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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31090124/life-course-associations-of-height-weight-fatness-grip-strength-and-all-cause-mortality-for-high-socioeconomic-status-guatemalans
#1
Liina Mansukoski, William Johnson, Katherine Brooke-Wavell, J Andres Galvez-Sobral, Luis Furlan, Tim J Cole, Barry Bogin
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical growth in preadult life with five outcomes at ages 64 to 76: weight, body mass index (BMI), estimated body fat percentage, hand grip strength, and mortality. METHODS: Super-imposition by translation and rotation (SITAR) growth curves of 40 484 Guatemalan individuals aged 3 to 19 years were modeled for the parameters of size, timing and intensity (peak growth velocity, eg, cm/year) of height, weight, BMI, and grip strength...
May 15, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31087593/scaling-of-adult-human-bone-and-skeletal-muscle-mass-to-height-in-the-us-population
#2
Steven B Heymsfield, Phoenix Hwaung, Fernando Ferreyro-Bravo, Moonseong Heo, Diana M Thomas, John M Schuna
OBJECTIVES: The scaling of structural components to body size is well studied in mammals, although comparable human observations in a large and diverse sample are lacking. The current study aimed to fill this gap by examining the scaling relationships between total body (TB) and regional bone and skeletal muscle (SM) mass with body size, as defined by stature, in a nationally representative sample of the US population. METHODS: Subjects were 17,126 non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, and Mexican American men and women, aged ≥18 years, evaluated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had TB and regional bone mineral (BMin) and lean soft tissue (LST) mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
May 14, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31070844/polymorphism-in-the-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-is-associated-with-maternal-vitamin-d-concentration-and-neonatal-outcomes-a-brazilian-cohort-study
#3
Marcos Pereira-Santos, Gisele Q Carvalho, Iúri D Louro, Djanilson B Dos Santos, Ana M Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, maternal vitamin D concentration, and gestational outcomes. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 270 pregnant women who received prenatal services at basic public healthcare centers in the city of Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil. For statistical analysis, multiple linear regression was used. RESULTS: A mean of 72...
May 9, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31063218/are-there-gross-motor-coordination-spurts-during-mid-childhood
#4
Marcos A M Dos Santos, Adam Baxter-Jones, Ana C Reyes, Duarte Freitas, Rafael S Henrique, Raquel N Chaves, Alcibíades Bustamante, Go Tani, Peter T Katzmarzyk, José Maia
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) to identify the timing of the mid-growth spurt (MGS) in stature in children and (2) to identify gross motor coordination (GMC) spurts when aligned by the age of attainment of the MGS (aMGS). METHODS: Stature, weight, and GMC were measured in 245 Portuguese children followed annually from 6 to 10 years. GMC was assessed and to estimate children's MGS in stature as well as GMC spurts in each of the four tests aligned by aMGS, we used a nonsmoothed polynomial methodology...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31045310/testosterone-moderates-the-effects-of-social-support-on-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-among-older-us-men
#5
Lee T Gettler, Mallika S Sarma, Rieti G Gengo, Rahul C Oka, James J McKenna
OBJECTIVES: Social support positively affects health through pathways such as shaping intrapersonal emotional and psychological well-being. Lower testosterone often interrelates with psychological and behavioral orientations that are beneficial to participation in emotionally supportive relationships. Yet, little research has considered the ways in which testosterone may contribute to health outcomes related to emotional support. METHODS: We draw on testosterone, social support data, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-relevant indicators (inflammatory markers; blood pressure [BP]) from older men (n = 366) enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US nationally representative study...
May 2, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021503/testing-allostatic-load-factor-structures-among-adolescents-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#6
Amanda L King, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal, Amanda M Simanek, Norah L Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Allostatic load (AL) represents cumulative biological "wear and tear" that results from chronic stress exposure over time, ultimately increasing risk for chronic disease. A consensus is lacking regarding the best operationalization of AL, particularly for younger, less studied populations. The purpose of this study was to test multiple hypothesized factor structures for AL to determine the best measurement approach for adolescents. METHODS: We analyzed biologic data for 1900 adolescents aged 12-18 from four waves (2003-2010) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
April 25, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31016798/measuring-the-impact-of-european-colonization-on-native-american-populations-in-southern-brazil-and-uruguay-evidence-from-mtdna
#7
Gustavo M Tavares, Guillermo Reales, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Nelson J R Fagundes
OBJECTIVES: The major aim of this article was to estimate the demographic impact of European arrival and colonization over Native American populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay. We also compared the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic diversity, structure, and demography of Native American lineages present in current indigenous (Natives) and nonindigenous admixed (Admixed) populations to estimate the effective population size (Ne ) of contemporary and ancestral (pre-Columbian) Native American populations...
