallmark of one of these motifs is a glycine residue previously shown to be strictly conserved in all the DedA proteins...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Lenka Radonova, Tereza Svobodova, Martin Anger
Early embryonic development is characterized by a plethora of very complex and simultaneously operating processes, which are constantly changing cellular morphology and behaviour. After fertilization, blastomeres of the newly created embryo undergo global epigenetic changes and simultaneously initiate transcription from the zygotic genome and differentiation forming separate cell lineages. Some of these mechanisms were extensively studied during the last several decades and valuable insight was gained into how these processes are regulated at the molecular level...
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Elena Emili, Macià Esteve Pallarès, Rafael Romero, Francesc Cebrià
Planarians are remarkable organisms that can regenerate their entire body from a tiny portion thereof. This capability is made possible by the persistence throughout the lifespan of these animals of a population of pluripotent stem cells known as neoblasts. Planarian neoblasts include both pluripotent stem cells and specialized lineage-committed progenitors that give rise to all mature cell types during regeneration and homeostatic cell turnover. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate neoblast differentiation...
2019: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Geovanna C Z Coelho, Isaac S Yo, Tatiana M Mira-López, Paulo S Monzani, Dilberto R Arashiro, Takafumi Fujimoto, José A Senhorini, George S Yasui
The transplantation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is a valuable tool for gene-banking and reconstitution by means of a germline chimera. For this technology, studies regarding developmental stages and traceability of PGCs are necessary. The objective of this study was to develop a micromanipulation procedure for the future establishment of cryobanks of PGCs in migratory characins. Incubation temperatures were evaluated at 22 ° C, 26 ° C, and 30 ° C in order to synchronize developmental stages. The highest hatching rates and the lowest abnormality rate arose at 26° C, which was considered to be the best incubation temperature...
2019: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Elizabeth Njuguna, Griet Coussens, Pia Neyt, Stijn Aesaert, Veronique Storme, Kirin Demuynck, Hannes Vanhaeren, Stijn Dhondt, Yolaine Van Haver, Linus Paul, Dirk Inzé, Hilde Nelissen, Mieke Van Lijsebettens
The conserved poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PAR) pathway consists of three genetic components that are potential targets to modulate the plant's energy homeostasis upon stress with the aim to improve yield stability in crops and help secure food supply. We studied the role of the PAR pathway component ADP-ribose/NADH pyrophosphohydrolase (AtNUDX7) in yield and mild drought stress by using a transgenic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana and maize (Zea mays). Arabidopsis AtNUDX7 cDNA was overexpressed in Arabidopsis and maize by means of the constitutive Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter and the strong constitutive Brachypodium distachyon pBdEF1α promoter, respectively...
2019: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Tomoyo Furukawa, Yuki Yamasaki, Yusuke Hara, Chisa Otsuki, Hiroko Maki, Tomoyoshi Soga, Yuki Moriyama, Hiroki Kuroda
The receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a well-known neurotransmitter, are expressed in the anterior-to-mid neural tube at an early stage of Xenopus development, but there has been no report on the role of GABA in the presumptive central nervous system. Therefore, we tried to reveal the function of GABA for Xenopus early embryogenesis. We first confirmed that the region expressing a gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase 1 (gad1), which is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to GABA, overlapped with that of several genes encoding GABA receptors (gabr) in the neural tube...
2019: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Natsumi Yokote, Marianna Y Suzuki-Kosaka, Tatsuo Michiue, Takahiko Hara, Kosuke Tanegashima
Latrophilin2 (Lphn2) is an adhesion-class of G protein-coupled receptor with an unknown function in development. Here, we show that Xenopus laevis lphn2 (Xlphn2) is involved in the migration and differentiation of neural crest (NC) cells and placode patterning in Xenopus laevis embryos. Although Xlphn2 mRNA was detected throughout embryogenesis, it was expressed more abundantly in the placode region. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of Xlphn2 caused abnormal migration of NC cells, irregular epibranchial placode segmentation, and defective cartilage formation...
2019: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Carolina Arias, Adriana Zapata, Francisco Ludueña-Almeida, Marcelo Zacharonok, Ana Macías
Prior to completion, apoptosis causes the secretion of different signals, including proliferative signals. Signaling associated with death was discovered in Drosophila and mostly characterized by the induction of experimental death. Thus, less is known about physiological death. Here, we analyzed physiological death in the genital disc, a structure with bilateral symmetry, in different growth scenarios. To this end, we prevented or promoted death in regions or in genetic mosaics. We observed that physiological death in the genital disc was associated with proliferative signals and that both processes were JNK-dependent...
2019: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Daniel A Müller, Unai Silvan
Although rare among the general population, bone malignancies have a high rate of incidence among children and adolescents and are associated with high mortality rates. Osteosarcoma (also known as osteogenic sarcoma) is the most frequent primary cancer of bone and shows a high tendency to metastasize to the lung. Despite the frequent use of osteosarcoma-derived cell lines in basic biomechanical research and for the evaluation of cell responses to new biomaterials, the mechanical phenotype and the differences between osteosarcoma cells and related cell types, such as mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes, remain largely unknown...
