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European Journal of Protistology

Daniele Corsaro, Martina Köhsler, Danielle Venditti, Marilise B Rott, Julia Walochnik
Nuclear group I introns are parasitic mobile genetic elements occurring in the ribosomal RNA genes of a large variety of microbial eukaryotes. In Acanthamoeba, group I introns were found occurring in the 18S rDNA at four distinct insertion sites. Introns are present as single elements in various strains belonging to four genotypes, T3 (A. griffini), T4 (A. castellanii complex), T5 (A. lenticulata) and T15 (A. jacobsi). While multiple introns can frequently be found in the rDNA of several algae, fungi and slime moulds, they are usually rare and present as single elements in amoebae...
January 28, 2019: European Journal of Protistology
Natalya Bondarenko, Anna Glotova, Elena Nassonova, Alexey Masharsky, Dmitry Polev, Alexey Smirnov
We present a complete sequence and describe the organization of the mitochondrial genome of the amoeba Paravannella minima (Amoebooza, Discosea, Vannellida). This tiny species represents a branch at the base of Vannellida tree, to the moment being its earliest-branching lineage. The circular mitochondrial DNA of this species has 53,464 bp in length and contains 30 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 23 transfer RNAs, and 15 open reading frames. This genome is significantly longer and contains more protein-coding genes than any yet sequenced mitochondrial genome of vannellid amoebae...
January 15, 2019: European Journal of Protistology
Benedikt Heyerhoff, Tien Nguyen, Helmut Hillebrand, Erhard Rhiel
Changes in salinity are known to alter the morphology of protists, and we hypothesized that these changes subsequently alter also the predatory behavior of the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Oxyrrhis was grown in media of 33, 25, 20, and 10% of the regular salinity of f/2 medium (31-32‰). In all cases, the cells discharged trichocysts and swelled. Cell surfaces and volumes increased with decreasing salinity, such that cell surface area at least doubled at 10% and the cell volume increased approximately fourfold...
January 14, 2019: European Journal of Protistology
Harpreet Kaur, Shashi, R K Negi, Komal Kamra
A novel hypotrichous ciliate, Neogastrostyla aqua nov. gen., nov. spec. isolated from River Yamuna, Delhi, India, is described using morphological, morphometric and morphogenetic characters from live and stained cells supplemented with derivation of phylogenetic relationships using SSU rRNA gene. Neogastrostyla aqua nov. gen., nov. spec., is characterized by light yellow cortical granules present singly or in clusters of two to five, distributed randomly; parental adoral zone of membranelles retained unchanged for proter; Oxytricha-pattern of paroral and endoral; 25-27 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri including a distinct bipartite frontoventral row of composite origin; three dorsal kineties with no fragmentation of the third kinety, two dorsomarginal kineties, three caudal cirri, two macronuclear nodules and two or three micronuclei...
January 11, 2019: European Journal of Protistology
Marian Czauderna, Krzysztof Wereszka, Tadeusz Michałowski
Rumen protozoa are known to contribute to fibre digestion, but the fibrolytic enzymes of the majority of ciliate species have been poorly recognised to date. The aims of the study were, first, to determine the influence of crystalline cellulose on the survival and population density of the ciliate Diploplastron affine when cultured in vitro, and second to identify and characterise the protozoal enzymes catalysing the hydrolysis of cellulose. It was found that crystalline cellulose, when added to a culture medium, increased the number of protozoa maintained in vitro...
January 11, 2019: European Journal of Protistology
Chen Shao, Chunxu Hu, Yangbo Fan, Alan Warren, Xiaofeng Lin
The morphology, morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of the oxytrichid ciliate, Monomicrocaryon euglenivorum euglenivorum (Kahl, 1932) Foissner, 2016, isolated from freshwater in a seaside park, Guangzhou, China, were investigated. Monomicrocaryon euglenivorum euglenivorum can be recognized as follows: caudal cirri in midline of body; dorsal kinety 1 without a one-kinetid-wide gap; transverse cirri acicular or rod-shaped with a fringed distal end; right marginal row commences at level of buccal vertex or anterior to buccal vertex...