April 23, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31006938/determinants-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-rural-east-timorese-children
#8
Phoebe R Spencer, Katherine A Sanders, Debra S Judge
OBJECTIVES: The human juvenile period evolved as a period of learning and physical development in a family environment that subsidizes the costs of these processes. Children allocate energy to physical activity, maintenance, and growth. How energy is allocated has consequences for adult body size and other life-history traits. In subsistence agriculture populations, where child contributions to the household economy are common and energy availability is low, trade-offs in energy expenditure between activity and growth may help explain poor growth...
April 21, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31004392/do-bone-geometric-properties-of-the-proximal-femoral-diaphysis-reflect-loading-history-muscle-properties-or-body-dimensions
#9
Sirpa Niinimäki, Nathaniel Narra, Laura Härkönen, Shinya Abe, Riku Nikander, Jari Hyttinen, Christopher J Knüsel, Harri Sievänen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate activity-induced effects from bone geometric properties of the proximal femur in athletic vs nonathletic healthy females by statistically controlling for variation in body size, lower limb isometric, and dynamic muscle strength, and cross-sectional area of Musculus gluteus maximus. METHODS: The material consists of hip and proximal thigh magnetic resonance images of Finnish female athletes (N = 91) engaged in either high jump, triple jump, soccer, squash, powerlifting, endurance running or swimming, and a group of physically active nonathletic women (N = 20)...
April 19, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30980448/regulation-of-inflammation-during-gestation-and-birth-outcomes-inflammatory-cytokine-balance-predicts-birth-weight-and-length
#10
Haley B Ragsdale, Christopher W Kuzawa, Judith B Borja, Josephine L Avila, Thomas W McDade
OBJECTIVES: The maternal environment during gestation influences offspring health at birth and throughout the life course. Recent research has demonstrated that endogenous immune processes such as dysregulated inflammation adversely impact birth outcomes, increasing the risk for preterm birth and restricted fetal growth. Prior analyses examining this association suggest a relationship between maternal C-reactive protein (CRP), a summary measure of inflammation, and offspring anthropometric outcomes...
April 13, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30972859/bioelectrical-impedance-vector-values-in-a-spanish-healthy-newborn-population-for-nutritional-assessment
#11
María P Redondo-Del-Río, Carla Escribano-García, María A Camina-Martín, Sonia Caserío-Carbonero, Ramón Cancho-Candela, Beatriz de-Mateo-Silleras
INTRODUCTION: Vector bioimpedance analysis (BIVA) can be very useful for the evaluation of body composition, hydration, and nutritional status in infants and newborns. The objective of this study was to determine the impedance vector distribution for a group of healthy newborn Spanish children. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted with 154 healthy, Spanish newborns (gestational age: 37-41 weeks) aged 24 to 72 hours (79 males, 75 females)...
April 11, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30968505/does-obstetric-protection-apply-to-small-bodied-females-a-comparison-between-small-bodied-jomon-foragers-and-large-bodied-yayoi-agriculturalists-in-the-prehistoric-japanese-archipelago
#12
Hirofumi Takamuku
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between maternal pelvic and body size in the transition from the Middle-Final Jomon period (c. 5000-3000 BC) to the Middle Yayoi period (c. 400~200 BC to around AD 1) in Japan. METHODS: Eight measurements, including the left hip bone, articulated pelvis, and femur, were taken from Jomon (females: 37, males: 26) and Yayoi skeletal remains (females: 32, males: 29). RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in the anterior diameter of the true pelvic inlet was demonstrated in females from the Jomon to the Yayoi period, but not in males...
April 9, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30950564/ankle-brachial-index-abi-in-a-cohort-of-older-women-in-the-philippines-prevalence-of-peripheral-artery-disease-and-predictors-of-abi
#13
Christopher W Kuzawa, Tyler M Barrett, Judith B Borja, Nanette R Lee, Celine T Aquino, Linda S Adair, Thomas W McDade
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rising in low and middle-income countries, but studies of CVD epidemiology in such settings often focus on risk factors rather than measures of disease progression. Here we use the ankle brachial index (ABI) to assess the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) among older women living in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines, and relationships between ABI and CVD risk factors and body composition. METHODS: ABI was measured using the Doppler technique in 538 female participants in the 2015 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (mean age 58 years, range 47-78 years)...