2019: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Yunlong Jia, Françoise Bleicher, Samir Merabet
HOX and TALE genes encode homeodomain (HD)-containing transcription factors that act in concert in different tissues to coordinate cell fates and morphogenesis throughout embryonic development. These two evolutionary conserved families contain several members that form different types of protein complexes on DNA. Mutations affecting the expression of HOX or TALE genes have been reported in a number of cancers, but whether and how the two gene families could be perturbed together has never been explored systematically...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Alisson Clemenceau, Olivier Boucherat, Kim Landry-Truchon, Maxime Lamontagne, Sabrina Biardel, Philippe Joubert, Stéphane Gobeil, Blandine Secco, Mathieu Laplante, Mathieu Morissette, Ma'en Obeidat, Wim Timens, Lucie Jeannotte, Yohan Bossé
The HOX genes are transcription factors that are expressed in coordinated spatiotemporal patterns to ensure normal development. Ectopic expression may instead lead to the development and progression of tumors. Genetic polymorphisms in the regions of four HOX gene clusters were tested for association with lung cancer in 420 cases and 3,151 controls. The effect of these variants on lung gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL) was tested in a discovery set of 409 non-tumor lung samples and validated in two lung eQTL replication sets (n = 287 and 342)...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Emma M Collins, Alexander Thompson
Advanced technologies and models systems are improving our understanding of developmental processes. A primary example, hematopoiesis, classically represented by a hierarchical tree with a stem cell at the apex and more lineage restricted cells following each bifurcation has recently been shown to be capable of more adaptable fate decisions. Future research will identify key molecules underpinning this more adaptable or continuous model of hematopoiesis potentially leading to improved engineering of blood cells and therapies for malignant disease...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Fabienne Lescroart, Stephane Zaffran
Hox genes are highly conserved transcription factors with critical functions during development, in particular for patterning the antero-posterior axis of the embryo. Their action is very often associated with cofactors including the TALE family transcription factors. From Drosophila to vertebrates, Hox genes have been shown to have a major role in heart development. In this review, we focus on the increasing evidence implicating the anterior Hox genes and the Tale family members during heart development both in the cardiac mesoderm and in neural crest cells...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Lara Sicouri, Federica Pisati, Salvatore Pece, Francesco Blasi, Elena Longobardi
Prep1 (pKnox1) is a homeodomain transcription factor essential for in utero and post-natal development and an oncosuppressor gene in human and adult mice. We have analyzed its role in the development of the mouse mammary gland. We used Prep1i/i hypomorphic and Prep1F/F -Ker5CRE crosses to analyze the role of Prep1 in vivo in adult mouse mammary gland development. We also cultured mammary gland stem/progenitor cells in mammospheres to perform biochemical studies. Prep1 was expressed in mammary gland progenitors and fully differentiated mammary gland cells...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Divya Purushothaman, Francesco Blasi
Prep1 (pKnox1) is a homeodomain transcription factor of the TALE superclass whose members can act as co-factors of Hox. Prep1 is essential for embryogenesis, but in the adult it also acts as a tumor suppressor. We describe and analyze here the available mutant mice, their phenotypes and a few discordant cases. Moreover we specify the basic rules underlying the binding of Prep1 and its TALE partners to DNA, and their plasticity during embryonic development. We finally review recent data on Prep1 which indicate a very basic cellular function at the level of DNA replication and DNA damage...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Françoise Gofflot, Benoit Lizen
Neural circuit formation requires the intricate orchestration of multiple developmental events including cell fate specification, cell migration, axon guidance, dendritic growth, synaptic target selection, and synaptogenesis. The HOX proteins are well-known transcriptional regulators that control embryonic development. Investigations into their action in the vertebrate central nervous system have demonstrated pivotal roles in specifying neural subpopulations, but also in several successive steps required for the assembly of neuronal circuitry, such as neuron migration, axon growth and pathfinding and synaptic target selection...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Rocío Pérez-Gómez, Endika Haro, Marc Fernández-Guerrero, María F Bastida, María A Ros
The distal part of the tetrapod limb, the autopod, is characterized by the presence of digits. The digits display a wide diversity of shapes and number reflecting selection pressure for functional adaptation. Despite extensive study, the different aspects of digit patterning, as well as the factors and mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Here, we review the evidence implicating Hox proteins in digit patterning and the interaction between Hox genes and the Sonic hedgehog/Gli3 pathway, the other major regulator of digit number and identity...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Miriam A Holzman, Jenna M Bergmann, Maya Feldman, Kim Landry-Truchon, Lucie Jeannotte, Jennifer H Mansfield
HOX proteins act during development to regulate musculoskeletal morphology. HOXA5 patterns skeletal structures surrounding the cervical-thoracic transition including the vertebrae, ribs, sternum and forelimb girdle. However, the tissue types in which it acts to pattern the skeleton, and the ultimate fates of embryonic cells that activate Hoxa5 expression are unknown. A detailed characterization of HOXA5 expression by immunofluorescence was combined with Cre/LoxP genetic lineage tracing to map the fate of Hoxa5 expressing cells in axial musculoskeletal tissues and in their precursors, the somites and lateral plate mesoderm...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Julie Gordon
The pharyngeal organs, namely the thyroid, thymus, parathyroids, and ultimobranchial bodies, derive from the pharyngeal endoderm during embryonic development. The pharyngeal region is a segmented structure comprised of a series of reiterated structures: the pharyngeal arches on the exterior surface, the pharyngeal pouches on the interior, and a mesenchymal core. It is well known that Hox genes control spatial identity along the anterior-posterior axis of the developing vertebrate embryo, and nowhere is this is more evident than in the pharyngeal region...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Priyanjali Ghosh, Charles G Sagerström
Hox proteins have long been known to function as transcriptional regulators during development of the vertebrate hindbrain. In particular, these factors are thought to play key roles in assigning distinct fates to the rhombomere segments arising in the embryonic hindbrain. However, it remains uncertain exactly how the Hox proteins fit into the regulatory networks controlling hindbrain formation. For instance, it is unclear if Hox proteins fulfill similar roles in different rhombomeres and if they are absolutely required for all aspects of each rhombomere fate...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
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