January 6, 2019: European Journal of Protistology
Jae-Ho Jung, Helmut Berger
Paraholosticha muscicola, type species of Paraholosticha Wenzel, inhabits mainly terrestrial habitats, but also freshwater. A brackish water population from Korea is described, the first record from such a habitat. Principal component analysis shows that this population is more similar to a terrestrial population from Denmark than to a population from Antarctic soil. Keronopsids have two strong morphological/ontogenetic apomorphies (frontal corona formed from anlagen I-III; division in cysts). However, the SSU rRNA sequence of the Korean population does not cluster with that of the Antarctic population in the phylogenetic tree, but both branch off consecutively and immediately before a mixture of other non-dorsomarginalian hypotrichs, including two further keronopsids...
January 2, 2019: European Journal of Protistology
Xuefen Lu, Eleni Gentekaki, Yiwei Xu, Lijuan Huang, Yunyi Li, Xiaotong Lu, Yan Zhao, Xiaofeng Lin, Zhenzhen Yi
Questions regarding ciliate distribution (endemism vs. cosmopolitanism) and degree of genetic diversity (high vs. low) remain unsettled, even when the same organism is under investigation. Presence of genes with high copy number and amplification of non-dominant haplotypes might account for the observed discordance in these studies. Herein, we used direct PCR and cloning sequencing to examine intra-population sequence diversity and its effect on assessments of phylogeography of Paramecium multimicronucleatum...
December 27, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Michelle M McKeown, Janet M Wilmshurst, Clément Duckert, Jamie R Wood, Edward A D Mitchell
Methodological advances are essential for robust ecological research. Quantitative reconstructions of environmental conditions using testate amoebae rely on sound taxonomy. While the taxonomy of large species is relatively well resolved, this is not the case for most small taxa (typically <45 μm long). In New Zealand, peatlands contain a diversity of both cosmopolitan and characteristic large southern endemic taxa, but also have a high abundance of small taxa. The latter are often lumped into morphotypes reducing their value as ecological indicators...
December 18, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Y S Mesentsev, A V Smirnov
A new species Thecamoeba cosmophorea n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Discosea, Thecamoebida) was isolated from leaf litter collected in the surroundings of Saint-Petersburg (Russia). This species resembles T. quadrilineata in light-microscopic morphology, but has certain morphological differences and significantly differs in 18S rRNA gene sequence. We performed a direct comparison of this newly isolated species with the Thecamoeba strain isolated from leaf litter in East Siberia (Russia) and identified as T. quadrilineata both at the morphological and the molecular level...
December 18, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Helge Abildhauge Thomsen, Jette B Østergaard
The main outcome of this and subsequent papers is to provide a baseline survey of heterotrophic protist diversity from warm water marine ecosystems, exemplified by loricate choanoflagellates (Acanthoecida). Genera in focus here (i.e. Bicosta, Apheloecion, Campyloacantha, Crucispina, Calliacantha and Saroeca) possess anterior spines or projections and a posterior pedicel, and have 0, 1 or 2 transverse costae. Longitudinal costae are, with the exception of Campyloacantha, external to transverse costal elements across all genera examined here...
December 18, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Peter Vďačný, Wilhelm Foissner
We critically re-analyzed the 18S rRNA gene phylogeny of the ciliate class Colpodea where four main lineages have been recognized: (1) Bursariomorphida including bryometopids, (2) Platyophryida including sorogenids, (3) Cyrtolophosidida, and (4) Colpodida including bryophryids and grossglockneriids. The Platyophryida branched off first and the Cyrtolophosidida and Colpodida were classified as sister groups. On basis of multiple statistical tests, we unraveled three problematic issues in colpodean phylogenies: the positions of the Bursariomorphida and Platyophryida are unstable and depend on alignment masking; a sister relationship of the Platyophryida and Cyrtolophosidida cannot be excluded by any statistical tree topology test; and clustering of bryophryids and grossglockneriids outside the Colpodida are also statistically valid possibilities...