April 5, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30908834/the-stillbirth-sex-ratio-as-a-marker-of-population-health-among-live-born-males-in-denmark-1835-1923
#14
Tim A Bruckner, Parvati Singh, Laust H Mortensen, Anne Løkke
OBJECTIVES: We know little about whether an elevated stillbirth sex ratio (ratio of male to female stillbirths) gauges stronger selection in utero against frail male gestations and therefore predicts greater male infant survival. An alternative scenario could involve a "low endowment" case in which pregnancy cohorts show both excess male stillbirths and elevated mortality risk among male live births. We exploit the longest sex-specific stillbirth series (Denmark, 1835-1923) to explore whether annual deviations in age-specific male mortality vary with the annual cohort's stillbirth sex ratio...
March 25, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30908793/variation-in-breast-milk-macronutrient-contents-by-maternal-anemia-and-hemoglobin-concentration-in-northern-kenya
#15
Mary Corbitt, Nerli Paredes Ruvalcaba, Masako Fujita
OBJECTIVES: This study explored differing levels of macronutrients in breast milk in relation to maternal anemia and hemoglobin. METHODS: Archived milk specimens and data from a cross-sectional sample of 208 breastfeeding mothers in northern Kenya, originally collected in 2006, were analyzed; data included milk fat, maternal hemoglobin concentration, and anemia status (anemia defined as hemoglobin <12 g/dL). Total protein and lactose were measured and energy was calculated...
March 25, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900314/disgust-sensitivity-in-relation-to-menstrual-cycle-phase-in-women-with-and-without-an-infection
#16
Karolina Milkowska, Andrzej Galbarczyk, Grazyna Jasienska
OBJECTIVES: The compensatory prophylaxis hypothesis (CPH) proposes that evolved psychological mechanisms enhance the avoidance of potential contaminants during periods of reproductive immunomodulation in order to decrease a chance of infection. However, the results of previous studies are inconclusive. Our aim was to investigate the differences in disgust sensitivity during phases of menstrual cycle in regularly cycling young healthy women and among women who reported having an infection...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900309/low-water-access-as-a-gendered-physiological-stressor-blood-pressure-evidence-from-nepal
#17
Alexandra Brewis, Neetu Chaodhary, Amber Wutich
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to test novel proposed biocultural pathways linking the stressful lived experience of water insecurity to elevated blood pressure, a risk factor for chronic disease. Using the case of Nepal, where women have primary responsibility for managing household water, allows testing for potentially gendered mechanisms that exacerbate negative physiological consequences of water insecurity for women relative to men. METHODS: Data are from the nationally representative 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), N = 8633 women and 6209 men...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30897260/a-dried-blood-spot-based-method-to-measure-levels-of-tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase-5b-tracp-5b-a-marker-of-bone-resorption
#18
Geeta N Eick, Maureen J Devlin, Tara J Cepon-Robins, Paul Kowal, Lawrence S Sugiyama, J Josh Snodgrass
OBJECTIVES: A number of basic questions about bone biology have not been answered, including population differences in bone turnover. In part, this stems from the lack of validated minimally invasive biomarker techniques to measure bone formation and resorption in field-based population-level research. The present study addresses this gap by validating a fingerprick dried blood spot (fDBS) assay for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), a well-defined biomarker of bone resorption and osteoclast number...
March 21, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30884051/testosterone-dependent-facial-and-body-traits-predict-men-s-sociosexual-attitudes-and-behaviors
#19
Pablo Polo, Jose Antonio Muñoz-Reyes, Miguel Pita, Todd K Shackelford, Bernhard Fink
OBJECTIVES: Strategic Pluralism Theory contends that human mating strategies are calibrated toward short-term (ST) or long-term (LT) mating according to the expression of condition-dependent traits and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Traits reflecting the effects of testosterone have been considered condition-dependent traits that provide information about the calibration of male mating strategy. We investigated the relationship of muscle mass and facial masculinity with attitudes and behaviors reflecting ST and LT mating tactics...
March 18, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30869821/the-role-of-urban-design-in-childhood-obesity-a-case-study-in-lisbon-portugal
#20
Margarida Pereira, Helena Nogueira, Cristina Padez
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that physical features of the urban environment might enhance or prevent childhood obesity. Thus, this study's main goal was to verify if there is an association between the neighborhood urban design and childhood obesity-independent of well-known childhood obesity determinants, such as, father's level of schooling (as a proxy for socioeconomic status), and parent's weight status. METHODS: This study classifies neighborhoods according to land use and building features using hierarchical clusters analysis and examines their association with childhood obesity through logistic regression models...
March 14, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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