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Psychological Assessment

Joshua D Clapp, Shira M Kern, Ryan M Kozina, Adam J Ripley, Mary K Lear
The reliability and validity of reported exposure to significant trauma is critical to research evaluating outcomes following serious and distressing life events. The current study examined the reliability of reported exposure to disaster, fire, transportation accidents, physical assault, and sexual assault across 5- (N = 251), 12- (N = 223), and 24-month (N = 109) intervals in undergraduates completing a screening measure of probable trauma (N = 3,045). Concordance with later responses to an alternate checklist and events assessed via clinical interview was examined in a subset of participants (N = 274)...
February 14, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Oliver Lindhiem, Rachel A Vaughn-Coaxum, Janelle Higa, Jordan L Harris, David J Kolko, Paul A Pilkonis
We report on the development and psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of knowledge of effective parenting skills specific to conduct problems using an item response theory (IRT) framework. The initial item pool (36 items) for the Knowledge of Effective Parenting Test (KEPT) was administered online to a national sample (N = 1,570) selected to match the U.S. population on key demographic variables. Items with strong psychometric properties and without significant differential item functioning (DIF) by race/ethnicity were retained, resulting in a 21-item version of the KEPT with excellent reliability and validity...
February 11, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Dragana Ostojic-Aitkens, Brianne Brooker, Carlin J Miller
Mind wandering is a commonly experienced phenomenon. Although self-report measures are available to assess these attentional lapses, examination of their correspondence with the reported frequency of these episodes in daily life is warranted. Using ecological momentary assessments (EMAs), the present study aimed to validate 3 mind-wandering measures: the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and the Mind Wandering-Spontaneous (MW-S) and Mind Wandering-Deliberate (MW-D) measures in university students (N = 100)...
February 11, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Christopher J Patrick, Mark D Kramer, Uma Vaidyanathan, Stephen D Benning, Brian M Hicks, Scott O Lilienfeld
We describe efforts to formulate a quantitative measurement model for boldness, a construct that has been intensively discussed and investigated in the psychopathy literature in recent years. Although the Fearless Dominance factor of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-FD) has served as a major referent for studying this dispositional construct, boldness was not explicitly targeted in developing the PPI, creating the need for a formal measurement model for this construct. Using an exploratory approach to test construction and multiple waves of data collection and analysis involving 1,791 participants, we created nine unidimensional scales (comprising a total of 130 items) for assessing correlated but thematically distinct facets of boldness, and characterized their higher-order structure...
February 7, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Ebony Murray, Sarah Bate
Growing awareness of developmental prosopagnosia has resulted in large numbers of people self-referring for prosopagnosia screening. Objective assessment depends heavily on available resources; thus, some researchers use self-ratings of face recognition ability to reduce candidate lists. However, our own metacognitive awareness of our face recognition skills has been much debated, and there is mixed evidence on the reliability of self-report measures. Nevertheless, some behavioral trait questionnaires have proved more useful, although it remains unclear whether these instruments can tap prosopagnosia severity or whether responses are influenced by participant gender (as in other developmental disorders)...
February 7, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Hallie Nuzum, Rebecca E Ready, Lee Anna Clark
It is commonly accepted that gathering information via multiple assessment methods (e.g., interview and questionnaire, self- and informant report) is important for establishing construct validity. Although numerous articles report convergent and discriminant agreement correlations between self- and other ratings of personality, studies of the structure of personality from such ratings are less common. The present study addresses this gap using a meta-analytic data set ( N range = 157-9,295) of various versions (i...
February 7, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Molly A Nikolas, Paul Marshall, James B Hoelzle
Despite widespread recognition that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, optimal methods of diagnosis among adults remain elusive. Substantial overlap between ADHD symptoms and cognitive symptoms of other mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, and concerns about validity in symptom reporting have made the use of neuropsychological tests in ADHD diagnostic assessment appealing. However, past work exploring the potential diagnostic utility of neuropsychological tests among adults has often relied on a relatively small subset of tests, has failed to include symptom and performance validity measures, and often does not include comparison groups of participants with commonly comorbid disorders, such as depression...
February 7, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Jason M Nelson, Benjamin J Lovett
Prior research supports the use of multiple types of evidence from multiple sources when assessing ADHD in adults. However, limited research has examined how to best integrate the resulting set of data into a well-supported diagnostic conclusion. Moreover, clients sometimes overreport symptoms or display low effort on performance tasks, further complicating the interpretation of assessment data. The present study examined self-ratings and observer (e.g., parent) ratings of symptoms as well as performance task data from 514 postsecondary students assessed for ADHD at a university-affiliated clinic...
January 31, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Christopher C Conway, Maxwell Mansolf, Steven P Reise
Quantitative models of mental illness, such as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP), aim to optimize clinical assessment, which conventionally follows categorical diagnostic rubrics. The evidence base for these models is robust, but also uniform; available data come mostly from structured diagnostic interviews in nationally representative samples. It remains to be seen whether HiTOP adequately reflects mental illness as evaluated in routine clinical care, where diagnosis is often unsystematic and incomplete, relative to controlled research conditions...
January 21, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Diana Rancourt, Erica Ahlich, Jacob A Levine, Morgan S Lee, Robert C Schlauch
Despite revisions to the DSM-5, current diagnostic criteria poorly capture the phenomena of eating disorders. The construct of food craving may help to explain the range of disordered eating and compensatory behaviors, but current measures do not fully capture the construct. Borrowing from the substance use literature and emphasizing both approach and avoidance craving inclinations, the ambivalence model of craving (AMC) provides a useful framework for predicting broad patterns of disordered eating behaviors...