November 30, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Sabine Schiwitza, Hartmut Arndt, Frank Nitsche
In general, acanthoecid choanoflagellates have been described to occur exclusively in brackish water to marine habitats. Only recently, two studies have proven their existence in inland waters. One of them has shown, that an acanthoecid species from a small lake (near Apia on the island of Upolu, Samoa) is strictly freshwater adapted, not able to tolerate even brackish water. In this study, we present the first euryoecious acanthoecid species, able to live and reproduce in freshwater as well as under hypersaline conditions...
November 30, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Helge Abildhauge Thomsen, Jette B Østergaard
The main outcome of this and subsequent papers is to provide a baseline survey of heterotrophic protist diversity from warm water marine ecosystems, exemplified by loricate choanoflagellates (Acanthoecida). Loricate choanoflagellates are heterotrophic, nano-sized protists that are ubiquitous in marine and brackish water habitats. They dwell in a lorica formed by silicified costal strips organized in species specific patterns. The single anteriorly directed flagellum is surrounded by a collar formed by microvilli which together constitute the feeding apparatus...
November 14, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Lada Hofmannová, Jana Kvičerová, Kristýna Bízková, David Modrý
Intranuclear coccidiosis of testudines (known as TINC) is an emerging disease in chelonians. Although endogenous stages were repeatedly detected in various tissues, attempts to find the oocysts in faeces failed, leaving the question of the transmission and classification of the causative agent of TINC unresolved. We recorded small spherical oocysts (∼6-7 μm in diameter) of an eimeriid coccidium in faeces of a leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis). Sporulated oocysts were used for the experimental oral inoculation of juvenile coccidia-free tortoises representing 5 species (S...
November 14, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
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November 14, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Priit Zingel, Helen Agasild, Katrit Karus, Linda Buholce, Tiina Nõges
We estimated the consumption of planktonic ciliates by fish larvae in the Väinameri Sea (a shallow semi-enclosed bay of the Baltic Sea) and Lake Võrtsjärv (a shallow and eutrophic lake). Our primary hypothesis was that planktonic ciliates constitute a substantial component of the diet of fish larvae in both environments. We also assumed that the contribution of ciliates to larval nutrition is bigger in lacustrine than in marine environment because ciliates are usually more abundant in lakes. The nutrition of field collected larval fish was determined by gut content analysis using epifluorescence microscopy...
November 2, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Yunfeng Wang, Daode Ji, Jiehui Yin
The morphology and infraciliature of two haptorian ciliates, Phialina clampi nov. spec. and P. caudata (Kahl, 1933) nov. comb. (original combination: Lacrymaria caudataKahl, 1933), isolated from sandy sediments of an estuary in Yantai, northern China, were investigated using live observations and protargol preparations. Phialina clampi nov. spec. is distinguished from its congeners by the following traits: extended cells about 80-300 × 18-50 μm in vivo; a single oval-shaped macronucleus; caudally located contractile vacuole; two types of extrusomes: type I about 20-35 × 1-4 μm in size, type II 1...
November 2, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Chloe J English, Tomáš Tyml, Natasha A Botwright, Andrew C Barnes, James W Wynne, Paula C Lima, Mathew T Cook
Neoparamoeba perurans is the aetiological agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD) in salmonids, however multiple other amoeba species colonise the gills and their role in AGD is unknown. Taxonomic assessments of these accompanying amoebae on AGD-affected salmon have previously been based on gross morphology alone. The aim of the present study was to document the diversity of amoebae colonising the gills of AGD-affected farmed Atlantic salmon using a combination of morphological and sequence-based taxonomic methods...
October 29, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Ryan P Herbert, Stephen C Peters, David M Nelson, Robert K Booth
Paleoecological records suggest that growing season length and/or cloudiness may affect peatland carbon accumulation and testate amoeba-based environmental reconstructions, highlighting a need to understand how light intensity affects microbial communities. We shaded plots on two peatlands for two years to examine effects on testate amoeba communities, the relative abundance of mixotrophic and heterotrophic testate amoebae, transfer-function performance, and δ13 C values of two species of mixotrophic testate amoebae...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
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