January 21, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Jiaxin Deng, Meng-Cheng Wang, Xintong Zhang, Yiyun Shou, Yu Gao, Jie Luo
The Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits (ICU) is the most commonly used measure of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits. However, its internal consistency reliability estimates vary substantially across different studies. This article reports findings from a reliability generalization (RG) meta-analysis, which included 146 studies (N = 64,356), to estimate the overall Cronbach's alpha values of ICU scores. Mixed-effects moderator analyses were also conducted to investigate possible study characteristics that may influence alpha values...
January 21, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Adrian J Bravo, Angelina Pilatti, Matthew R Pearson, Jennifer P Read, Laura Mezquita, Manuel I Ibáñez, Generós Ortet
The present study examined measurement invariance of the 48-item, 8-factor, Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ) across nationality in college students from the United States, Spain, and Argentina. We also compared latent mean differences and criterion-related validity (i.e., correlation with other alcohol-related outcomes) across countries. Last month drinkers (1,511) from the United States (n = 774, 70.5% female), Argentina (n = 439, 50.6% female), and Spain (n = 298, 72.1% female) completed an online survey measuring alcohol use, drinking motives, college alcohol beliefs, and negative alcohol-related consequences...
January 21, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Charlotte Jacquemot, Christophe Lalanne, Agnès Sliwinski, Page Piccinini, Emmanuel Dupoux, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi
Aphasia is a devastating brain disorder, detrimental for medical care and social interaction. The early diagnosis of language disorders and accurate identification of patient-specific deficits are crucial for patients' care, as aphasia rehabilitation is more effective when focused on patient-specific language deficits. We developed the Core Assessment of Language Processing (CALAP), a new scale combining screening and detailed evaluation to rapidly diagnose and identify patient-specific language deficits. This scale is based on a model of language processing distinguishing between the comprehension, production, and repetition modalities, and their different components: phonology (set of speech-sounds), morphology (how the sounds combine to form words), lexicon (words), syntax (how words combine to form sentences), and concept (semantic knowledge)...
January 10, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Joshua R Oltmanns, Thomas A Widiger
Proposed for the ICD-11 is a dimensional model of personality disorder that, if approved, would be a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of personality disorder. The proposal consists of a general severity rating, 5 maladaptive personality trait domains, and a borderline pattern qualifier. The general severity rating can be assessed by the Standardized Assessment of Severity of Personality Disorder (SASPD), the trait domains by the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), and the borderline pattern by the Borderline Pattern Scale (BPS), which is developed in the present study...
January 10, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Melinda I Morrill, Marc S Schulz, Michael D Nevarez, Kristopher J Preacher, Robert J Waldinger
Previous measures of childhood adversity have enabled the identification of powerful links with later-life wellbeing. The challenge for the next generation of childhood adversity assessment is to better characterize those links through comprehensive, fine-grained measurement strategies. The expanded, retrospective measure of childhood adversity presented here leveraged analytic and theoretical advances to examine multiple domains of childhood adversity at both the microlevel of siblings and the macrolevel of families...
January 10, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Wai Kai Hou, Francisco Tsz Tsun Lai, Clint Hougen, Brian J Hall, Stevan E Hobfoll
Sustainment of daily routines requires greater psychological resilience and may lead to greater resilience in the face of stressors. Existing scales tend only to focus on emotions and engagement, rather than how well individuals sustain routine behaviors. To address this gap in the literature, we developed the Sustainability of Living Inventory (SOLI). A pool of 46 Likert-type items were developed to indicate how regularly respondents performed a variety of specific routines. Four separate study samples were collected through online surveys with community-dwelling American adults (N = 1,109)...
January 10, 2019: Psychological Assessment
Ryan C Shorey, Nicholas P Allan, Joseph R Cohen, Paula J Fite, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
Intimate-partner violence (IPV) in adolescent and young-adult dating relationships is a prevalent and serious public health problem. The measurement of IPV across adolescence has most commonly relied on the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationship Inventory (CADRI; Wolfe et al., 2001), which postulates 5 distinct yet related types of IPV (i.e., threatening, verbal/emotional, relational, physical, and sexual). However, the CADRI has received minimal examination to confirm its factor structure, in particular, whether the factor structure is invariant across sex, race/ethnicity, and time, despite the clinical use of this measure for screening and treatment purposes...
December 27, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Muyu Lin, Gerrit Hirschfeld, Jürgen Margraf
The present study evaluates a brief, cross-cultural scale that maps a wide range of social resources, useful in large-scale assessments of perceived social support. The Brief Perceived Social Support Questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Sozialen Unterstützung Kurzform mit sechs Items, F-SozU K-6) was examined in representative and university student samples from the United States ( N representative = 3038), Germany ( N representative = 2007, N student = 5406), Russia ( N representative = 3020, N student = 4001), and China ( N student = 13,582)...
December 27, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Anthony M Tarescavage, Allen Azizian, Charles Broderick, Peter English
Sexually violent predator (SVP) laws allow the postprison civil commitment of sex offenders to a secure psychiatric hospital because of mental abnormality and posing a serious risk to public safety. Research on predictors of future institutional violence in this population is lacking because adequately sized samples are difficult to obtain. In the current study, we examined psychological predictors of future institutional violence in a sample of 171 psychiatrically hospitalized males detained or civilly committed under an SVP laws...
December 20, 2018: Psychological Assessment
David J Cooke, Martin Sellbom
The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) is widely used in clinical and forensic practice. Its latent factor structure has been subject to debate and controversy for almost 40 years. Various principal component and factor models have been proposed. It is argued that the use of independent cluster models has been questionable. The use of models that assume that symptoms will have zero loadings on all but one factor fails to reflect the clinical reality that symptoms of personality disorder are likely to be the consequence of multiple latent traits...
December 17, 2018: Psychological Assessment
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